The potential of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been demonstrated in cell and tissue research since 1970. MSI can reveal the spatial distribution of a wide range of atomic and molecular ions detected from biological sample surfaces, it is a powerful and valuable technique used to monitor and detect diverse chemical and biological compounds, such as drugs, lipids, proteins, and DNA. MSI techniques, notably matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), witnessed a dramatic upsurge in studying and investigating biological samples especially, cells and tissue sections. This advancement is attributed to the submicron lateral resolution, the high sensitivity, the good precision, and the accurate chemical specificity, which make these techniques suitable for decoding and understanding complex mechanisms of certain diseases, as well as monitoring the spatial distribution of specific elements, and compounds. While the application of both techniques for the analysis of cells and tissues is thoroughly discussed, a briefing of MALDI-TOF and TOF-SIMS basis and the adequate sampling before analysis are briefly covered. The importance of MALDI-TOF and TOF-SIMS as diagnostic tools and robust analytical techniques in the medicinal, pharmaceutical, and toxicology fields is highlighted through representative published studies.