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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 24 February 2017
I wandered into the history of universities through a side door. I went to graduate school to study intellectual history. In my second year, I decided to write a seminar paper on changing ideas about the nature of religion but wanted to avoid the abstractness of traditional history of ideas. Looking for some more “concrete” way of documenting change in ideas than the analysis of individual thinkers allowed, I decided somewhat arbitrarily to “ground” my study in the history of universities. I do not recall even thinking about universities as related to the production of knowledge but rather viewed them as a convenient social institution in which one could find changing practices of religion.
1 Geiger, Roger L. To Advance Knowledge: The Growth of American Research Universities, 1900–1940, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986); Barrow, Clyde W. Universities and the Capitalist State: Corporate Liberalism and the Reconstruction of American Higher Education, 1894–1928, (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990).
2 Reuben, Julie A. The Making of the Modern University: Intellectual Transformation and the Marginalization of Morality, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).
3 Solomon, Barbara Miller In the Company of Educated Women: A History of Women and Higher Education in America, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985); Horowitz, Helen Lefkowitz. Alma Mater: Design and Experience in the Women's Colleges from Their Nineteenth-Century Beginnings to the 1930s, (New York: Knopf, 1984); Gordon, Lynn D. Gender and Higher Education in the Progressive Era, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990).
4 Leslie, W. Bruce Gentlemen and Scholars: College and Community in the “Age of the University,” 1865–1917, (College Park, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992); Tobias, Marilyn Old Dartmouth on Trial: The Transformation of the Academic Community in Nineteenth-Century America, (New York: New York University Press, 1982).
5 Gleason, Philip Contending with Modernity: Catholic Higher Education in the Twentieth Century, (New York: 1995); Mahoney, Kathleen Catholic Higher Education in Protestant America: The Jesuits and Harvard in the Age of the University, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003).
6 Some examples are: Wechsler, Harold The Qualified Student: A History of Selective College Admission in America, (New York: Wiley, 1977); Synnott, Marcia G. The Half-Opened Door: Discrimination and Admissions at Harvard Yale and Princeton, 1900–1970, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979); Anderson, James D. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988); Kimball, Bruce A. The “True Professional Ideal” in America: A History (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992); LaPiana, William P. Logic and Experience: The Origin of Modern American Legal Education, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994): Ludmerer, Kenneth M. Learning to Heal: The Development of American Medical Education,  (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).
7 Research on the history of academics disciplines is too voluminous to begin to list here. For an early influential set of essays, see The Organization of Knowledge in Modern America, 1860–1920, eds. Oleson, Alexandra and Voss, John, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979).
8 For examples of this work, Geiger, Roger ed., The American College in the Nineteenth Century, (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2000) and Burke, Colin Bradley American Collegiate Populations: A Test of the Traditional View, (New York: New York University Press, 1982); Stevenson, Louise L. Scholarly Means to Evangelical Ends: The New Haven Scholars and the Transformation of Higher Learning in America, 1830–1890, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986).
9 Synder, Thomas D. ed. 120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait, (Washington, DC: 1993); U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics, Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac, 2003–4.
10 Levine, David The American College and the Culture of Aspiration, 1915–1940, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986); Brint, Steven and Karabel, Jerome, The Diverted Dream: Community Colleges and the Promise of Educational Opportunity in America, 1900–1985, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989); Freeland, Richard M. Academia's Golden Age: Universities in Massachusetts, 1945–1970, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
11 Veysey, Laurence “Stability and Experiment in the American Undergraduate Curriculum“ in Content and Context, Kaysen, Carl ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, 1973), pp. 1–63; Boxer, Marilyn When Women Ask the Questions: Creating Women's Studies in America, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998); Howe, Florence ed., The Politics of Women's Studies: The Testimonies of Thirty Founding Mothers, (New York: Feminist Press, 2000); Messer-Davidow, Ellen Disciplining Feminism: From Social Activism to Academic Discourse, (Durham: Duke University Press 2002); Marable, Manning ed., Dispatches from the Ebony Tower: Intellectuals Confront the African American Experience, (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); Reuben, Julie A. “Reforming the University: Student Protests and the Demand for a ‘Relevant’ Curriculum,” in Student Protest: The Sixties and After, ed. DeGroot, Gerard J. (London: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998), pp. 153–68.Google Scholar
12 Lowen, Rebecca S. Creating the Cold War University: The Transformation of Stanford, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997); Leslie, Stuart W. The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993); Bok, Derek Universities in the Marketplace: the Commercialization of Higher Education, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003); Slaughter, Sheila and Rhoads, Gary, Academic Capitalism and the New Economy, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004); Newfeld, Christopher Ivy and Industry: Business and the Making of the American University, (Durham: Duke University Press, 2003).
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