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The tensor product A ⊗ B of the distributive lattices A and B was first investigated by Fraser in [4] and [5]. In this paper, we present some results relevant to the structure and construction of this tensor product. In particular, we establish a sufficient condition for join-irreducibility in the tensor product and show that this condition characterizes join-irreducibility in the case that A and B satisfy the descending chain condition. We also show that if A and B satisfy the descending chain condition then so does A ⊗ B; this insures the compact generation of A ⊗ B by its join-irreducibles. We conclude with some examples and applications of our results to the tensor product of finite distributive lattices.
In this paper the study of radicals of finite near-rings is initiated. The main result (Theorem 4.3) gives a description of hereditary radicals having hereditary semisimple classes too. Also it is shown that there exist non-hereditary radicals having hereditary semisimple classes.
where v is a fixed positive number and α is a fixed number. If v = α = 0, then (1.1) reduces to the ordinary heat equation
where u(x,t) is regarded as the temperature at a point x at time t, in an infinite insulated rod extended along the x-axis in the xt-plane. If we set , then (1.1) becomes
Let Tm, Vmn be Hermitean linear operators on complex Hilbert spaces Hm, m=1…k. A nonzero column vector satisfying
will be called an eigenvalue. This type of problem has been studied extensively by Atkinson [2] from the viewpoint of determinantal operators on the tensor product We shall connect his work with more recent investigations [5,7] of eigenvalue indices based on minimax principles for , which can be viewed as an operator on .
The strong maximum principle for harmonic functions is usually arrived at by appealing to the mean value theorem (c.f. [2], p. 53). It is also of course possible simply to appeal to the Hopf maximum principle [2], but using sledge hammers to kill flies is generally viewed as aesthetically unpleasing. In contrast to the case of harmonic functions, the only proof of the strong maximum principle for the heat equation that is known to me is to invoke Nirenberg's strong maximum principle for parabolic equations [2]. As in the case of harmonic functions, it seems desirable to provide a direct proof of this result without having to go through the subtle comparison arguments that are employed in the more general case. The purpose of this note is to provide a proof of the strong maximum principle for the heat equation based on a mean value theorem for solutions of the heat equation which we derive below. Such an approach provides a straightforward and simple proof of the strong maximum principle which avoids most of the detailed estimates of the proof of the maximum principle for more general parabolic equations. Unfortunately the proof of the maximum principle for the heat equation using the mean value theorem is not as short as the proof in the corresponding case of harmonic functions. It nevertheless seems worthwhile to show that such an alternate proof is possible, and it is to this purpose that we address this paper.
Let A and B be C*-algebras and A ⊗ B denote the minimal C*-tensor product of A and B. T. Huruya [1] gave examples of C*-tensor products A ⊗ B with C*-subalgebras A1⊗B2 and A2⊗B2 such that strictly contains , answering a question of S. Wassermann [3, Remark 23]. In this short note, we show that the same situation can occur even if A1 = A2
In a recent paper the authors considered the transmission problem for the Helmholtz equation by using a reformulation of the problem in terms of a pair of coupled boundary integral equations with modified Green's functions as kernels. In this note we settle the question of the unique solvability of these modified boundary integral equations.
The definitions of finite dimensional baric, train, and special train algebras, and of genetic algebras in the senses of Schafer and Gonshor (which coincide when the ground field is algebraically closed, and which I call special triangular) are given in Worz-Busekros's monograph [8]. In [6] I introduced applications requiring infinite dimensional generalisations. The elements of these algebras were infinite linear forms in basis elements a0, a1,… and complex coefficients such that In this paper I consider only algebras whose elements are forms which only a finite number of the xi are non zero.
Let E be a separated locally convex barrelled space with continuous dual E′ and algebraic dual E* and let M be a subspace of E* with and dim Robertson, Tweddle and Yeomans have recently considered the question of barrelledness under the Mackey topology τ(E,E' + M) when E is given to be barrelled under its original topology τ(E,E') [5], [6], [7].
Soit Θ un automorphisme analytique de , Θ ayant un point fixe attractif zo (c'está-dire il existe un voisinage V de zo tel que pour tout élément z de V, on ait Alors d'aprés un résultat bien connu, il existe une fonction F entiére de dans , injective, telle que Ceci provient du fait qu'il existe une fonction F, définie au voisinage de z0, telle que F'(zo)=I, vérifiant Fequation fonctionnelle est un automorphisme analytique de vérifiant pour tout z élément de .
In their paper N. Divinsky and A. Sulinski [6] have introduced the notion of mutagenic radical property—that is, a radical property which is far removed from hereditariness—and constructed two such examples. The first is the lower radical property determined by a ring Swo (N. Divinsky [5]) and is an almost subidempotent radical property in the sense of F. Szász [9], and the second is a weakly supernilpotent radical property, that is the lower radical property determined by Swo and all nilpotent rings.
The tensor product of semilattices has been studied in [2], [3] and [5]. A survey of this work is given in [4]. Although a number of problems were settled completely in these papers, the question of the associativity of the tensor product was only partially answered. In the present paper we give a complete solution to this problem.
Much work has been done on the following problem, which is sometimes referred to as Ulam's problem: what is the distribution of , the length (i.e. number of terms) of a longest monotone increasing [decreasing] subsequence of (not necessarily consecutive) terms in a random permutation of the first N integers? For example, it has been shown that converges almost surely to 2 [6,7,9]. In some cases, it is important to know the value of βN(j), the number of permutations for which αN=j