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Instructions for authors

The Knowledge Engineering Review

Important notice

We have become aware that there are websites such as University Press Journals, Association of British University Presses and International Agency for Development of Culture, Education and Science (IADCES) which are claiming to offer publication in certain Cambridge University Press journals for a fee. We do not work with such companies.

Submissions to Cambridge University Press journals can only be made via the online peer review systems linked to from this Cambridge Core website, or else directly to the editorial offices of those journals that do not operate online peer review systems.

To submit a paper, follow the instructions in the below 'Submission of manuscripts' section.

For more information on predatory publishing, please visit the Think Check Submit website

Editorial policy

The Knowledge Engineering Review has been established to provide a general source of information and analysis in all areas relevant to research and development in knowledge based systems and applied artificial intelligence. The editors wish to encourage careful preparation of original papers analysing developments in the field. In particular we wish to see tutorial and survey articles, and commentary, criticism and debate. Primary research papers on specialised technical topics are unlikely to be appropriate but research papers on broad topics such as development methodology or general evaluations of tools and techniques, are of interest. Descriptions of specific projects or particular computer systems will be considered if their presentation draws out general issues in the design, implementation or impact of knowledge based systems.

Submission of manuscripts

Contributions for publication must be submitted as PDF or Word files to

The system will convert your contribution to a pdf as required. Contributions sent to the editors will be returned with the request that they be resubmitted via the above link.

Submission implies that the manuscript has not been published previously, nor currently submitted for publication elsewhere. Upon acceptance of a manuscript, the author will be asked to sign a license to publish with the publisher.

All contributions, whether articles, correspondence or reviews, must be sent in electronic form. Authors are encouraged to provide the final version of the contribution in LaTeX, TeX, or Word format.

Authors using LaTeX should ideally use the KER LaTeX files which can be obtained here (zip download). In case of difficulties obtaining these files, there is a help-line available via e-mail; please contact . Tables and figures should be embedded in the article in the usual way, with figures in .eps form, which should be also supplied as separate files.

Contributions should follow the general style of papers in recent issues of The Knowledge Engineering Review. The author is invited to nominate up to five possible referees, who will not necessarily be used.

Articles must be accompanied by a brief, informative rather than indicative, abstract.

Authors should select a minimum of three recommended reviewers for their manuscript as part of the submission process.

If you are not using the ker.cls file, then please adopt the following layout rules. Headings should be set out clearly but not underlined. Primary headings should be in lower case, at margin, with Arabic numeral; subheadings should be numbered 2.a., 2.b., etc., and tertiary headings, 2.a.1., 2.a.2. No cross-references should be given by page number, but ‘above’ and ‘below’ should be used with the section specified, e.g. Section 2.a.2. The SI system of units should be used. The author should mark in the margin of the manuscript where figures and tables may be inserted. References to points in larger works should, where possible, quote the page reference, e.g. Ager, 1981, p. 102.

Tables should be typed with double-line spacing on sheets separate from the running text. Each table must have a caption that will make the data in the table intelligible without reference to the text.

Illustrations should be drafted for reproduction as full page (148 mm) width. Originals should normally be drawn at twice final area and must be sent in a flat package; larger drawings may delay publication. Lettering should be of a size so that when reduced the smallest lower-case letters will not be less than about 1 mm. Avoid gross disparities in lettering size on a drawing. Duplicates of illustrations should be sent, and may be prints or, preferably, photocopies reduced to final size. Illustrations in the text, both line drawings and photographs for halftone reproductions, will be referred to as figures (Fig. 2, 2a, etc.). Folding plates will not be accepted. Figures composed of photographs should be glossy prints presented at publication scale. Figure captions must be typed with double-line spacing on sheets separate from the running text.

The preferred graphics package is Freehand 5 but files from many others can be accepted. Please indicate clearly the file format (e.g. TIFF, EPS, DCS, Freehand etc), computer operating system and graphics software used for originating the artwork files. The typefaces used in electronic artwork supplied should be restricted to Monotype, Adobe and Bitstream font libraries. Illustrations should be supplied as EPS files and never as Postscript files, or as the native format files from the graphics package used. They should be accompanied by laser proofs with the name and version number of the graphics package used, and also the names of the fonts used.

Competing interests declaration

All authors must include a competing interests declaration in their manuscript above the references. This declaration will be subject to editorial review and may be published in the article.

Competing interests are situations that could be perceived to exert an undue influence on the content or publication of an author’s work. They may include, but are not limited to, financial, professional, contractual or personal relationships or situations.

If the manuscript has multiple authors, the author submitting must include competing interest declarations relevant to all contributing authors.

Example wording for a declaration is as follows: “Competing interests: Author A is employed at company B. Author C owns shares in company D, is on the Board of company E and is a member of organisation F. Author G has received grants from company H.” If no competing interests exist, the declaration should state “Competing interests: The author(s) declare none”.


The accuracy of references is the responsibility of authors. References must be double-spaced and spelt out in full, e.g:

Gale, W A, ed 1986. Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.

Pearl, J 1984. Heuristics. Intelligent search strategies for problem solving, Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.

Tie-Cheng Wang and Bledsoe, W W, 1987. "Hierarchical deduction" Journal of Automated Reasoning 3 (1) pp 1-34.

Pau, L F, 1986. "Survey of expert systems for fault detection, test generation and maintenance" Expert Systems, 3 (2) pp 100-111.

Unpublished work should normally be referred to in the text parentheses as, for example, ‘private communication’ or ‘unpub. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. London, 1988’, and not included in the reference list unless in the press.

Proof Reading

Typographical or factual errors only may be changed at the proof stage. The publisher reserves the right to charge authors for correction of non-typographical errors. No page charge is made.


No paper offprints are provided, but the corresponding author will be sent the pdf of the published article.

Cambridge Language Editing Service

We suggest that authors whose first language is not English have their manuscripts checked by a native English speaker before submission. This is optional but will help to ensure that any submissions that reach peer review can be judged exclusively on academic merit. We offer a Cambridge service which you can find out more about here, and suggest that authors make contact as appropriate. Please note that use of language editing services is voluntary and at the author’s own expense. Use of these services does not guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted for publication nor does it restrict the author to submitting to a Cambridge-published journal.


The policy of The Knowledge Engineering Review is that authors (or in some cases their employers) retain copyright and grant Cambridge University Press a licence to publish their work. In the case of gold open access articles this is a non-exclusive licence. Authors must complete an author publishing agreement as soon as possible after their article has been accepted for publication; the journal is unable to publish without this.

For open access articles, the form also sets out the Creative Commons licence under which the article is made available to end users: a fundamental principle of open access is that content should not simply be accessible but should also be freely re-usable. Articles will be published under a Creative Commons Attribution license (CC-BY) by default. This means that the article is freely available to read, copy and redistribute, and can also be adapted (users can “remix, transform, and build upon” the work) for any commercial or non-commercial purpose, as long as proper attribution is given. Authors can, in the publishing agreement form, choose a different kind of Creative Commons license (including those prohibiting non-commercial and derivative use) if they prefer.


The Knowledge Engineering Review now requires that all corresponding authors identify themselves using their ORCID iD when submitting a manuscript to the journal. ORCID provides a unique identifier for researchers and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript submission and grant applications, provides the following benefits:

  • Discoverability: ORCID increases the discoverability of your publications, by enabling smarter publisher systems and by helping readers to reliably find work that you’ve authored.
  • Convenience: As more organisations use ORCID, providing your iD or using it to register for services will automatically link activities to your ORCID record, and will enable you to share this information with other systems and platforms you use, saving you re-keying information multiple times.
  • Keeping track: Your ORCID record is a neat place to store and (if you choose) share validated information about your research activities and affiliations.

If you don’t already have an iD, you’ll need to create one if you decide to submit a manuscript to The Knowledge Engineering Review. You can register for one directly from your user account on Scholar One or via If you already have an iD, please use this when submitting, either by linking it to your Scholar One account or supplying it during submission by using the “Associate your existing ORCID ID” button.

Last updated April 2021