We report the results of a 2-year, 7-center program of surveillance of deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after cardiac surgery. DSWI was defined as the need for reoperation. Stratification data were abstracted from computerized files. The incidence of DSWI was 2.2% (198 of 8,816 cardiac surgery procedures). The risk factors identified were obesity, age, coronary artery bypass grafting, postoperative mechanical ventilation, and early surgical reexploration. The resource efficiency of this simplified surveillance method is discussed.