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Dietary intake of different types and characteristics of processed meat which might be associated with cancer risk – results from the 24-hour diet recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2007

Jakob Linseisen*
Affiliation:
German Cancer Research Centre, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Sabine Rohrmann
Affiliation:
German Cancer Research Centre, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Teresa Norat
Affiliation:
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Unit of Nutrition, Lyon, France
Carlos A Gonzalez
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain
Miren Dorronsoro Iraeta
Affiliation:
Department of Health of the Basque Government, Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, San Sebastian, Spain
Patrocinio Morote Gómez
Affiliation:
Health Council and Health Services Asturias, Public Health Directorate, Oviedo, Spain
Maria-Dolores Chirlaque
Affiliation:
Epidemiology Department, Health Council of Murcia, Spain
Basilio G Pozo
Affiliation:
Andalusian School of Public Health, Granada, Spain
Eva Ardanaz
Affiliation:
Institute of Public Health, Navarra Cancer Registry, Pamplona, Spain
Irene Mattisson
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Orthopaedics, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
Ulrika Pettersson
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Orthopaedics, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
Richard Palmqvist
Affiliation:
Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Bethany Van Guelpen
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutrition Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Sheila A Bingham
Affiliation:
Medical Research Council Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Cambridge, UK
Alison McTaggart
Affiliation:
University of Cambridge, Institute of Public Health, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge, UK
Elizabeth A Spencer
Affiliation:
Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Kim Overvad
Affiliation:
Aarhus University, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Aarhus, Denmark
Anne Tjønneland
Affiliation:
Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Copenhagen, Denmark
Connie Stripp
Affiliation:
Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Copenhagen, Denmark
Françoise Clavel-Chapelon
Affiliation:
INSERM, E3N–EPIC Group, Institute Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
Emmanuelle Kesse
Affiliation:
INSERM, E3N–EPIC Group, Institute Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
Heiner Boeing
Affiliation:
German Institute of Human Nutrition, Department of Epidemiology, Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Germany
Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
Affiliation:
German Institute of Human Nutrition, Department of Epidemiology, Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Germany
Antonia Trichopoulou
Affiliation:
University of Athens Medical School, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Athens, Greece
Effie Vasilopoulou
Affiliation:
University of Athens Medical School, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Athens, Greece
George Bellos
Affiliation:
Coropi Health Center, Greek Ministry of Health, Athens, Greece
Valeria Pala
Affiliation:
Epidemiology Unit, Italian National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy
Giovanna Masala
Affiliation:
Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, CSPO, Florence, Italy
Rosario Tumino
Affiliation:
Cancer Registry, Azienda Ospedaliera ‘Civile MP Arezzo’, Ragusa, Italy
Carlotta Sacerdote
Affiliation:
University of Turin, Turin, Italy
Mariarosaria Del Pezzo
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University, Naples, Italy
H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
Affiliation:
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Centre for Nutrition and Health, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Marga C Ocke
Affiliation:
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Centre for Nutrition and Health, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Petra HM Peeters
Affiliation:
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Dagrun Engeset
Affiliation:
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
Guri Skeie
Affiliation:
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway
Nadia Slimani
Affiliation:
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Unit of Nutrition, Lyon, France
Elio Riboli
Affiliation:
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Unit of Nutrition, Lyon, France
*
*Corresponding author: Email j.linseisen@dkfz-heidelberg.de
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Abstract

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Objective

There is increasing evidence for a significant effect of processed meat (PM) intake on cancer risk. However, refined knowledge on how components of this heterogeneous food group are associated with cancer risk is still missing. Here, actual data on the intake of PM subcategories is given; within a food-based approach we considered preservation methods, cooking methods and nutrient content for stratification, in order to address most of the aetiologically relevant hypotheses.

Design and setting

Standardised computerised 24-hour diet recall interviews were collected within the framework of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a prospective cohort study in 27 centres across 10 European countries.

Subjects

Subjects were 22 924 women and 13 031 men aged 35–74 years.

Results

Except for the so-called ‘health-conscious’ cohort in the UK, energy-adjusted total PM intake ranged between 11.1 and 47.9 g day−1 in women and 18.8 and 88.5 g day−1 in men. Ham, salami-type sausages and heated sausages contributed most to the overall PM intake. The intake of cured (addition of nitrate/nitrite) PM was highest in the German, Dutch and northern European EPIC centres, with up to 68.8 g day−1 in men. The same was true for smoked PM (up to 51.8 g day−1). However, due to the different manufacturing practice, the highest average intake of NaNO2 through PM consumption was found for the Spanish centres (5.4 mg day−1 in men) as compared with German and British centres. Spanish centres also showed the highest intake of NaCl-rich types of PM; most cholesterol- and iron-rich PM was consumed in central and northern European centres. Possibly hazardous cooking methods were more often used for PM preparation in central and northern European centres.

Conclusions

We applied a food-based categorisation of PM that addresses aetiologically relevant mechanisms for cancer development and found distinct differences in dietary intake of these categories of PM across European cohorts. This predisposes EPIC to further investigate the role of PM in cancer aetiology.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Authors 2006

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