Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Instructions for authors

Please note that Parasitology will be moving to online-only from 1st January 2022.      

Scope

Parasitology publishes original papers on pure and applied parasitology, including biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, genetics, physiology, epidemiology, ecology, vaccine and drug studies, and the control of parasitic infections, the application of new techniques, advances in the understanding of host-parasite relationships, theoretical studies and major systematic revisions. There is no minimum or maximum length for a paper but all manuscripts, including short ones, must be prepared in the standard format for this journal and any manuscript that is excessively long will be returned for shortening.

Editorial Process

All manuscripts submitted to Parasitology are received by the Editor-in-Chief, Professor J Russell Stothard, who will make a first assessment of their suitability for the journal. At this stage a minority of submissions are immediately rejected. Thereafter the manuscripts deemed appropriate for the journal are passed to one of the Editors or retained by the E-in-C, to be then sent out to external reviewers for comment and advice. The referees are often members of the Editorial Board and their names and expertise are published on the Parasitology website. (The names of all of the Referees used each year are published in the journal.) The Editor detailed to process a manuscript will make the final decision although he or she might ask for advice from another Editor. An Editor who submits a manuscript to the journal takes no part in the refereeing process and has no access to the names of the referees involved.

Manuscripts are submitted electronically to Parasitology, allowing authors to benefit from faster review and quicker online publication. Authors should submit their manuscripts online to: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/par. All enquiries should be directed to the Editorial Office at parasitology@cambridge.org.

Authors must follow these Instructions for Authors and should refer to a recent issue of Parasitology for the correct style. Authors of Reviews must follow these instructions with major headings in UPPER CASE and secondary headings in lower case italics.

Parasitology welcomes submission of Systematic Reviews: these must include a fully completed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist and/or flowchart. Further information about PRISMA can be found at http://www.prisma-statement.org/, where you will also find links to download the checklist and relevant flowchart. A systematic review uses clearly defined, systematic methods to identify and examine empirical evidence from relevant primary research in order to answer a specific question, and aims to analyse data from the identified studies with minimal bias. The methods used must be both transparent and reproducible.

Manuscripts must be prepared in MS Word in either PC, Macintosh or LaTeX format.

Submission of a manuscript implies that it has been approved in its final form by all the named authors, that it reports on unpublished work and that it has not been published or submitted for publication, in whole or in part, elsewhere. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that these conditions are fulfilled. On acceptance the corresponding author may be asked to supply a final version of the manuscript. Once a proof has been returned only minor changes will be allowed. Authors should be aware that large numbers of changes may lead to the paper being returned to reviewers for approval, delaying publication, in addition to incurring costs associated with making the changes.

Manuscript Format

Please note that failure to follow the Instructions for Authors will almost certainly result in the manuscript being returned to the author for correct formatting before it is sent out to the referees and hence there will be an unavoidable delay in the processing of your manuscript.

Authors are strongly encouraged to use the Word formatting template when preparing manuscripts.

The manuscript should contain continuous line numbering throughout to help the referees draw attention to specific areas of text and be organized as follows:

1.  TITLE PAGE

The title page should include:

  • The title of the article, which should be concise but informative and accurately reflect the content.
  • Authors’ names and contact details: please list a brief affiliation for each author including country (assigned with superscript numbers) below the author names, and in addition, indicate the corresponding author with an asterisk and in this case provide an email address
  • Word count, including all text but excluding tables, figures and references.


2.  SUMMARY/ABSTRACT AND A GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT

This should not be more than about 250 words and its purpose is to summarize the main aims, results and conclusions in such a way that they could be understood by any interested reader and not only experts in the subject, and could be used by an abstracting journal. A well worded abstract can dramatically improve the visibility and discoverability of your work so please take care with this section. References to published or unpublished work and unnecessary abbreviations should be avoided. Appended to the Summary should be 3-10 relevant key words, suitable for indexing. Nothing else should appear on the Summary page.

In addition to the standard abstract, submission of graphical abstracts is also mandatory for all articles to help promote their impact online. A Graphical Abstract is a single image that summarises the main findings of a paper, allowing readers to gain quickly an overview and understanding of your work.  Well-designed and prepared graphical abstracts are an important way to publicise your research, attracting readers, and helping to disseminate your work to a wider audience. Ideally, the graphical abstract should be created independently of the figures already in the paper but it could include a (simplified version of) an existing figure or a combination thereof. Graphical abstracts are displayed at article level, and on the article landing page online. 

The graphical abstract should be submitted separately from the main paper using the ‘Graphical Abstract’ file designation on ScholarOne. Graphical abstracts should be clear and easy for the viewer to read, and should illustrate the main pointers of your manuscript. The Editors will decide if your Graphical Abstract is satisfactory or needs improvement but this will not determine the result of the peer-review findings. 

We recommend that only TIFF, EPS or PDF formats are used for electronic artwork. Other non-preferred but usable formats are JPG, PPT and GIF files and images created in Microsoft Word. For further information about how to prepare your figures, including sizing and resolution requirements, please see our artwork guide. The image will be scaled to fit the appropriate space on Cambridge Core, so please ensure that any font used is clear to read, and that any text is included as part of the image file (although text should ideally be kept to a minimum). There is also no need to include the title ‘Graphical Abstract’ in your image.

3. KEY FINDINGS (required for original Research papers only)

Distil the key results and/or conclusions of the study into 3 to 5 short bullet points of less than 90 characters each. These key points will give the editor and referees an immediate overview of the paper and an insight into the importance of your findings. They must be uploaded to Scholar One at the appropriate step in the submission process, but MUST ALSO be included in your main document.

4.  INTRODUCTION

This should be as short as possible, normally not more than 2-3 paragraphs, and should simply serve to introduce the reader to the purpose and significance of the work described. It should neither be a mini-review nor should it be so bland as to be uninformative. When making general statements, reference should be made to recent reviews, and specific references should be cited only if they are particularly relevant.

5.  MATERIALS AND METHODS

Sufficient information for the reader to be able to repeat the work must be given, but techniques described in detail in other publications need not be repeated, provided that an adequate reference is cited. Major modifications to methods should be clearly described. The numbers of experiments, replicates, etc. and any statistical tests used should be stated.

The full binomial name should be given for all organisms, except those such as mice, rats and rabbits, commonly used in laboratories and domesticated animals such as cows, dogs and cats. Generic names should be given in full when first mentioned and subsequently if any confusion is likely to arise. If reference is made to an uncommon taxon the authority for the taxon and date should be stated. Abbreviations such as An. (for Anopheles) should be avoided unless absolutely essential, for example when referring to two or more generic names beginning with the same letter. Authors should follow International Rules for Nomenclature and, if new names are introduced, the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature. All strains and sources of hosts and parasites should be stated.

Abbreviations should be used sparingly and unambiguously. SI units should be used wherever appropriate and other standard statistical, chemical, biochemical and molecular abbreviations may also be used. In case of any doubt, authors are advised to spell out the term in full, followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis, when it is first used.

6. RESULTS

These should be confined to a factual account of the actual results obtained. Where necessary results should be analysed using an appropriate statistical test. Discussion and reference to other work should be left to the Discussion.

Tables and Figures must not be presented within the text. 

(i)         Tables. Each table, headed by a self-explanatory title, must be double spaced on a separate page and numbered consecutively. Rules, particularly vertical ones, should be avoided. Each table should be referred to consecutively as Table 1 etc in the text. The use of bold and italic text should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. They can be either included at the end of the main document or uploaded separately. They must be editable, i.e. not presented as images or PDFs.

(ii)         Figures. These may be line drawings or photographs and all should be referred to consecutively in the text as Fig. 1 etc. Component parts of figures should be labelled A, B, C etc. Legends for figures should be self-explanatory and must not contain details of results: they must be included at the end of the main document. The Figures themselves must be submitted separately as .tif or .eps files. We do not accept files such as .tiff, PDF, PowerPoint and .jpg. If your paper contains large image files, submission of smaller files (1MB per image) is recommended for original submissions, for ease and rapidity of uploading. Larger/higher quality files may be requested upon acceptance.Your submission must not exceed 156 MB in total.

Line drawings should not be larger than twice the final size and in no circumstances should exceed 170 x 250 mm. Line drawings should be as simple as possible, lines should be bold enough to stand reduction to about 0.25-0.35 mm. Preferred symbols are open and filled circles, squares and triangles, and these should be used consistently. Lettering should be kept to a minimum and should be self-explanatory and unambiguous and of sufficiently high quality and size to be clearly visible after reduction to final size.

Photographs should be the same size as they will appear in the journal and should be selected to fit neatly into one column (80 mm) or two columns (166 mm). Photographs should be labelled and numbered as for line drawings. For microscopic preparations, scale bars with appropriate units (e.g. 50μm) must be provided; statements of magnification are not acceptable.

7.  DISCUSSION (the Discussion section must be separate from the Results section)

The results (including further reference to figures and tables) should neither be repeated in detail nor should new information be introduced. Speculation is encouraged but should not go beyond reasonable and testable hypotheses. The Discussion should not attempt to be a mini-review.

8.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

You may acknowledge individuals or organisations that provided advice, support (non-financial). Formal financial support and funding should be listed in the following section.

9.  FINANCIAL SUPPORT

You MUST include a financial support section. Within this section please provide details of the sources of financial support for all authors, including grant numbers. For example, “This work was supported by the Medical research Council (grant number XXXXXXX)”. Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma and space, and where research was funded by more than one agency the different agencies should be separated by a semi-colon, with “and before the final funder. Grants held by different authors should be identified as belonging to individual authors by the authors’ initials. For example, “This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (A.B., grant numbers XXXX, YYYY), (C.D., grant number ZZZZ); the Natural Environment Research Council (E.F., grant number FFFF); and the National Institutes of Health (A.B., grant number GGGG), (E.F., grant number HHHH). Where no specific funding has been provided for research, please provide the following statement “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.”

10. REFERENCES

It is essential that the appropriate reference format for Parasitology is adhered to precisely.

Where using reference management software Endnote, please note that Endnote version 7 is compatible with this journal’s formatting.

(i) References in the text.

References should be kept to an essential minimum. Only references to published work or work actually 'in Press’ are permitted. Reference to unpublished work is acceptable but only as either 'unpublished results' or 'personal communication' and under no circumstances should references to unpublished work, work in preparation or un-refereed abstracts be included in the Reference List.

Lists of text references should be arranged in ascending date order and then alphabetically, e.g.:

Brown and Green, 1961; Black, 1995, 2011; Brown, 1995; Brown et al., 2001, 2002a,b, 2010


For papers with more than two authors et al. should be used.

Brown et al. (1992a)

When authors are not referred to directly, the reference should be in parentheses as follows:

All currently known COI sequences of G. salaris from rainbow trout (Hansen et al., 2003; Meinilä et al., 2004) are haplotype F.

Graphical Abstracts

Submission of graphical abstracts is mandatory for all articles to help promote their impact online.

A Graphical Abstract is a single image that summarises the main findings of a paper, allowing readers to gain quickly an overview and understanding of your work.  Well-designed and prepared graphical abstracts are an important way to publicise your research, attracting readers, and helping to disseminate your work to a wider audience. Ideally, the graphical abstract should be created independently of the figures already in the paper but it could include a (simplified version of) an existing figure or a combination thereof. Graphical abstracts are displayed at article level, and on the article landing page online.

The graphical abstract should be submitted separately from the main paper using the ‘Graphical Abstract’ file designation on ScholarOne. Graphical abstracts should be clear and easy for the viewer to read, and should illustrate the main pointers of your manuscript. The Editors will decide if your Graphical Abstract is satisfactory or needs improvement but this will not determine the result of the peer-review findings.

We recommend that only TIFF, EPS or PDF formats are used for electronic artwork. Other non-preferred but usable formats are JPG, PPT and GIF files and images created in Microsoft Word. For further information about how to prepare your figures, including sizing and resolution requirements, please see our artwork guide. The image will be scaled to fit the appropriate space on Cambridge Core, so please ensure that any font used is clear to read, and that any text is included as part of the image file (although text should ideally be kept to a minimum). There is also no need to include the title ‘Graphical Abstract’ in your image.

 

(ii) List of References

References, which must be double spaced and listed alphabetically, should begin on a separate page following the Discussion and Acknowledgements. The accuracy and appropriateness of the references are solely the responsibility of the author and are not checked in the editorial office.

The format required by this journal is given below and, if in any doubt, authors should refer to a recent copy of the journal. Please note that the names of all authors should be given in bold font and that the journal name should be italicized and given in full, not abbreviated. Where known, the article Digital Object Identifier (doi) should be included, at the end of the entry (see example below).

Journal References

Higgs, S, Snow, K and Gould, EA (2003) The potential for West Nile virus to establish outside of its natural range: a consideration of potential mosquito vectors in the United Kingdom. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 98, 82-87. doi: 10.1016/S0035- 9203(03)00004-X.

Books

Smyth, JD (1994) Introduction to Animal Parasitology, 3rd Edn. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Chapters in Books

Grenfell, BT, Dietz, K and Roberts, MG (1995) Modelling the immuno-epidemiology of macroparasites in naturally-fluctuating host populations. In Grenfell BT and Dobson AP (eds). Ecology of Infectious Diseases in Natural Populations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 362-383.

WHO Publications

World Health Organization (1995). Onchocerciasis and its Control. WHO Technical Report Series No. 852. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

When referencing Parasitology Supplements

Jenkins, DJ and MacPhersonCNL (2003) Transmission ecology of Echinococcus in wild-life in Australia and Africa. Parasitology 127 (Suppl.), S63-S72. doi: 10.1017/S0031182003003871.

PhD Theses (note: we will not accept MSc theses)

Geets, A (1998) Host-parasite interactions between sympatric Pomatoschistus species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) and their helminth parasites: ecological and phylogenic aspects. PhD thesis, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Web resources and online publications

Wozniak, RH (1997). Behaviourism: The early years. Retrieved from Bryn Mawr College Psychology Department website: http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Psych/rwozniak/behaviorism.html (accessed 29 January 2018).

If no personal author is visible, you should include the organisation responsible for the web page instead. If no date is visible write (n.d.) which stands for 'no date' instead.

11.  REVIEWS AND SPECIAL ISSUES: The headings for papers should be as follows:

  • Summary (and key words)
  • Introduction
  • Additional headings and sub-headings as appropriate to each paper
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions/Future directions
  • Acknowledgements
  • Financial support
  • References

Systematic Reviews must be must be accompanied by a completed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement checklist, a guideline to help authors report a systematic review and meta-analysis, uploaded as a Supplementary File. They will not be sent on for peer review without this. You may also include a PRISMA flow diagram as one of your Figure files.

12. ETHICAL AND REGULATORY GUIDELINES: policy on animal (vertebrates and higher invertebrates) use:

The authors must include a statement regarding the ethical standards of the paper. It must demonstrate the experimental procedures employed conform to the accepted principles of animal welfare in experimental science. The principles defined and explained in the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes and its appendix and/or the National Research Council Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals should be followed. A statement acknowledging conformation to these standards and that the authors have involved the minimum number of animals to produce statistically reproducible results must be included in the covering letter to the Editor-in-Chief as well as in the ‘Materials and Methods’ section of the manuscript. If experimental methodology raises particular ethical or welfare concerns then the Editor will take additional guidance from Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, when making decisions. The Editor’s decision with regard to ethics will be final.

Where research involves human and/or animal experimentation, the following statements should be included (as applicable): 'The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional committees on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.' and/or 'The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional guides on the care and use of laboratory animals.'

If the paper did not use any animal experimentation, please write 'Not applicable' under the section heading 'ETHICAL STANDARDS'.

Publishing Ethics

Please visit here for information on our ethical guidelines.

Informed Consent

Parasitology requires that all appropriate steps be taken in obtaining informed consent of any and all human subjects participating in the research comprising the manuscript submitted for review and possible publication. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the WMA Declaration of Helsinki should be followed. A statement is required with any report of investigations involving human subjects confirming that informed consent was obtained from the subject(s) and/or guardian(s). It should be stated clearly in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained. 

Editors or referees may request further documentation confirming that this is the case.

Statement of Interest/Conflicts of Interest declaration

All authors must include a conflicts of interest declaration in their manuscript. This declaration will be subject to editorial review and may be published in the article.

Conflicts of interest are situations that could be perceived to exert an undue influence on the content or publication of an author’s work. They may include, but are not limited to, financial, professional, contractual or personal relationships or situations.

If the manuscript has multiple authors, the author submitting must include conflicts of interest declarations relevant to all contributing authors. Example wording for a declaration is as follows: “Conflicts of interest: Author A is employed at company B. Author C owns shares in company D, is on the Board of company E and is a member of organisation F. Author G has received grants from company H.” If no competing interests exist, the declaration should state “Conflicts of interest: The author(s) declare none”.


13. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL. Supplementary files may be submitted. Please note that the Typesetters will not amend these files in any way before publishing; therefore, authors should ensure that they appear exactly as intended when submitted. We will accept a wide variety of files such as PDF, Excel, Word, .jpg, movie and audio files. Please ensure that legends are included in supplementary figures, and that they are of sufficiently high quality.

On Acceptance

On acceptance to the journal the final version of the manuscript containing the following should be submitted: Title Page, Summary, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, Figure legends.

In particular, each table should occupy a separate page.

If requested, you should prepare your final files using the Word formatting template.

Please ensure that your figures are submitted separately at final publication size (one column, 80mm) or two-column (166 mm) and are in the recommended file formats. Following these guidelines will result in high quality images being reproduced in the journal. Please do not submit the final versions of figures in MS WORD, .jpeg or Powerpoint (.ppt) format.

Line artwork

Format: .tif or .eps

Colour mode: black and white (also known as 1-bit)

Resolution: 1000 dpi

Combination artwork (line/tone)

Format: .tif or .eps

Colour mode: greyscale (also known as 8-bit)

Resolution: 600 dpi

Black and white halftone artwork

Format: .tif

Colour mode: greyscale (also known as 8-bit)

Resolution: 300 dpi

Colour halftone artwork

Format: .tif

Colour mode: CMYK colour

Resolution: 300 dpi

  For further information, please refer to the Cambridge Journals Artwork Guide, which can be found online at: https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/authors/journals/journals-artwork-guide

ORCID IDs

Parasitology now requires that all corresponding authors identify themselves using ORCID when submitting a manuscript to the journal. Joining ORCID is fast, free and you do not need to have a current affiliation. ORCID provides a unique identifier for researchers and, through integration in key research workflows such as publication and grant applications, provides the following benefits:

  • Discoverability: ORCID increases the discoverability of your publications, by enabling smarter publisher systems and by helping readers to reliably find work that you’ve authored.
  • Convenience: As more organisations use ORCID, providing your ID or using it to register for services will automatically link activities to your ORCID profile, and will save you re-keying information multiple times.
  • Keeping track: Your ORCID profile is a neat place to record and display (if you choose) validated information about your research activities.

If you don’t already have an ID, you’ll need to create one if you decide to submit a manuscript to Parasitology. You can register for one directly from your user account on ScholarOne or Editorial Manager or via https://orcid.org/register. If you already have an ID, please use this when submitting by linking it to your ScholarOne user account. Simply log in to your account using your normal username and password. Edit your account by clicking on your name at the top right of the screen and from the dropdown menu, select 'E-Mail / Name'. Follow the instructions at the top of the screen to update your account.

For more information on ORCID please visit: https://www.cambridge.org/using-ORCID

Open Access

Parasitology is a hybrid Open Access journal. Green OA applies to all of Cambridge University Press's journal articles but is primarily designed to support OA for articles that are otherwise only available by subscription or other payment. For that reason, the copyright freedoms allowed are more restrictive than under a Gold OA option which is also available at Parasitology.

Under the conditions detailed on the Journal’s licence to publish form, when an article is accepted, its authors are free to post their accepted version of the accepted manuscript - not the Version of Record - on a: 

  • Department or institutional repository 6 months after publication
  • Non-commercial subject repository 6 months after publication
  • Commercial repository or social media site - only abstract plus link to VoR on cambridge.org

As such, the Journal is compliant with the ‘Open Access’ mandates of the vast majority of academic institutions and funding sources. For more information on our Green OA policy, visit here.

 Authors also have the option to publish their paper under a fully or Gold ‘Open Access’ agreement, upon the payment of a one-off ‘Article Processing Charge’. 

Further information can be found here.

In this case, the final published ‘Version of Record’ shall be made freely available to all, in perpetuity, and will be published under a creative commons licence, enabling its free re-use and re- distribution for non-commercial means. 

Proofs

Page proofs will be forwarded as PDF files by E-mail to the corresponding author. It is the responsibility of the author to ensure that no errors are present. Only essential corrections should be made and authors will be charged for excessive alterations at the proof stage. If corrections are deemed to be substantial the paper will be rejected and the author asked to resubmit their work for peer review.

Copyright

The policy of Parasitology is that authors (or in some cases their employers) retain copyright and grant Parasitology a licence to publish their work. In the case of gold open access articles this is a non-exclusive licence. Authors must complete and return an author publishing agreement form as soon as their article has been accepted for publication; the journal is unable to publish without this. Please see the Author Publishing Agreement page for further details.

For open access articles, the form also sets out the Creative Commons licence under which the article is made available to end users: a fundamental principle of open access is that content should not simply be accessible but should also be freely re-usable. Articles will be published under a Creative Commons Attribution license (CC-BY) by default. This means that the article is freely available to read, copy and redistribute, and can also be adapted (users can “remix, transform, and build upon” the work) for any commercial or non-commercial purpose, as long as proper attribution is given. Authors can, in the publishing agreement form, choose a different kind of Creative Commons license (including those prohibiting non-commercial and derivative use) if they prefer.

Cambridge Language Editing Service

We suggest that authors whose first language is not English have their manuscripts checked by a native English speaker before submission. This is optional, but will help to ensure that any submissions that reach peer review can be judged exclusively on academic merit. We offer a Cambridge service which you can find out more about here, and suggest that authors contact as appropriate. Please note that use of language editing services is voluntary, and at the author’s own expense. Use of these services does not guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted for publication, nor does it restrict the author to submitting to a Cambridge-published journal.

Last updated 2 January 2020

Preprints Policy

A ‘preprint’ is an early version of an article prior to the version accepted for publication in a journal. We encourage authors to include details of any preprint or related article posting, including DOI or other persistent identifier, when submitting to Parasitology. The citation within text should be (name, DOI, in consideration) but it should not appear in the manuscript's formal bibliography.