Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-x24gv Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-27T04:53:13.229Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Growth and Reproductive Physiology of Fluridone-Susceptible and -resistant Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) Biotypes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Atul Puri*
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110610, Gainesville, FL 21611
Gregory E. MacDonald
Department of Agronomy, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110500, Gainesville, FL 21611
William T. Haller
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110610, Gainesville, FL 21611
Megh Singh
Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL-33850
Corresponding author's E-mail:


Hydrilla is one of the most serious aquatic weed problems in the United States, and fluridone is the only U.S. Environment Protection Agency (USEPA)–approved herbicide that provides relatively long-term systemic control. Recently, hydrilla biotypes with varying levels of fluridone resistance have been documented in Florida. Several biotypes of hydrilla varying in resistance levels were maintained in 950-L tanks under ambient sunlight and day-length conditions from September 2004 to September 2005 in absence of fluridone. Phenotypic measurements were performed during this 1-yr period to monitor differences in growth and reproductive physiology. All fluridone-resistant biotypes (except R3) were growing at the same rate or greater than the susceptible hydrilla. These data suggested that there are no deleterious effects on growth and reproductive physiology because of development of fluridone resistance. Aggressive spread of fluridone-resistant dioecious hydrilla in aquatic ecosystems can severely affect hydrilla management and, consequently, cause substantial and long-lasting ecological and economic problems throughout the southern United States.

Weed Biology and Ecology
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Literature Cited

Ahrens, W. H. and Stoller, E. W. 1983. Competition, growth rate and CO2 fixation in triazine-susceptible and resistant smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus). Weed Sci. 31:438444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arias, R. S., Netherland, M. D., Scheffler, B. E., Puri, A., and Dayan, F. E. 2004. Molecular evolution of herbicide resistance to phytoene desaturase inhibitors in hydrilla and its potential use to generate herbicide resistant crops. Pest Manag. Sci. 61:258268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergelson, J. and Purrlington, C. B. 1996. Surveying patterns in the costs of resistance in plants. Am. Nat. 148:536558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergelson, J., Purrlington, C. B., Palm, C. J., and Lopez-Gutierezz, J. C. 1996. Costs of resistance: a test using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana . Proc. R. Soc. Biol. Sci. Ser. B. 263:16591663.Google ScholarPubMed
Böger, P. and Sandmann, G. 1998. Carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor herbicides—mode of action and resistance mechanisms. Pestic. Outlook. 9:2935.Google Scholar
Bulcke, R., De Praeter, H., Van Himme, M., and Strycker, H. 1985. Resistant of annual meadow-grass, Poa annua L. to 2-chloro-1, 3, 5-triazines. Meded. Rijksfac. Landbouwwet. Genet. 47:211220.Google Scholar
Chamovitz, D., Sandmann, G., and Hirschberg, J. 1993. Molecular and biochemical characterization of herbicide-resistant mutants of cyanobacteria reveals that phytoene desaturation is a rate-limiting step in carotenoid biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 268:1734817353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doong, R. L., MacDonald, G. E., and Shilling, D. G. 1993. Effect of fluridone on chlorophyll, carotenoids and anthocyanin content of hydrilla. J. Aquat. Plant Manag. 31:5559.Google Scholar
Evans, G. C. 1972. The Quantitative Analysis of Plant Growth. Oxford, UK Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
Fox, A. M., Haller, W. T., and Shilling, D. G. 1996. Hydrilla control with split treatments of fluridone in Lake Harris, Florida. Hydrobiologia. 340:235239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haller, W. T., Miller, J. L., and Garrard, L. A. 1976. Seasonal production and germination of hydrilla vegetative propagules. J. Aquat. Plant Manag. 14:2629.Google Scholar
Klekowski, E. J. 2003. Plant clonality, mutation, diplontic selection and mutational meltdown. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 79:6167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Linde, A. F., Janisch, T., and Smith, D. 1976. Cattail—the significance of its growth, phenology and carbohydrate storage to its control and management. Madison, WI Wisconsin Department of Natural Resource Technical Bulletin 94.Google Scholar
Madsen, J. D. and Owens, C. S. 1998. Seasonal biomass and carbohydrate allocation in the dioecious hydrilla. J. Aquat. Plant Manag. 36:138145.Google Scholar
Mappleback, L. R., Souza Machado, V., and Grodzinski, B. 1982. Seed germination and seedling growth characteristics of atrazine-susceptible and resistant biotypes of Brassica campestris . Can. J. Plant Sci. 62:733739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maxwell, B. D. and Mortimer, M. M. 1994. Selection for herbicide resistance. In Powles, S.B., Holtum, J.A.M. eds. Herbicide Resistance in Plants: Biology and Biochemistry. 125. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
Michel, A., Scheffler, B. E., Arias, R. S., Duke, S. O., Netherland, M., and Dayan, F. E. 2004. Somatic mutation-mediated evolution of herbicide resistance in the non-indigenous invasive plant hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata). Mol. Ecol. 13:32293237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Netherland, M. D. and Getsinger, K. D. 1995. Laboratory evaluation of threshold fluridone concentrations under static conditions for controlling hydrilla and Eurasian watermilfoil. J. Aquat. Plant Manag. 33:3336.Google Scholar
Puri, A., MacDonald, G. E., Haller, W. T., Singh, M., Bowes, G., Altpeter, F., and Shilling, D. G. 2005. Fluridone dose response and physiology of selected hydrilla populations in Florida lakes. Pages 35. in. the Proceedings of Florida Weed Science Society 28. Lake Alfred, FL Florida Weed Science Society.Google Scholar
Puri, A., MacDonald, G. E., Singh, M., and Haller, W. T. 2006. Phytoene and β-carotene response of fluridone-susceptible and -resistant hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) biotypes to fluridone. Weed Sci. 54:995999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radosevich, S. R. and Holt, J. S. 1982. Physiological responses and fitness of susceptible and resistant weed biotypes of atrazine herbicides. Pages 163183. in LeBaron, H.M., Gressel, J. eds. Herbicide Resistance in Plants. New York J Wiley.Google Scholar
Spencer, D. F. and Anderson, L. W. J. 1986. Photoperiod responses in monoecious and dioecious Hydrilla verticillata . Weed Sci. 34:551557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steward, K. K. 1997. Influence of photoperiod on tuber production in various races of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata). Hydrobiologia. 354:5762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steward, K. K. 2000. Influence of photoperiod on vegetative propagule production in three turion-producing races of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle. Hydrobiologia. 432:18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar