The term radiosurgery has been used to describe a variety of radiotherapy techniques which deliver high doses of radiation to small, stereotactically defined intracranial targets in such a way that the dose fall-off outside the targeted volume is very sharp. Proton, charged particle, gamma unit, and linear accelerator-based techniques appear to be equivalent from the standpoint of accuracy, dose distributions, and clinical results. However, capital and operating costs associated with the use of linear accelerators in general clinical use are much lower. Radiosurgery has an established role in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and acoustic neurinomas. Interest in these techniques is increasing in neurosurgical and radiation oncological communities, as radiosurgery is rapidly assuming a place in the management of several other conditions, including craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, and selected malignant lesions.