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Minsky and Papert claim that, for any positive integer n, there exist predicates of order 1 whose conjunction and disjunction have order greater than n. Their proof is amended and a stronger result obtained of which their claim is a special case.
Let T1, i = 1, 2 be measurable transformations which define bounded composition operators C Ti on L2 of a σ-finite measure space. Let us denote the Radon-Nikodym derivative of with respect to m by hi, i = 1, 2. The main result of this paper is that if and are both M-hyponormal with h1 ≤ M2(h2 o T2) a.e. and h2 ≤ M2(h1 o T1) a.e., then for all positive integers m, n and p, * is -hyponormal. As a consequence, we see that if is an M-hyponormal composition operator, then is -hyponormal for all positive integers n.
A complementary decomposition of λKn into a graph G is an edge-disjoint decomposition of λKn into copies of G such that if each copy H of G is replaced by its complement in V(H) then the result is an edge-disjoint decomposition of λKn into copies of GC it is a self- complementary decomposition if G = Gc. The spectrum for the last self-complementary graph on at most 7 vertices is found.
Let A be a subset of a Banach space E. A mapping T: A →A is called asymptoically semicontractive if there exists a mapping S: A×A→A and a sequence (kn) in [1, ∞] such that Tx=S(x, x) for all x ∈A while for each fixed x ∈A, S(., x) is asymptotically nonexpansive with sequence (kn) and S(x,.) is strongly compact. Among other things, it is proved that each asymptotically semicontractive self-mpping T of a closed bounded and convex subset A of a uniformly convex Banach space E which satisfies Opial's condition has a fixed point in A, provided s has a certain asymptoticregurity property.
A well-known theorem of Hardy and Littlewood gives a three-term asymptotic formula, counting the lattice points inside an expanding, right triangle. In this paper a generalisation of their theorem is presented. Also an analytic method is developed which enables one to interpret the coefficients in the formula. These methods are combined to give a generalisation of a “heightcounting” formula of Györy and Pethö which itself was a generalisation of a theorem of Lang.
Let M be a Γ-ring with right operator ring R. We define one-sided ideals of M and show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the prime left ideals of M and R and hence that the prime radical of M is the intersection of its prime left ideals. It is shown that if M has left and right unities, then M is left Noetherian if and only if every prime left ideal of M is finitely generated, thus extending a result of Michler for rings to Γ-rings.
Bi-ideals and quasi-ideals of M are defined, and their relationships with corresponding structures in R are established. Analogies of various results for rings are obtained for Γ-rings. In particular we show that M is regular if and only if every bi-ideal of M is semi-prime.
Let R be an artinian ring. A family, ℳ, of isomorphism types of R-modules of finite length is said to be canonical if every R-module of finite length is a direct sum of modules whose isomorphism types are in ℳ. In this paper we show that ℳ is canonical if the following conditions are simultaneously satisfied: (a) ℳ contains the isomorphism type of every simple R-module; (b) ℳ has a preorder with the property that every nonempty subfamily of ℳ with a common bound on the lengths of its members has a smallest type; (c) if M is a nonsplit extension of a module of isomorphism type II1 by a module of isomorphism type II2, with II1, II2 in ℳ, then M contains a submodule whose type II3 is in ℳ and II1 does not precede II3. We use this result to give another proof of Kronecker's theorem on canonical pairs of matrices under equivalence. If R is a tame hereditary finite-dimensional algebra we show that there is a preorder on the family of isomorphism types of indecomposable R-modules of finite length that satisfies Conditions (b) and (c).
A rational number is called a best approximant of the irrational number ζ if it lies closer to ζ than all rational numbers with a smaller denominator. Metrical properties of these best approximants are studied. The main tool is the two-dimensional ergodic system, underlying the continued fraction expansion.
Let X be a completely regular Hausdorff space, let V be a system of weights on X and let T be a locally convex Hausdorff topological vector space. Then CVb(X, T) is a locally convex space of vector-valued continuous functions with a topology generated by seminorms which are weighted analogues of the supremum norm. In the present paper we characterize multiplication operators on the space CVb(X, T) induced by operator-valued mappings and then obtain a (linear) dynamical system on this weighted function space.
In the general context of ideals in universal algebras, we study varietal properties connected with ideals that are equivalent both to Ma'cev conditions and congruence properties such as 0-regularity, 0-permutability, etc.
Groups in which every infinite set of subgroups contains a pair that permute were studied by M. Curzio, J. Lennox, A. Rhemtulla and J. Wiegold. The question whether periodic groups in this class were locally finite was left open. Here we show that if the generators of such a group G are periodic then G is locally finite. This enables us to get the following characterisation. A finitely generated group G is centre-by-finite if and only if every infinite set of subgroups of G contains a pair that permute.
Let S(n) be a unilateral shift operator on a Hilbert space of multiplicity n. In this paper, we prove a generalization of the theorem that if S(1) is unitarily equivalent to an operator matrix form relative to a decomposition ℳ ⊕ N, then E is in a certain class C0 which will be defined below.