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Dissolution of mineral x by nitric acid solutions at different pH

Title in upper and lower case with caps for significant words only

K. Murphy1, G. Christidis2 and R. Smith1,*

Author names with forenames or initials, separated by commas. Addresses indicated by superscripted number.

1 Mineralogical Society, 8-12 Baylis Mews, Amyand Park Road, Twickenham TW1 3HQ, UK

2 Technical University of Crete, School of Mineral Resources Engineering Chania, 73100 Greece

3 Mineralogical Society, 8-12 Baylis Mews, Amyand Park Road, Twickenham TW1 3HQ, UK

Addresses in italic, numbers used to match affiliations above

[Received: xx  xxxx 2015; revised: xx xxxx 2016; Associate Editor: D. Bish]

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Running head: Dissolution of the mineral x structure

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ABSTRACT: The dissolution of mineral x was investigated with the aim of revealing the effect of pH on its structure. Mineral x becomes more soluble at lower pH, with the octahedral, brucite sheet more readily dissolved than the tetrahedral sheet. The dissolution of the brucite sheet increases the pH of the solvent, because of the release of OH groups along with the Mg2+ ions. At pH 2.00, the characteristic cylindrical fibre bundle structure of mineral x is retained after dissolution, although the outside surface of each fiber becomes rough. Mineral x remains fibrous upon dissolution at pH 1.08, but the fibers are no longer crystalline and their cylindrical structure collapses. The nitric acid treatments result in an increase in both the specific surface area and the pore volume of mineral x.

The first sentence or two of the abstract should state the problem being addressed and your objective. In addition, it must include, in condensed form, a statement of the essential ideas and results to follow. You should note the materials and methods used, key observations, and list the main conclusions. The abstract should be no more than 350 words long.

Keywords: mineral x, dissolution, layer silicate, pH.

Keywords: Add 6–8 keywords, separated by commas, with a full stop at the end.

Main text

Mineral X is a naturally occurring fibrous hydrated magnesium layer silicate mineral. It forms as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of magnesium silicates, especially olivine, pyroxene, and amphibole. Mineral x, the idealized chemical formula of which is Mg3Si2O5(OH)4, consists of octahedral sheets of magnesium hydroxide (brucite) covalently

Citations should be in the form: “Murphy (2015)” or “(Murphy, 2015)” or “Murphy & Smith (2016)” or “(Murphy & Smith, 2016)” or “Murphy et al. (2017)” or “(Murphy et al., 2017)”.


Please use mineral abbreviations and associated symbols that are consistent with the recommendations and listing of Warr (2020). Mixed-layered clay minerals should be listed using a hyphen to separate the phase components e.g. Illite-smectite is symbolized as Ilt-Sme.


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Anbalagan G., Sivakumar G., Prabakaran S. & Gunasekaran S. (2010) Spectroscopic characterization of natural mineral x. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 52, 122–127.

This is a typical reference to a paper from a journal. Note that commas are not used after surnames, "&" is used rather than “and”, the journal title is given in italic, followed by a comma, followed by the volume number in bold, followed by a page range with a long hyphen (n-rule) in the middle.

Belver C., Bañares Muñoz A.B. & Vicente M.A. (2002) Chemical activation of a kaolinite under acid and alkaline conditions. Chemistry of Materials, 14, 2033–2043.

Brindley G.W. & Brown G., editors (1980) Crystal Structure of Clay Minerals and their X-ray Identification. Mineralogical Society, London, UK, 504 pp.

This is a typical reference to a book. Note that commas are not used after surnames, "&" is used rather than “and”. The book title is given in italics with sentence case for all words. The  number of pages is given after the publisher details (name, city, country).

Mering J. & Oberlin A. (1977) The smectites. Pp. 193–229 in: The Electron Optical Investigation of Clays (J.A. Gard, editor). Mineralogical Society, London.

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Whittle C.K. (1985) Analytical transmission electron microscopy of authigenic chlorites. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield, UK.

Theses and restricted-access reports may be cited but full details are necessary. Title in italic, type of document, location (institution, city, country)

Order of References

First, papers by single author in chronological order

Then papers by that author with a single co-author, in alphabetical order of the co-author.

Then papers by that author with two or more co-authors in chronological order.

Churchman G.J. (1970) Interlayer water in halloysite. Unpublished PhD thesis lodged in the Library, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Churchman G.J. (1990) Relevance of different intercalation tests for distinguishing halloysite from kaolinite in soils. Clays and Clay Minerals, 38, 591–599.

Churchman G.J. (2000) The alteration and formation of soil minerals by weathering. Pp. F3–F76 in: Handbook of Soil Science (M.E. Sumner, editor). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Churchman G. J. (2009) Halloysite: are we there yet? Book of Abstracts, XIV International Clay Conference, Italy, 2009, 1, 340.

Churchman G.J. (2015) The identification and nomenclature of halloysite (a historical perspective). Pp. 51–67 in: Natural Mineral Nanotubes (P. Pasbakhsh & G.J. Churchman, editors). Apple Academic Press, Oakville, Canada.

Churchman G.J. & Carr R.M. (1975) The definition and nomenclature of halloysites.  Clays and Clay Minerals, 23, 382–388.

Churchman G.J. & Gilkes R.J. (1989) Recognition of intermediates in the possible transformation of halloysite to kaolinite. Clay Minerals, 24, 579–590.

Churchman G.J. & Lowe, D.J. 2012. Alteration, formation and occurrence of minerals in soils. Pp. 20.1–20.72 in: Handbook of Soil Sciences. Properties and Processes, 2nd edition (P.M. Huang, Y. Li & M.E. Sumner, editors). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Churchman G.J. & Lowe D.J. (2014) Clay minerals in South Australian Holocene basaltic volcanogenic soils and implications for halloysite genesis and structure. Pp. 3–6 in: Proceedings of the 23rd Biennial Australian Clay Minerals Society Conference, University of Western Australia, Perth (R. Gilkes, editor).

Churchman G.J. & Pasbakhsh P. (2015) Current trends in research and application of natural mineral nanotubes. Pp. 481–488 in: Natural Mineral Nanotubes (P. Pasbakhsh & G.J. Churchman, editors). Apple Academic Press, Oakville, Canada.

Churchman G.J. & Theng B.K.G. (1984) Interactions of halloysites with amides: mineralogical factors affecting complex formation. Clay Minerals, 19, 161–175.

Churchman G.J., Whitton J.S., Claridge G.G.C. & Theng B.K.G. (1984) Intercalation method using formamide for differentiating halloysite from kaolinite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 32, 241–248.

Churchman G.J., Davy T.J., Aylmore L.A.G., Gilkes R.J. & Self P.G. (1995) Characteristics of fine pores in some halloysites. Clay Minerals, 30, 89–98.

Churchman G.J., Pontifex I.R. & McClure S.G. (2010) Factors affecting the formation and characteristics of halloysites or kaolinites in granitic and tuffaceous saprolites in Hong Kong. Clays and Clay Minerals, 58, 220–237.


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TABLE 1. Solution pH values before and after the dissolution experiments.

TABLE spelt with small caps for “able”.

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FIG. 1. Extent of dissolution of Mg and Si from raw mineral x as a function of the initial pH.

FIG spelt with small caps for “ig”.

In the text refer to figures as “Fig. 1", or "Figure 1" if at the start of a sentence. Do not abbreviate the word Table. Use uppercase F and T, respectively.

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