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We consider the problem of group testing (pooled testing), first introduced by Dorfman. For nonadaptive testing strategies, we refer to a nondefective item as “intruding” if it only appears in positive tests. Such items cause misclassification errors in the well-known COMP algorithm and can make other algorithms produce an error. It is therefore of interest to understand the distribution of the number of intruding items. We show that, under Bernoulli matrix designs, this distribution is well approximated in a variety of senses by a negative binomial distribution, allowing us to understand the performance of the two-stage conservative group testing algorithm of Aldridge.
This article derives quantitative limit theorems for multivariate Poisson and Poisson process approximations. Employing the solution of the Stein equation for Poisson random variables, we obtain an explicit bound for the multivariate Poisson approximation of random vectors in the Wasserstein distance. The bound is then utilized in the context of point processes to provide a Poisson process approximation result in terms of a new metric called
, stronger than the total variation distance, defined as the supremum over all Wasserstein distances between random vectors obtained by evaluating the point processes on arbitrary collections of disjoint sets. As applications, the multivariate Poisson approximation of the sum of m-dependent Bernoulli random vectors, the Poisson process approximation of point processes of U-statistic structure, and the Poisson process approximation of point processes with Papangelou intensity are considered. Our bounds in
are as good as those already available in the literature.
It is well known that each statistic in the family of power divergence statistics, across n trials and r classifications with index parameter
(the Pearson, likelihood ratio, and Freeman–Tukey statistics correspond to
, respectively), is asymptotically chi-square distributed as the sample size tends to infinity. We obtain explicit bounds on this distributional approximation, measured using smooth test functions, that hold for a given finite sample n, and all index parameters (
) for which such finite-sample bounds are meaningful. We obtain bounds that are of the optimal order
. The dependence of our bounds on the index parameter
and the cell classification probabilities is also optimal, and the dependence on the number of cells is also respectable. Our bounds generalise, complement, and improve on recent results from the literature.
We make the first steps towards generalising the theory of stochastic block models, in the sparse regime, towards a model where the discrete community structure is replaced by an underlying geometry. We consider a geometric random graph over a homogeneous metric space where the probability of two vertices to be connected is an arbitrary function of the distance. We give sufficient conditions under which the locations can be recovered (up to an isomorphism of the space) in the sparse regime. Moreover, we define a geometric counterpart of the model of flow of information on trees, due to Mossel and Peres, in which one considers a branching random walk on a sphere and the goal is to recover the location of the root based on the locations of leaves. We give some sufficient conditions for percolation and for non-percolation of information in this model.
This paper concentrates on the fundamental concepts of entropy, information and divergence to the case where the distribution function and the respective survival function play the central role in their definition. The main aim is to provide an overview of these three categories of measures of information and their cumulative and survival counterparts. It also aims to introduce and discuss Csiszár's type cumulative and survival divergences and the analogous Fisher's type information on the basis of cumulative and survival functions.
A method for the construction of Stein-type covariance identities for a nonnegative continuous random variable is proposed, using a probabilistic analogue of the mean value theorem and weighted distributions. A generalized covariance identity is obtained, and applications focused on actuarial and financial science are provided. Some characterization results for gamma and Pareto distributions are also given. Identities for risk measures which have a covariance representation are obtained; these measures are connected with the Bonferroni, De Vergottini, Gini, and Wang indices. Moreover, under some assumptions, an identity for the variance of a function of a random variable is derived, and its performance is discussed with respect to well-known upper and lower bounds.
We derive the large-sample distribution of the number of species in a version of Kingman’s Poisson–Dirichlet model constructed from an
-stable subordinator but with an underlying negative binomial process instead of a Poisson process. Thus it depends on parameters
from the subordinator and
from the negative binomial process. The large-sample distribution of the number of species is derived as sample size
. An important component in the derivation is the introduction of a two-parameter version of the Dickman distribution, generalising the existing one-parameter version. Our analysis adds to the range of Poisson–Dirichlet-related distributions available for modeling purposes.
There are two types of tempered stable (TS) based Ornstein–Uhlenbeck (OU) processes: (i) the OU-TS process, the OU process driven by a TS subordinator, and (ii) the TS-OU process, the OU process with TS marginal law. They have various applications in financial engineering and econometrics. In the literature, only the second type under the stationary assumption has an exact simulation algorithm. In this paper we develop a unified approach to exactly simulate both types without the stationary assumption. It is mainly based on the distributional decomposition of stochastic processes with the aid of an acceptance–rejection scheme. As the inverse Gaussian distribution is an important special case of TS distribution, we also provide tailored algorithms for the corresponding OU processes. Numerical experiments and tests are reported to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our algorithms, and some further extensions are also discussed.
Explicit bounds are given for the Kolmogorov and Wasserstein distances between a mixture of normal distributions, by which we mean that the conditional distribution given some
-algebra is normal, and a normal distribution with properly chosen parameter values. The bounds depend only on the first two moments of the first two conditional moments given the
-algebra. The proof is based on Stein’s method. As an application, we consider the Yule–Ornstein–Uhlenbeck model, used in the field of phylogenetic comparative methods. We obtain bounds for both distances between the distribution of the average value of a phenotypic trait over n related species, and a normal distribution. The bounds imply and extend earlier limit theorems by Bartoszek and Sagitov.
In this paper, we show that the numbers of t-stack sortable n-permutations with k − 1 descents satisfy central and local limit theorems for t = 1, 2, n − 1 and n − 2. This result, in particular, gives an affirmative answer to Shapiro's question about the asymptotic normality of the Narayana numbers.
For independent exponentially distributed random variables
, with distinct rates
we consider sums
which follow generalized exponential mixture distributions. We provide novel explicit results on the conditional distribution of the total sum
given that a subset sum
exceeds a certain threshold value
, and vice versa. Moreover, we investigate the characteristic tail behavior of these conditional distributions for
. Finally, we illustrate how our probabilistic results can be applied in practice by providing examples from both reliability theory and risk management.
We introduce a unified framework for solving first passage times of time-homogeneous diffusion processes. Using potential theory and perturbation theory, we are able to deduce closed-form truncated probability densities, as asymptotics or approximations to the original first passage time densities, for single-side level crossing problems. The framework is applicable to diffusion processes with continuous drift functions; in particular, for bounded drift functions, we show that the perturbation series converges. In the present paper, we demonstrate examples of applying our framework to the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck, Bessel, exponential-Shiryaev, and hypergeometric diffusion processes (the latter two being previously studied by Dassios and Li (2018) and Borodin (2009), respectively). The purpose of this paper is to provide a fast and accurate approach to estimating first passage time densities of various diffusion processes.
In this paper, we introduce a new large family of Lévy-driven point processes with (and without) contagion, by generalising the classical self-exciting Hawkes process and doubly stochastic Poisson processes with non-Gaussian Lévy-driven Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-type intensities. The resulting framework may possess many desirable features such as skewness, leptokurtosis, mean-reverting dynamics, and more importantly, the ‘contagion’ or feedback effects, which could be very useful for modelling event arrivals in finance, economics, insurance, and many other fields. We characterise the distributional properties of this new class of point processes and develop an efficient sampling method for generating sample paths exactly. Our simulation scheme is mainly based on the distributional decomposition of the point process and its intensity process. Extensive numerical implementations and tests are reported to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our scheme. Moreover, we use portfolio risk management as an example to show the applicability and flexibility of our algorithms.
We establish that a random sum of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random quantities has a log-concave cumulative distribution function (cdf) if (i) the random number of terms in the sum has a log-concave probability mass function (pmf) and (ii) the distribution of the i.i.d. terms has a non-increasing density function (when continuous) or a non-increasing pmf (when discrete). We illustrate the usefulness of this result using a standard actuarial risk model and a replacement model.
We apply this fundamental result to establish that a compound renewal process observed during a random time interval has a log-concave cdf if the observation time interval and the inter-renewal time distribution have log-concave densities, while the compounding distribution has a decreasing density or pmf. We use this second result to establish the optimality of a so-called (s,S) policy for various inventory models with a stock-out cost coefficient of dimension [$/unit], significantly generalizing the conditions for the demand and leadtime processes, in conjunction with the cost structure in these models. We also identify the implications of our results for various algorithmic approaches to compute optimal policy parameters.
A family of generalized ageing intensity functions of univariate absolutely continuous lifetime random variables is introduced and studied. They allow the analysis and measurement of the ageing tendency from various points of view. Some of these generalized ageing intensities characterize families of distributions dependent on a single parameter, while others determine distributions uniquely. In particular, it is shown that the elasticity functions of various transformations of distributions that appear in lifetime analysis and reliability theory uniquely characterize the parent distribution. Moreover, the recognition of the shape of a properly chosen generalized ageing intensity estimate admits a simple identification of the data lifetime distribution.
The steepest increase property of phase-type (PH) distributions was first proposed in O’Cinneide (1999) and proved in O’Cinneide (1999) and Yao (2002), but since then has received little attention in the research community. In this work we demonstrate that the steepest increase property can be applied for proving previously unknown moment bounds of PH distributions with infinite or finite support. Of special interest are moment bounds free of specific PH representations except the size of the representation. For PH distributions with infinite support, it is shown that such a PH distribution is stochastically smaller than or equal to an Erlang distribution of the same size. For PH distributions with finite support, a class of distributions which was introduced and investigated in Ramaswami and Viswanath (2014), it is shown that the squared coefficient of variation of a PH distribution with finite support is greater than or equal to 1/(m(m + 2)), where m is the size of its PH representation.
We study the Cramér type moderate deviation for partial sums of random fields by applying the conjugate method. The results are applicable to the partial sums of linear random fields with short or long memory and to nonparametric regression with random field errors.
As an extension of a central limit theorem established by Svante Janson, we prove a Berry–Esseen inequality for a sum of independent and identically distributed random variables conditioned by a sum of independent and identically distributed integer-valued random variables.
The study of finite approximations of probability measures has a long history. In Xu and Berger (2017), the authors focused on constrained finite approximations and, in particular, uniform ones in dimension d=1. In the present paper we give an elementary construction of a uniform decomposition of probability measures in dimension d≥1. We then use this decomposition to obtain upper bounds on the rate of convergence of the optimal uniform approximation error. These bounds appear to be the generalization of the ones obtained by Xu and Berger (2017) and to be sharp for generic probability measures.