Imaging of central-nervous-system (CNS) abnormalities is important in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MCDs) since the CNS is the organ second most frequently affected in MCDs and some of them are potentially treatable. Clinically relevant imaging techniques for visualization of CNS abnormalities in MCDs are computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and MR-spectroscopy. The CNS abnormalities in MCDs visualized by imaging techniques include stroke-like lesions with cytotoxic or vasogenic edema, laminar cortical necrosis, basal ganglia necrosis, focal or diffuse white matter lesions, focal or diffuse atrophy, intra-cerebral calcifications, cysts, lacunas, hypometabolisation, lactacidosis, hemorrhages, cerebral hypo- or hyperperfusion, intra-cerebral artery stenoses, or moyamoya syndrome. The CNS lesions may proceed with or without clinical manifestations, why neuroimaging should be routinely carried out in all MCDs to assess the degree of CNS involvement. Some of these lesions may remain unchanged for years, some may show contiguous spread and progression, but some may even disappear, spontaneously or in response to medication. Dynamics of Stroke-like lesions may be positively influenced by L-arginine, dichloracetate, steroids, edavarone, or antiepileptics. Symptomatic treatment of CNS abnormalities in MCD patients may positively influence their outcome.