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Given $a,\,b\in \mathbb {R}$ and $\Phi \in C^{1}(\mathbb {S}^{2})$, we study immersed oriented surfaces $\Sigma$ in the Euclidean 3-space $\mathbb {R}^{3}$ whose mean curvature $H$ and Gauss curvature $K$ satisfy $2aH+bK=\Phi (N)$, where $N:\Sigma \rightarrow \mathbb {S}^{2}$ is the Gauss map. This theory widely generalizes some of paramount importance such as the ones constant mean and Gauss curvature surfaces, linear Weingarten surfaces and self-translating solitons of the mean curvature flow. Under mild assumptions on the prescribed function $\Phi$, we exhibit a classification result for rotational surfaces in the case that the underlying fully nonlinear PDE that governs these surfaces is elliptic or hyperbolic.
In this paper, we give the generic classification of the singularities of 3-parameter line congruences in $\mathbb {R}^{4}$. We also classify the generic singularities of normal and Blaschke (affine) normal congruences.
We present a representation formula for translating soliton surfaces to the mean curvature flow in Euclidean space
${\mathbb {R}}^{4}$
and give examples of conformal parameterisations for translating soliton surfaces.
A Simons type formula for submanifolds with parallel normalized mean curvature vector field (pnmc submanifolds) in the product spaces $M^{n}(c)\times \mathbb {R}$, where $M^{n}(c)$ is a space form with constant sectional curvature $c\in \{-1,1\}$, it is shown. As an application is obtained rigidity results for submanifolds with constant second mean curvature.
For each $k\geq 3$, we construct a $1$-parameter family of complete properly Alexandrov-embedded minimal surfaces in the Riemannian product space $\mathbb {H}^2\times \mathbb {R}$ with genus $1$ and k embedded ends asymptotic to vertical planes. We also obtain complete minimal surfaces with genus $1$ and $2k$ ends in the quotient of $\mathbb {H}^2\times \mathbb {R}$ by an arbitrary vertical translation. They all have dihedral symmetry with respect to k vertical planes, as well as finite total curvature $-4k\pi $. Finally, we provide examples of complete properly Alexandrov-embedded minimal surfaces with finite total curvature with genus $1$ in quotients of $\mathbb {H}^2\times \mathbb {R}$ by the action of a hyperbolic or parabolic translation.
The purpose of this article is to prove a ‘Newton over Hodge’ result for finite characters on curves. Let X be a smooth proper curve over a finite field
$\mathbb {F}_q$
of characteristic
$p\geq 3$
and let
$V \subset X$
be an affine curve. Consider a nontrivial finite character
$\rho :\pi _1^{et}(V) \to \mathbb {C}^{\times }$
. In this article, we prove a lower bound on the Newton polygon of the L-function
$L(\rho ,s)$
. The estimate depends on monodromy invariants of
$\rho $
: the Swan conductor and the local exponents. Under certain nondegeneracy assumptions, this lower bound agrees with the irregular Hodge filtration introduced by Deligne. In particular, our result further demonstrates Deligne’s prediction that the irregular Hodge filtration would force p-adic bounds on L-functions. As a corollary, we obtain estimates on the Newton polygon of a curve with a cyclic action in terms of monodromy invariants.
In this paper we are interested in comparing the spectra of two elliptic operators acting on a closed minimal submanifold of the Euclidean unit sphere. Using an approach introduced by Savo in [A Savo. Index Bounds for Minimal Hypersurfaces of the Sphere. Indiana Univ. Math. J. 59 (2010), 823-837.], we are able to compare the eigenvalues of the stability operator acting on sections of the normal bundle and the Hodge Laplacian operator acting on $1$-forms. As a byproduct of the technique and under a suitable hypothesis on the Ricci curvature of the submanifold we obtain that its first Betti's number is bounded from above by a multiple of the Morse index, which provide evidence for a well-known conjecture of Schoen and Marques & Neves in the setting of higher codimension.
We prove that there are no regular algebraic hypersurfaces with non-zero constant mean curvature in the Euclidean space $\mathbb {R}^{n+1},\,\;n\geq 2,$ defined by polynomials of odd degree. Also we prove that the hyperspheres and the round cylinders are the only regular algebraic hypersurfaces with non-zero constant mean curvature in $\mathbb {R}^{n+1}, n\geq 2,$ defined by polynomials of degree less than or equal to three. These results give partial answers to a question raised by Barbosa and do Carmo.
We establish a one-to-one correspondence between, on the one hand, Finsler structures on the
$2$
-sphere with constant curvature
$1$
and all geodesics closed, and on the other hand, Weyl connections on certain spindle orbifolds whose symmetric Ricci curvature is positive definite and whose geodesics are all closed. As an application of our duality result, we show that suitable holomorphic deformations of the Veronese embedding
$\mathbb {CP}(a_1,a_2)\rightarrow \mathbb {CP}(a_1,(a_1+a_2)/2,a_2)$
of weighted projective spaces provide examples of Finsler
$2$
-spheres of constant curvature whose geodesics are all closed.
We consider the fractional elliptic problem:
where B1 is the unit ball in ℝN, N ⩾ 3, s ∈ (0, 1) and p > (N + 2s)/(N − 2s). We prove that this problem has infinitely many solutions with slow decay O(|x|−2s/(p−1)) at infinity. In addition, for each s ∈ (0, 1) there exists Ps > (N + 2s)/(N − 2s), for any (N + 2s)/(N − 2s) < p < Ps, the above problem has a solution with fast decay O(|x|2s−N). This result is the extension of the work by Dávila, del Pino, Musso and Wei (2008, Calc. Var. Partial Differ. Equ. 32, no. 4, 453–480) to the fractional case.
Using the calculus of variations, we prove the following structure theorem for noise-stable partitions: a partition of n-dimensional Euclidean space into m disjoint sets of fixed Gaussian volumes that maximise their noise stability must be $(m-1)$-dimensional, if $m-1\leq n$. In particular, the maximum noise stability of a partition of m sets in $\mathbb {R}^{n}$ of fixed Gaussian volumes is constant for all n satisfying $n\geq m-1$. From this result, we obtain:
(i) A proof of the plurality is stablest conjecture for three candidate elections, for all correlation parameters $\rho $ satisfying $0<\rho <\rho _{0}$, where $\rho _{0}>0$ is a fixed constant (that does not depend on the dimension n), when each candidate has an equal chance of winning.
(ii) A variational proof of Borell’s inequality (corresponding to the case $m=2$).
The structure theorem answers a question of De–Mossel–Neeman and of Ghazi–Kamath–Raghavendra. Item (i) is the first proof of any case of the plurality is stablest conjecture of Khot-Kindler-Mossel-O’Donnell for fixed $\rho $, with the case $\rho \to L1^{-}$ being solved recently. Item (i) is also the first evidence for the optimality of the Frieze–Jerrum semidefinite program for solving MAX-3-CUT, assuming the unique games conjecture. Without the assumption that each candidate has an equal chance of winning in (i), the plurality is stablest conjecture is known to be false.
Le nombre chromatique relatif
$c_0(S)$
d’une surface compacte S à bord est défini comme la borne supérieure des nombres chromatiques des graphes plongés dans S avec tous leurs sommets sur
$\partial S$
. Cet invariant topologique a été introduit pour l’étude de la multiplicité de la première valeur propre de Steklov sur S. Dans cet article, on montre que
$c_0(S)$
est aussi pertinent pour l’étude des plongements polyédraux tendus de S en établissant deux résultats. Le premier est que s’il existe un plongement polyédral tendu de S dans
$\mathbb {R}^n$
qui n’est pas contenu dans un hyperplan, alors
$n\leq c_0(S)-1$
. Le second est que cette inégalité est optimale pour les surfaces de petit genre.
Many authors define an isometry of a metric space to be a distance-preserving map of the space onto itself. In this note, we discuss spaces for which surjectivity is a consequence of the distance-preserving property rather than an initial assumption. These spaces include, for example, the three classical (Euclidean, spherical, and hyperbolic) geometries of constant curvature that are usually discussed independently of each other. In this partly expository paper, we explore basic ideas about the isometries of a metric space, and apply these to various familiar metric geometries.
In order to investigate envelopes for singular surfaces, we introduce one- and two-parameter families of framed surfaces and the basic invariants, respectively. By using the basic invariants, the existence and uniqueness theorems of one- and two-parameter families of framed surfaces are given. Then we define envelopes of one- and two-parameter families of framed surfaces and give the existence conditions of envelopes which are called envelope theorems. As an application of the envelope theorems, we show that the projections of singular solutions of completely integrable first-order partial differential equations are envelopes.
We study equilibrium surfaces for an energy which is a linear combination of the area and a second term which measures the bending and twisting of the boundary. Specifically, the twisting energy is given by the twisting of the Darboux frame. This energy is a modification of the Euler–Plateau functional considered by Giomi and Mahadevan (2012, Proc. R. Soc. A 468, 1851–1864), and a natural special case of the Kirchhoff–Plateau energy considered by Biria and Fried (2014, Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20140368; 2015, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 94, 86–102).
A Willmore surface $y:M\rightarrow S^{n+2}$ has a natural harmonic oriented conformal Gauss map $Gr_{y}:M\rightarrow SO^{+}(1,n+3)/SO(1,3)\times SO(n)$, which maps each point $p\in M$ to its oriented mean curvature 2-sphere at $p$. An easy observation shows that all conformal Gauss maps of Willmore surfaces satisfy a restricted nilpotency condition, which will be called “strongly conformally harmonic.” The goal of this paper is to characterize those strongly conformally harmonic maps from a Riemann surface $M$ to $SO^{+}(1,n+3)/SO^{+}(1,3)\times SO(n)$, which are the conformal Gauss maps of some Willmore surface in $S^{n+2}.$ It turns out that generically, the condition of being strongly conformally harmonic suffices to be associated with a Willmore surface. The exceptional case will also be discussed.
In this paper we present a classification of a class of globally subanalytic CMC surfaces in ℝ3 that generalizes the recent classification made by Barbosa and do Carmo in 2016. We show that a globally subanalytic CMC surface in ℝ3 with isolated singularities and a suitable condition of local connectedness is a plane or a finite union of round spheres and right circular cylinders touching at the singularities. As a consequence, we obtain that a globally subanalytic CMC surface in ℝ3 that is a topological manifold does not have isolated singularities. It is also proved that a connected closed globally subanalytic CMC surface in ℝ3 with isolated singularities which is locally Lipschitz normally embedded needs to be a plane or a round sphere or a right circular cylinder. A result in the case of non-isolated singularities is also presented. It also presented some results on regularity of semialgebraic sets and, in particular, it proved a real version of Mumford's Theorem on regularity of normal complex analytic surfaces and a result about C1 regularity of minimal varieties.
As was shown by a part of the authors, for a given $(2,3,5)$-distribution $D$ on a five-dimensional manifold $Y$, there is, locally, a Lagrangian cone structure $C$ on another five-dimensional manifold $X$ which consists of abnormal or singular paths of $(Y,D)$. We give a characterization of the class of Lagrangian cone structures corresponding to $(2,3,5)$-distributions. Thus, we complete the duality between $(2,3,5)$-distributions and Lagrangian cone structures via pseudo-product structures of type $G_{2}$. A local example of nonflat perturbations of the global model of flat Lagrangian cone structure which corresponds to $(2,3,5)$-distributions is given.
We show that for any n divisible by 3, almost all order-n Steiner triple systems admit a decomposition of almost all their triples into disjoint perfect matchings (that is, almost all Steiner triple systems are almost resolvable).