Stochastic models are essential for precise navigation and positioning of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). A stochastic model can influence the resolution of ambiguity, which is a key step in GNSS positioning. Most of the existing multi-GNSS stochastic models are based on the GPS empirical model, while differences in the precision of observations among different systems are not considered. In this paper, three refined stochastic models, namely the variance components between systems (RSM1), the variances of different types of observations (RSM2) and the variances of observations for each satellite (RSM3) are proposed based on the least-squares variance component estimation (LS-VCE). Zero-baseline and short-baseline GNSS experimental data were used to verify the proposed three refined stochastic models. The results show that, compared with the traditional elevation-dependent model (EDM), though the proposed models do not significantly improve the ambiguity resolution success rate, the positioning precision of the three proposed models has been improved. RSM3, which is more realistic for the data itself, performs the best, and the precision at elevation mask angles 20°, 30°, 40°, 50° can be improved by 4⋅6%, 7⋅6%, 13⋅2%, 73⋅0% for L1-B1-E1 and 1⋅1%, 4⋅8%, 16⋅3%, 64⋅5% for L2-B2-E5a, respectively.