This systematic review described the criteria and main evaluations methods procedures used to classify neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) patients. Also, within the evaluations methods, this review aimed to identify the main contributions of neuropsychological measurements in neuroimaging studies. A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases with the terms related to neuropsychiatric syndromes, systemic lupus erythematosus, and neuroimaging techniques. Sixty-six abstracts were found; only 20 were completely analyzed and included. Results indicated that the 1999 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria is the most used to classify NPSLE samples together with laboratorial, cognitive, neurological and psychiatric assessment procedures. However, the recommended ACR assessment procedures to classify NPSLE patients are being used incompletely, especially the neuropsychological batteries. Neuropsychological instruments and neuroimaging techniques have been used mostly to characterize NPSLE samples, instead of contributing to their classifications. The most described syndromes in neuroimaging studies have been seizure/cerebrovascular disease followed by cognitive dysfunctions as well as headache disorder.