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This paper shows that the two most common impedance transformation networks for power amplifiers (PAs) can be designed to achieve optimum transformation at two frequencies. Hence, a larger bandwidth for the required impedance transformation ratio is achieved. A design procedure is proposed, which takes imperfections like losses into account. Furthermore, an analysis method is presented to estimate the maximum uncompressed output power of a PA with respect to frequency. Based on these results, a fully integrated PA with a dual-band impedance transformation network is designed and its functionality is proven by large signal measurement results. The amplifier covers the frequency band from 450 MHz to 1.2 GHz (3 dB bandwidth of the output power and efficiency), corresponding to a relative bandwidth of more than 100%. It delivers 23.7 dBm output power in the 1 dB compression point, having a power-added efficiency of 33%.
This paper presents a compact microstrip tri-band bandpass filter (BPF) using two multimode stepped-impedance resonators (SIRs) with a 0° feed structure. The fundamental odd-mode and even-mode resonant frequencies and the third resonant frequency are utilized to determine the center frequencies of the tri-band filter. The mode-splitting technique is used by combining two SIRs with electrical coupling. Therefore, two modes generate one passband and the bandwidths can be controlled by the electrical coupling strength. The 0° feed network is applied to create one pair of transmission zeros at each side of all the triple passbands, resulting in high selectivity. Finally, a tri-band BPF with the central frequencies of 1.8, 2.4, and 5.8 GHz, and respective fractional bandwidths of 8.9, 12.5, and 5.3% are designed and fabricated. The simulated and measured results show a good agreement.
An N-band resonator, particularly well-suited for reconfigurability, is presented in this paper together with its synthesis. The resonator is based on the association of an N-band dual-behavior resonator and tunable capacitors. Its topology consists of a parallel association of N + 1 different bandstop structures, each one composed of a stub terminated by a capacitor. N pass bands, separated from each other by a transmission zero, are then obtained. As each bandstop structure independently controls one transmission zero, the use of variable capacitors allows each of them to be tuned independently and then to reconfigure the resonator in terms of transmission zeros and resonant frequencies. After the presentation of the general synthesis, this principle is validated by the realization of a tri-band resonator in microstrip technology.
In this paper, a novel compact ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter (BPF) without and with one sharply notched band is presented. The UWB bandpass characteristic is achieved using slotted resonators (SR) and a notch is obtained by spiral defected ground structure (SDGS) without any change in SR structure. Center frequency of the notched band can be easily changed (from 5 to 9 GHz) by tuning the dimensions of SDGS. To verify the feasibility of the proposed filter, two UWB BPFs, one without the notched band and the other with a notched band, at 8.0 GHz are developed and fabricated, there by suppressing the spurious satellite-communication signal within passband. Measured results of two fabricated filters have the advantages of wide −3 dB bandwidth from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz (which satisfies the requirements of US Federal Communication Commission -specified UWB limits), compact size, low insertion loss (<0.6 dB), and a wide upper stopband with high attenuation (−20 to −50 dB).
This paper proposes a compact, low-loss, and low-cost phase shifter for millimeter-wave/sub-THz applications. The basic idea is to perturb the propagation constant of a high resistivity silicon image guide by high-dielectric constant barium lanthanide tetratitanates (BLT) ceramic loading. Three different BLT ceramic samples have been tested. The measured maximum phase-shift variation reaches 150° at 100 GHz with an average insertion loss of 2.85 dB and an insertion loss variation <0.7 dB for a sample of a 5-mm length. The proposed phase shifter has a bandwidth from 95 to 105 GHz. A low-cost fabrication technology has been developed and used to realize this phase shifter.
This paper presents an analytical model to characterize the radiation pattern of focused aperture antennas. The model is based on the classic parabolic on pedestal distribution for amplitude, but in this work the focusing phase term is considered and applied in the Fresnel region. The model is useful for millimeter and submillimeter wave imaging radar systems that usually work in the Fresnel region of the antenna. Analytical closed expressions are developed to predict the available resolution (transversal beamwidth) and operating range (axial beamwidth) of such systems. The effects of the first- and second-order phase distributions on the aperture have also been also studied in order to show the scanning effect, the axial refocusing, and the astigmatic beam degradation.
In this paper, a gain-increased method of cavity-backed slot antennas based on excitation of high-order substrate-integrated waveguide cavity resonance has been proposed. To this end, the metallic posts are introduced in a main cavity to excite the cavity's TM220 mode. Then the properties of the modified cavity's TM220 mode are used to feed an array of 2 × 2 slot antenna. Moreover, to acquire insight of modified cavity's field distribution, a comprehensive modal study was performed on the modified cavity to fully understand the effects of the dividing walls on the cavity's field distribution. Also, compared with HFSS, the modal solution that is proposed in this paper provide a considerable time and storage saving. To validate the simulated results, two types of the proposed antenna forming two different polarizations (horizontal and vertical) are analyzed, simulated, and fabricated. The proposed antennas exhibit relatively gain of 8.2 dBi at resonant frequency and high front-to-back ratio. In addition, the gain-enhanced method proposed in the present paper can be extended for using even higher-order cavity resonances, such as TM440, TM660 etc., if higher gain is desirable. The proposed antennas are suitable for using in many wireless communication systems and some radar systems.
A high-gain microstrip patch-type WiMAX antenna operating at 3.5 GHz has been designed with a parasitic radiator and a raised ground plane. Antenna design has been carried out through extensive three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations. The patch antenna itself provides a realized gain of about 3.6 dB at 3.5 GHz. When a parasitic radiator is placed on top of the patch antenna, the gain increases from about 3.6 dB to about 7.4 dB. The raised ground plane further enhances the gain by about 1.5 dB. Hence the overall gain improvement is about 5.3 dB without the need of a radio-frequency amplifier.
In this paper, a triple-band 1 × 2 and 1 × 4 microstrip patch antenna array for next-generation wireless and satellite-based applications are presented. The targeted frequency bands are 3.6, 5.2 and 6.7 GHz, respectively. Simple design procedures and optimization techniques are discussed to achieve better antenna performance. The antenna is designed and simulated using Agilent ADS Momentum using FR4 substrate (εr = 4.2 and h = 1.66 mm). The main patch of the antenna is designed for 3.6 GHz operation. A hybrid feed technique is used for antenna arrays with quarter-wave transformer-based network to match the impedance from the feed-point to the antenna to 50 Ω. The antenna is optimized to resonate at triple-bands by using two symmetrical slits. The single-element triple-band antenna is fabricated and characterized, and a comparison between the simulated and measured antenna is presented. The achieved simulated impedance bandwidths/gains for the 1 × 2 array are 1.67%/7.75, 1.06%/7.7, and 1.65%/9.4 dBi and for 1 × 4 array are 1.67%/10.2, 1.45%/8.2, and 1.05%/10 dBi for 3.6, 5.2, and 6.7 GHz bands, respectively, which are very practical. These antenna arrays can also be used for advanced antenna beam-steering systems.
A planar circularly polarized (CP) monopole antenna (MA) with dual-band operation for the IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless local area network (WLAN) is proposed. By introducing dual strip-sleeves shorted at the ground plane, the excitation of dual-resonant modes can resemble the 2.4/5.2 GHz bands required for WLAN operations. The obtained impedance bandwidths (RL ≧10 dB) across the operating bands approach 260/988 MHz and the 3 dB axial-ratio bandwidth of about 103/710 MHz for 2.4/5.2 GHz bands, respectively. The model proposed in this study reflects more advantages in physical implementation as its overall volume is only 40 × 40 × 0.8 mm3, 22% smaller than other conventional CP MAs. The measured peak gain and radiation efficiency are about 4.1/3.3 dBic and 94/84%, respectively, and demonstrate nearly bidirectional patterns in the XZ- and YZ-planes.
A simple and compact microstrip antenna of circular geometry with circular cut defected patch surface has been proposed for significant suppression of cross-polarized (XP) radiation compared with maximum co-polarized gain without affecting the co-polarized radiation pattern at its dominant mode. This will enhance the polarization purity in the radiation performance of the proposed antenna. About 27–28 dB isolation between co-polarized and XP radiations is achieved with the proposed structure. The present structure is simple and easy to develop commercially. The investigation of the new structure is carried out with a view to eliminate orthogonal resonance, which is generally attributed for high XP radiation from the microstrip patch antenna with conventional circular geometry. Comprehensive study on the resonance and radiation characteristics of the new geometry is presented. The present investigation provides an insightful visualization-based understanding of XP suppression with the present structure.
In this paper, a switchable antenna with capability to operate in ultrawideband (UWB) frequency from 3 to 10.7 GHz with two switchable notch bands of 3.3–3.7 and 3.7–4.2 GHz, is presented for cognitive radio (CR) and multiband orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) applications. The proposed antenna has a simple structure and compact size of 17 × 24 mm2. The antenna in the UWB characteristics is obtained using a circular radiator patch with an embedded T-slot on the patch and a rectangular parasitic element that is attached to the patch. The reconfigurability is also achieved by two L-shaped parasitic elements placed in the left and right of the patch that two ideal switches is inserted over the these elements and the circular patch. The function of the antenna can be changed by tuning status of the switches that make the notch bands in application frequencies. The measurement and simulation results show that the antenna has good characteristics for CR application and MB-OFDM, where the UWB antenna is required for spectrum sensing and the switchable band rejection antenna is used for reconfigurable operation.
A compact asymmetric coplanar strip (ACS)-fed monopole antenna for dual-band application is presented. The single-layer antenna composed of inverted L-shaped exciting strip and an L-shaped lateral ground plane. The antenna resonating at two different frequencies, 2.4 and 5.8 GHz is covering the wireless local area network/radio frequency identification bands. The antenna has an overall dimension of 35 × 5.7 mm2 when printed on a substrate of dielectric constant 4.4 and loss tangent 0.02. The planar design, simple feeding, and compactness make it easy for the integration of the antenna into circuit boards. Details of the antenna design, and simulated and experimental results are presented and discussed. The experimental result shows good conformity with simulated results. The simulation tool based on the method of moments (Mentor Graphics IE3D version 15.10) has been used to analyze and optimize the antenna.
In this paper, a novel design of compact wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna operating over a frequency range of 1.8–4.0 GHz at 10 dB is presented for mobile terminals. The MIMO antenna design consists of two symmetrical and orthogonal radiating elements with a small size of 15.5 × 16.5 mm2 printed on the corners of a mobile circuit board. The radiating element is composed of four meandered monopole branches with a strip-line fed by a probe. By triangularly trimming the corners of the common ground plane beneath the radiating elements, not only the mutual coupling is reduced, but also impedance bandwidth is increased. Although, the antenna in this form has sufficient correlation level between the radiating elements for MIMO operation, a novel design of plus-shaped parasitic element is inserted to the ground plane between those radiating elements in order to further enhance the isolation. The performance of the MIMO antenna is investigated in terms of s-parameters, radiation pattern, gain, envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), and total active reflection coefficient (TARC), and is verified through the measurements. The results demonstrate that the proposed MIMO antenna has good characteristics of wideband, isolation, gain, radiation pattern, and is compatible with LTE, WiMAX, and WLAN, besides it is small, compact, and embeddable in mobile terminals.
A novel compact multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system operating from 5 to 7.3 GHz is proposed for wireless applications. It comprises of two similar antennas with microstrip feeding and radiating patches developed on a reduced ground plane. The developed antenna system resonates at a dual-band of 5.4 and 6.8 GHz frequencies, giving an impedance bandwidth of 38% (based on S11 < −10 dB). The unique structure of the proposed MIMO system gives a reduced mutual coupling of −27 dB at 5.4 GHz resonant frequency and −19 dB at 6.8 GHz resonant frequency and in the entire operating band the coupling is maintained well below −16 dB. The envelope correlation coefficient of the proposed MIMO system is calculated and is found to be less than 0.05 in the operating band. The measured and simulation results are found in good agreement.