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Let $S \subset \mathbb {R}^{n}$ be a smooth compact hypersurface with a strictly positive second fundamental form, $E$ be the Fourier extension operator on $S$, and $X$ be a Lebesgue measurable subset of $\mathbb {R}^{n}$. If $X$ contains a ball of each radius, then the problem of determining the range of exponents $(p,q)$ for which the estimate $\| Ef \|_{L^{q}(X)} \lesssim \| f \|_{L^{p}(S)}$ holds is equivalent to the restriction conjecture. In this paper, we study the estimate under the following assumption on the set $X$: there is a number $0 < \alpha \leq n$ such that $|X \cap B_R| \lesssim R^{\alpha }$ for all balls $B_R$ in $\mathbb {R}^{n}$ of radius $R \geq 1$. On the left-hand side of this estimate, we are integrating the function $|Ef(x)|^{q}$ against the measure $\chi _X \,{\textrm {d}}x$. Our approach consists of replacing the characteristic function $\chi _X$ of $X$ by an appropriate weight function $H$, and studying the resulting estimate in three different regimes: small values of $\alpha$, intermediate values of $\alpha$, and large values of $\alpha$. In the first regime, we establish the estimate by using already available methods. In the second regime, we prove a weighted Hölder-type inequality that holds for general non-negative Lebesgue measurable functions on $\mathbb {R}^{n}$ and combine it with the result from the first regime. In the third regime, we borrow a recent fractal Fourier restriction theorem of Du and Zhang and combine it with the result from the second regime. In the opposite direction, the results of this paper improve on the Du–Zhang theorem in the range $0 < \alpha < n/2$.
Let
$g_0$ be a smooth pinched negatively curved Riemannian metric on a complete surface N, and let
$\Lambda _0$ be a basic hyperbolic set of the geodesic flow of
$g_0$ with Hausdorff dimension strictly smaller than two. Given a small smooth perturbation g of
$g_0$ and a smooth real-valued function f on the unit tangent bundle to N with respect to g, let
$L_{g,\Lambda ,f}$ (respectively
$M_{g,\Lambda ,f}$) be the Lagrange (respectively Markov) spectrum of asymptotic highest (respectively highest) values of f along the geodesics in the hyperbolic continuation
$\Lambda $ of
$\Lambda _0$. We prove that for generic choices of g and f, the Hausdorff dimensions of the sets
$L_{g,\Lambda , f}\cap (-\infty , t)$ vary continuously with
$t\in \mathbb {R}$ and, moreover,
$M_{g,\Lambda , f}\cap (-\infty , t)$ has the same Hausdorff dimension as
$L_{g,\Lambda , f}\cap (-\infty , t)$ for all
$t\in \mathbb {R}$.
We prove a number of results concerning the Hausdorff and packing dimension of sets of points which escape (at least in average) to infinity at a given rate under non-autonomous iteration of exponential maps. In particular, we generalize the results proved by Sixsmith in 2016 and answer his question on annular itineraries for exponential maps.
We prove that sets with positive upper Banach density in sufficiently large dimensions contain congruent copies of all sufficiently large dilates of three specific higher-dimensional patterns. These patterns are: 2n vertices of a fixed n-dimensional rectangular box, the same vertices extended with n points completing three-term arithmetic progressions, and the same vertices extended with n points completing three-point corners. Our results provide common generalizations of several Euclidean density theorems from the literature.
We investigate, both analytically and numerically, dispersive fractalisation and quantisation of solutions to periodic linear and nonlinear Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou systems. When subject to periodic boundary conditions and discontinuous initial conditions, e.g., a step function, both the linearised and nonlinear continuum models for FPUT exhibit fractal solution profiles at irrational times (as determined by the coefficients and the length of the interval) and quantised profiles (piecewise constant or perturbations thereof) at rational times. We observe a similar effect in the linearised FPUT chain at times t where these models have validity, namely t = O(h−2), where h is proportional to the intermass spacing or, equivalently, the reciprocal of the number of masses. For nonlinear periodic FPUT systems, our numerical results suggest a somewhat similar behaviour in the presence of small nonlinearities, which disappears as the nonlinear force increases in magnitude. However, these phenomena are manifested on very long time intervals, posing a severe challenge for numerical integration as the number of masses increases. Even with the high-order splitting methods used here, our numerical investigations are limited to nonlinear FPUT chains with a smaller number of masses than would be needed to resolve this question unambiguously.
We show that there is a Borel graph on a standard Borel space of Borel chromatic number three that admits a Borel homomorphism to every analytic graph on a standard Borel space of Borel chromatic number at least three. Moreover, we characterize the Borel graphs on standard Borel spaces of vertex-degree at most two with this property and show that the analogous result for digraphs fails.
Let
$(X,T)$
be a topological dynamical system consisting of a compact metric space X and a continuous surjective map
$T : X \to X$
. By using local entropy theory, we prove that
$(X,T)$
has uniformly positive entropy if and only if so does the induced system
$({\mathcal {M}}(X),\widetilde {T})$
on the space of Borel probability measures endowed with the weak* topology. This result can be seen as a version for the notion of uniformly positive entropy of the corresponding result for topological entropy due to Glasner and Weiss.
This paper considers self-conformal iterated function systems (IFSs) on the real line whose first level cylinders overlap. In the space of self-conformal IFSs, we show that generically (in topological sense) if the attractor of such a system has Hausdorff dimension less than 1 then it has zero appropriate dimensional Hausdorff measure and its Assouad dimension is equal to 1. Our main contribution is in showing that if the cylinders intersect then the IFS generically does not satisfy the weak separation property and hence, we may apply a recent result of Angelevska, Käenmäki and Troscheit. This phenomenon holds for transversal families (in particular for the translation family) typically, in the self-similar case, in both topological and in measure theoretical sense, and in the more general self-conformal case in the topological sense.
It is known that if $S(z)$ is a non-constant singular inner function defined on the unit disk, then $\min _{|z|\le r}|S(z)|\to 0$ as $r\to 1^-$. We show that the convergence can be arbitrarily slow.
Fractal percolation exhibits a dramatic topological phase transition, changing abruptly from a dust-like set to a system-spanning cluster. The transition points are unknown and difficult to estimate. In many classical percolation models the percolation thresholds have been approximated well using additive geometric functionals, known as intrinsic volumes. Motivated by the question of whether a similar approach is possible for fractal models, we introduce corresponding geometric functionals for the fractal percolation process F. They arise as limits of expected functionals of finite approximations of F. We establish the existence of these limit functionals and obtain explicit formulas for them as well as for their finite approximations.
We prove a Lusin type theorem for a certain class of linear partial differential operators G(D), reducing to [1, Theorem 1] when G(D) is the gradient. Moreover, we describe the structure of the set {G(D)f = F}, under assumptions of non-integrability on F, in terms of lower dimensional rectifiability and superdensity. Applications to Maxwell type system and to multivariable Cauchy–Riemann system are provided.
Higher-dimensional binary shifts of number-theoretic origin with positive topological entropy are considered. We are particularly interested in analysing their symmetries and extended symmetries. They form groups, known as the topological centralizer and normalizer of the shift dynamical system, which are natural topological invariants. Here, our focus is on shift spaces with trivial centralizers, but large normalizers. In particular, we discuss several systems where the normalizer is an infinite extension of the centralizer, including the visible lattice points and the k-free integers in some real quadratic number fields.
A classical theorem of Hutchinson asserts that if an iterated function system acts on
$\mathbb {R}^{d}$
by similitudes and satisfies the open set condition then it admits a unique self-similar measure with Hausdorff dimension equal to the dimension of the attractor. In the class of measures on the attractor, which arise as the projections of shift-invariant measures on the coding space, this self-similar measure is the unique measure of maximal dimension. In the context of affine iterated function systems it is known that there may be multiple shift-invariant measures of maximal dimension if the linear parts of the affinities share a common invariant subspace, or more generally if they preserve a finite union of proper subspaces of
$\mathbb {R}^{d}$
. In this paper we give an example where multiple invariant measures of maximal dimension exist even though the linear parts of the affinities do not preserve a finite union of proper subspaces.
A subset X of a Polish group G is Haar null if there exists a Borel probability measure μ and a Borel set B containing X such that μ(gBh) = 0 for every g, h ∈ G. A set X is Haar meager if there exists a compact metric space K, a continuous function f : K → G and a Borel set B containing X such that f−1(gBh) is meager in K for every g, h ∈ G. We calculate (in ZFC) the four cardinal invariants (add, cov, non, cof) of these two σ-ideals for the simplest non-locally compact Polish group, namely in the case $G = \mathbb {Z}^\omega$. In fact, most results work for separable Banach spaces as well, and many results work for Polish groups admitting a two-sided invariant metric. This answers a question of the first named author and Vidnyánszky.
We study the
$L^{q}$
-spectrum of measures in the plane generated by certain nonlinear maps. In particular, we consider attractors of iterated function systems consisting of maps whose components are
$C^{1+\alpha }$
and for which the Jacobian is a lower triangular matrix at every point subject to a natural domination condition on the entries. We calculate the
$L^{q}$
-spectrum of Bernoulli measures supported on such sets by using an appropriately defined analogue of the singular value function and an appropriate pressure function.
We derive the almost sure Assouad spectrum and quasi-Assouad dimension of one-variable random self-affine Bedford–McMullen carpets. Previous work has revealed that the (related) Assouad dimension is not sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between subtle changes in the random model, since it tends to be almost surely ‘as large as possible’ (a deterministic quantity). This has been verified in conformal and non-conformal settings. In the conformal setting, the Assouad spectrum and quasi-Assouad dimension behave rather differently, tending to almost surely coincide with the upper box dimension. Here we investigate the non-conformal setting and find that the Assouad spectrum and quasi-Assouad dimension generally do not coincide with the box dimension or Assouad dimension. We provide examples highlighting the subtle differences between these notions. Our proofs combine deterministic covering techniques with suitably adapted Chernoff estimates and Borel–Cantelli-type arguments.
The notion of recurrent fractal interpolation functions (RFIFs) was introduced by Barnsley et al. [‘Recurrent iterated function systems’, Constr. Approx.5 (1989), 362–378]. Roughly speaking, the graph of an RFIF is the invariant set of a recurrent iterated function system on
$\mathbb {R}^2$
. We generalise the definition of RFIFs so that iterated functions in the recurrent system need not be contractive with respect to the first variable. We obtain the box dimensions of all self-affine RFIFs in this general setting.
For
$n\geq 3$
, let
$Q_n\subset \mathbb {C}$
be an arbitrary regular n-sided polygon. We prove that the Cauchy transform
$F_{Q_n}$
of the normalised two-dimensional Lebesgue measure on
$Q_n$
is univalent and starlike but not convex in
$\widehat {\mathbb {C}}\setminus Q_n$
.
We provide a finite basis for the class of Borel functions that are not in the first Baire class, as well as the class of Borel functions that are not
$\sigma $
-continuous with closed witnesses.
In this paper, we follow and extend a group-theoretic method introduced by Greenleaf–Iosevich–Liu–Palsson (GILP) to study finite points configurations spanned by Borel sets in
$\mathbb{R}^n,n\geq 2,n\in\mathbb{N}.$
We remove a technical continuity condition in a GILP’s theorem in [Revista Mat. Iberoamer31 (2015), 799–810]. This allows us to extend the Wolff–Erdogan dimension bound for distance sets to finite points configurations with k points for
$k\in\{2,\dots,n+1\}$
forming a
$(k-1)$
-simplex.