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We extend spectral graph theory from the integral circulant graphs with prime power order to a Cayley graph over a finite chain ring and determine the spectrum and energy of such graphs. Moreover, we apply the results to obtain the energy of some gcd-graphs on a quotient ring of a unique factorisation domain.
modulo a prime $p$, with variables $1\leq x_{i}\leq h$, $i=1,\ldots ,{\it\nu}$ and arbitrary integers $s_{j},{\it\lambda}_{j}$, $j=1,\ldots ,m$, for a parameter $h$ significantly smaller than $p$. We also mention some applications of this bound.
In this note, we prove that for any ${\it\nu}>0$, there is no lacunary entire function $f(z)\in \mathbb{Q}[[z]]$ such that $f(\mathbb{Q})\subseteq \mathbb{Q}$ and $\text{den}f(p/q)\ll q^{{\it\nu}}$, for all sufficiently large $q$.
We study transcendence properties of certain infinite products of cyclotomic polynomials. In particular, we determine all cases in which the product is hypertranscendental. We then use various results from Mahler’s transcendence method to obtain algebraic independence results on such functions and their values.
We generalise a result of Hilbert which asserts that the Riemann zeta-function ${\it\zeta}(s)$ is hypertranscendental over $\mathbb{C}(s)$. Let ${\it\pi}$ be any irreducible cuspidal automorphic representation of $\text{GL}_{m}(\mathbb{A}_{\mathbb{Q}})$ with unitary central character. We establish a certain type of functional difference–differential independence for the associated $L$-function $L(s,{\it\pi})$. This result implies algebraic difference–differential independence of $L(s,{\it\pi})$ over $\mathbb{C}(s)$ (and more strongly, over a certain field ${\mathcal{F}}_{s}$ which contains $\mathbb{C}(s)$). In particular, $L(s,{\it\pi})$ is hypertranscendental over $\mathbb{C}(s)$. We also extend a result of Ostrowski on the hypertranscendence of ordinary Dirichlet series.
Let $b_{3,5}(n)$ denote the number of partitions of $n$ into parts that are not multiples of 3 or 5. We establish several infinite families of congruences modulo 2 for $b_{3,5}(n)$. In the process, we also prove numerous parity results for broken 7-diamond partitions.
Let $b_{\ell }(n)$ denote the number of $\ell$-regular partitions of $n$. In this paper we establish a formula for $b_{13}(3n+1)$ modulo $3$ and use this to find exact criteria for the $3$-divisibility of $b_{13}(3n+1)$ and $b_{13}(3n)$. We also give analogous criteria for $b_{7}(3n)$ and $b_{7}(3n+2)$.
We characterise number fields without a unit primitive element, and we exhibit some families of such fields with low degree. Also, we prove that a noncyclotomic totally complex number field $K$, with degree $2d$ where $d$ is odd, and having a unit primitive element, can be generated by a reciprocal integer if and only if $K$ is not CM and the Galois group of the normal closure of $K$ is contained in the hyperoctahedral group $B_{d}$.
Let $R$ be a commutative Gorenstein ring. A result of Araya reduces the Auslander–Reiten conjecture on the vanishing of self-extensions to the case where $R$ has Krull dimension at most one. In this paper we extend Araya’s result to certain $R$-algebras. As a consequence of our argument, we obtain examples of bound quiver algebras that satisfy the Auslander–Reiten conjecture.
Zhou and Feng [‘On symmetric graphs of valency five’, Discrete Math.310 (2010), 1725–1732] proved that all connected pentavalent 1-transitive Cayley graphs of finite nonabelian simple groups are normal. We construct an example of a nonnormal 2-arc transitive pentavalent symmetric Cayley graph on the alternating group $\text{A}_{39}$. Furthermore, we show that the full automorphism group of this graph is isomorphic to the alternating group $\text{A}_{40}$.
Let $G$ be a finite group. We denote by ${\it\nu}(G)$ the probability that two randomly chosen elements of $G$ generate a nilpotent subgroup and by $\text{Nil}_{G}(x)$ the set of elements $y\in G$ such that $\langle x,y\rangle$ is a nilpotent subgroup. A group $G$ is called an ${\mathcal{N}}$-group if $\text{Nil}_{G}(x)$ is a subgroup of $G$ for all $x\in G$. We prove that if $G$ is an ${\mathcal{N}}$-group with ${\it\nu}(G)>\frac{1}{12}$, then $G$ is soluble. Also, we classify semisimple ${\mathcal{N}}$-groups with ${\it\nu}(G)=\frac{1}{12}$.
We give a sufficient condition under which a semigroup is nonfinitely based. As an application, we show that a certain variety is nonfinitely based, and we indicate the additional analysis (to be presented in a forthcoming paper), which shows that this example is a new limit variety of aperiodic monoids.
Let $G$ be a compact group. The aim of this note is to show that the only continuous *-homomorphism from $L^{1}(G)$ to $\ell ^{\infty }\text{-}\bigoplus _{[{\it\pi}]\in {\hat{G}}}{\mathcal{B}}_{2}({\mathcal{H}}_{{\it\pi}})$ that transforms a convolution product into a pointwise product is, essentially, a Fourier transform. A similar result is also deduced for maps from $L^{2}(G)$ to $\ell ^{2}\text{-}\bigoplus _{[{\it\pi}]\in {\hat{G}}}{\mathcal{B}}_{2}({\mathcal{H}}_{{\it\pi}})$.
In this article, we study the Mazur–Ulam property of the sum of two strictly convex Banach spaces. We give an equivalent form of the isometric extension problem and two equivalent conditions to decide whether all strictly convex Banach spaces admit the Mazur–Ulam property. We also find necessary and sufficient conditions under which the $\ell ^{1}$-sum and the $\ell ^{\infty }$-sum of two strictly convex Banach spaces admit the Mazur–Ulam property.
Let $X,Y$ be two Banach spaces and $B_{X}$ the closed unit ball of $X$. We prove that if there is an isometry $f:B_{X}\rightarrow Y$ with $f(0)=0$, then there exists an isometry $F:X\rightarrow Y^{\ast \ast }$. If, in addition, $Y$ is weakly nearly strictly convex, then there is an isometry $F:X\rightarrow Y$. Making use of these results, we show that if $Y$ is weakly nearly strictly convex and there is an isometry $f:B_{X}\rightarrow Y$ with $f(0)=0$, then there exists a linear isometry $S:X\rightarrow Y$.
We define a class of nonlinear mappings which is properly larger than the class of nonexpansive mappings. We also give a fixed point theorem for this new class of mappings.
is true for any vectors $x,y$ and a projection $P:H\rightarrow H$. Applications to norm and numerical radius inequalities of two bounded operators are given.