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In this paper, the designs and experimental performances of wideband (higher than one octave) high-efficiency, high-power amplifiers (HPA) working in the 1–4 GHz range, using the same GaN process, are presented. They are based on the Bode–Fano integrals, which can be applied to a trade-off calculation between bandwidth and efficiency. Firstly, an microwave intregrated circuits (MIC) wideband HPA, externally matched, is presented. It generates a continuous wave (CW) output power (Pout) greater than 40 W, a power gain (GP) higher than 9.2 dB and a corresponding power added efficiency (PAE) (drain efficiency (DE)) ranged between 36 and 44% (40 and 48%) over the 1–3 GHz bandwidth. Two other amplifiers have been designed upon the same theoretical methodology, with a passive GaAs MMIC circuit technology, enabling to reduce the final size down to 420 mm2. The first internally matched Quasi monolithic microwave intergrated circuits (Quasi-MMIC) single-ended HPA generates a pulsed Pout greater than 25 W, GP higher than 9.8 dB, and a corresponding PAE (DE) ranged between 37 and 52.5% (40 and 55%) over the 2–4 GHz bandwidth. The second internally matched Quasi-MMIC HPA, based on balanced architecture, generates a pulsed Pout higher than 45 W, GP higher than 9.5 dB and PAE (DE) ranged between 33 and 44% (38 and 50%) over the 2–4 GHz bandwidth. These results are among the best ones published in terms of PAE and Pout in instantaneous octave bandwidth in the 1–4 GHz frequency range.
This paper presents the analysis and design of a wideband asymmetrical Doherty amplifier. The frequency response of the output combining network of the Doherty amplifier with arbitrary back-off level configuration is analyzed. Other bandwidth-limiting factors were discussed and analyzed as well. A number of performance enhancement techniques were taken into consideration to obtain high and flat back-off efficiency over the amplifier design band of 1.7–2.25 GHz. The designed Doherty amplifier had, at 8.0–9.9 dB output back-off, a minimum efficiency of η = 50% [power-added efficiency of 45%], measured near 40 dBm of output power, and over 28% bandwidth. Using digital predistortion (DPD) linearization, an adjacent-channel leakage ratio (ACLR) of −43 dBc was obtained for a single-carrier W-CDMA signal, at 40.9 dBm and 46% of average output power and drain efficiency, respectively. The designed amplifier represents the first wideband Doherty amplifier reported over extended power back-off range.
Two novel memory polynomial models are derived based on physical knowledge of a general power amplifier (PA). The derivations are given in detail to facilitate derivations of other model structures. The model error in terms of normalized mean square error (NMSE) and adjacent channel error power ratio (ACEPR) of the novel model structures are compared to that of established models based on the number of parameters using data measured on two different amplifiers, one high-power base-station PA and one low-power general purpose amplifier. The novel models show both lower NMSE and ACEPR for any chosen number of parameters compared to the established models. The low model errors make the novel models suitable candidates for both modeling and digital predistortion.
In the field of high data rate wireless communications, localization issues play a key role in achieving energy-efficient communication and geographic routing. time-difference of arrival (TDOA)-based localization methods present numerous advantages. In this paper, a new method of TDOA estimation is proposed. With this method, unlike conventional TDOA measurements, it is possible to perform communication and localization at the same time by using a multi-input single-output system. By transmitting ultra-wide-band orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing signals using spatial diversity, it is possible to extract TDOA from interference patterns in spectral domain. In addition, increasing the precision of localization is also studied using a multi-band approach. This whole study is made within the framework of the WiGig alliance specifications; however, it is compatible with other standards.
The design and fabrication of a wide-band programmable radio frequency (RF) feed network is proposed. It is designed to cover a wide band from 2.5 to 6 GHz over two separate branches. The feed network is simulated and fabricated on an FR-4 substrate with 0.8 mm thickness. Good matching between simulation and measurement results is achieved. The measured amplitude resolution was 0.5 dB with a maximum error of 0.22 dB. The measured phase resolution was approximately 5.6° with 1° maximum error. This design is a generic one that can be used in any kind of RF or antenna systems.
A simple and volume efficient circular antenna-array design with a low profile programmable beam rotation mechanism was presented. The proper selections of the rotation vector and the excitation coefficients of rectangular array-elements were made for rotation of the beam. The proposed rotation mechanism was capable to rotate the radiation pattern at any desired speed and to transmit in any desired direction, and the design included the ease of construction. Although simulating the radiation pattern using FEKO EM simulator, two basic functions, the power splitter and the introduction of phase difference, were included in feed network of microstrip circuit to divide the power and then individually feeding the each patch after introducing the desired phase difference.
In this paper, staircase-shaped ultra-wideband (UWB) response is proposed. UWB technology being emerging technology of decade needs development of antennas with small size. This paper proposed the design of antennas for UWB technology with small overall size. The feed used in the proposed design is microstrip feed line. The defected ground structure and staircase patch have been used to enhance bandwidth (BW) of antenna, to miniaturize its shape and to reduce the surface wave. The proposed design is carried out with different types of substrate materials and the best results are considered. The proposed antenna performs well in terms of BW and gain while reduction in size is reported. The proposed antenna can be used for Wireless Personal Area Network.
In the present study, an ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna has been proposed using coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed with dual-band-notch characteristics. Slot-loaded radiator and U-shaped CPW resonator are used for band rejection at 3.5 and 5–6 GHz respectively to reduce interference with existing World interoperability for microwave access and wireless local area network systems. With an extended operating band (measured at 10 dB return loss) the antenna operates successfully over the entire UWB range (3.1–10.6 GHz) with a form factor of 30 × 20 × 1.524 mm3 on a commercially low-cost FR-4 substrate. Experimental measurement results are presented in support of the simulated results for the proposed antenna for practical application. The antenna has been successfully fabricated and measured, showing broadband matched impedance and good omnidirectional radiation pattern throughout the operating bandwidth. Measured time-domain analysis for both the orientations, i.e. face-to-face and side-by-side, yields excellent performance in the open environment scenario. With fairly good and consistent monopole such as omnidirectional radiation patterns in H-plane and linear transmission responses, the proposed antenna is well suited to be integrated within portable devices.
In this work, the design, fabrication, and testing of low sidelobe level (SLL) Butler matrix-based beamformers is presented. The paper is divided in two parts. The first part deals with the conventional technique of simultaneous excitation of input ports. The second part introduces some novel modified low SLL Butler matrices, as an alternative advantageous design choice. Circuit architecture makes use of asymmetric branch line couplers able to provide high values of output power division ratios. Radiation patterns with SLLs far lower than −23 dB are achieved, without the use of any additional circuitry, in opposition to the case of simultaneous port excitation. Apart from SLL reduction, the switched line-phase shifter technique is applied in order to increase the number of radiated beams and improve scanning coverage. The beamformers are suitable for interference suppressing point-to-multipoint ground communications, satellite and radar/EW/SIGINT systems. Several microstrip circuit prototypes are designed, fabricated, and tested, whereas extended simulation and measurements results are adduced.
This research work presents a microstrip-fed antenna that is small, low-profile, planar, and suitable for WLAN/WiMAX and partially ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The radiating element of the proposed antenna consists of rectangular-shaped ring embedded with a three inverted “S”-shaped and inverted “C”-shaped strips. This antenna is capable of generating penta bands having good impedance matching with wideband characteristics. Prototype of the proposed antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated, and tested. The overall small size of the antenna is 24.75 mm × 27.39 mm × 1.6 mm with volumetric size of 1 cm3. To understand the characteristics of the proposed antenna, the parametric studies are being performed. The return loss of the proposed antenna shows fair agreement with the simulated and measured results.
This paper presents results of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation using multiple signal classification (MUSIC), Root-MUSIC, and estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique algorithms. As is well known, these algorithms are mainly based on the specific properties of the signal covariance matrix as well as the decomposition of the observation space into two subspaces, one for the signal and the other for the noise. Here, we are particularly interested in the quality of sources localization considering only the case of uncorrelated radio frequency signals impinging on an antenna array. A measurement system consisting of a linear array antenna and a five-port network applicable to a demodulator such as a receiver is used for the DOA estimation process. Co-simulations performed with the Advanced Device System and Matlab yielded interesting results not only on their performance but also on their limitation.
In this paper, the analysis and simulation of a novel geometrical structure of the frequency selective surface (FSS), which has been achieved through the conductive loading of the simple circular ring with wedge-shaped metal vanes has been discussed. The electrical performance and behavior of the proposed structure have been studied in Ku band (12–18 GHz) of the electromagnetic spectrum for satellite communication. We have radially optimized the proposed structure to enhance the performance, such as reflection and transmission bandwidth. We have also discussed the effect of incident electric field at 0°, 10°, 30°, and 50° on the electrical performance of the proposed FSS. In addition to this, the effect of angular sensitivity on the proposed structure through increasing the number of conductive loaded wedge-shaped metal vanes is also explored. However, the structural parameters of the proposed FSS have been obtained through the synthesis technique. The analytical results obtained from the synthesis technique have been supported by the simulation results achieved through CST Microwave Studio as well as Ansoft high frequency structural simulator (HFSS), which are commercially available simulators based on the finite integral and finite-element technique, respectively. Furthermore, for validation of the numerical results, the Ansoft circuit simulator which is based on mixed potential integral equations (MPIE) and solved by the method-of-moment has also been used to obtain the reflection and transmission parameters through the values of inductance and capacitance, which have been achieved by the numerical analysis.