Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: May 2019

Chapter 19 - Acute Therapies for Stroke

from Section 4 - Therapeutic Strategies and Neurorehabilitation

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
1.ESO Writing Committee, Guidelines for Management of Ischaemic Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack 2008. Cerebrovasc Dis 2008; 25(5): 457507.
2.Jauch, EC, Saver, JL, Adams, HP, Jr., et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2013; 44(3): 870947.
3.Powers, WJ, Derdeyn, CP, Biller, J, et al. AHA/ASA Focused Update of the 2013 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke Regarding Endovascular Treatment: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2015; 46(10): 3020–35.
4.Torbey, MT, Bösel, J, Rhoney, DH, et al. Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Management of Large Hemispheric Infarction: A Statement for Health Care Professionals from the Neurocritical Care Society and the German Society for Neuro-Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Neurocrit Care 2015; 22(1): 146–64.
5.Wahlgren, N, Moreira, T, Michel, P, et al. Mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke: consensus statement by ESO-Karolinska Stroke Update 2014/2015, supported by ESO, ESMINT, ESNR and EAN. Int J Stroke 2016; 11(1): 134–47.
6.Clark, WM, Wissman, S, Albers, GW, et al. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (Alteplase) for ischemic stroke 3 to 5 hours after symptom onset. The ATLANTIS Study: a randomized controlled trial. Alteplase thrombolysis for acute noninterventional therapy in ischemic stroke. JAMA 1999; 282(21): 2019–26.
7.Hacke, W, Kaste, M, Fieschi, C, et al. Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute stroke. JAMA 1995; 274(13): 1017–25.
8.Hacke, W, Kaste, M, Fieschi, C, et al. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplase in acute ischaemic stroke (ECASS II). Lancet 1998; 352(9136): 1245–51.
9.Hacke, W, Kaste, M, Bluhmki, E, et al. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2008; 359(13): 1317–29.
10.The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group, Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 1995; 333(24): 1581–7.
11.IST-3 collaborative group, Sandercock, P, Wardlaw, JM, et al. The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischaemic stroke (the third international stroke trial [IST-3]): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012; 379(9834): 2352–63.
12.Hacke, W, Bluhmki, E, Steiner, T, et al. Dichotomized efficacy end points and global end-point analysis applied to the ECASS intention-to-treat data set. Stroke 1998; 29(10): 2073–5.
13.Wahlgren, N, Ahmed, N, Davalos, A, et al. Thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke in the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST): an observational study. Lancet 2007; 369(9558): 275–82.
14.Wahlgren, N, Ahmed, N, Davalos, A, et al. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3–4.5 h after acute ischaemic stroke (SITS-ISTR): an observational study. Lancet 2008; 372(9646): 1303–9.
15.Hacke, W, Donnan, G, Fieschi, C, et al. Association of outcome with early stroke treatment: pooled analysis of ATLANTIS, ECASS, and NINDS rt-PA stroke trials. Lancet 2004; 363(9411): 768–74.
16.Lees, KR, Bluhmki, E, von Kummer, R, et al. Time to treatment with intravenous alteplase and outcome in stroke: an updated pooled analysis of ECASS, ATLANTIS, NINDS, and EPITHET trials. Lancet 2010; 375(9727): 1695–703.
17.Zinkstok, SM, Roos, YB, ARTIS investigators. Early administration of aspirin in patients treated with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012; 380(9843): 731–7.
18.Audebert, HJ, Kukla, C, Clarmann von Claranau, S, et al. Telemedicine for safe and extended use of thrombolysis in stroke: the Telemedic Pilot Project for Integrative Stroke Care (TEMPiS) in Bavaria. Stroke 2005; 36(2): 287–91.
19.Furlan, AJ, Eyding, D, Albers, GW, et al. Dose Escalation of Desmoteplase for Acute Ischemic Stroke (DEDAS): evidence of safety and efficacy 3 to 9 hours after stroke onset. Stroke 2006; 37(5): 1227–31.
20.Hacke, W, Albers, G, Al-Rawi, Y, et al. The Desmoteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke Trial (DIAS): a phase II MRI-based 9-hour window acute stroke thrombolysis trial with intravenous desmoteplase. Stroke 2005; 36(1): 6673.
21.Hacke, W, Furlan, AJ, Al-Rawi, Y, et al. Intravenous desmoteplase in patients with acute ischaemic stroke selected by MRI perfusion-diffusion weighted imaging or perfusion CT (DIAS-2): a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8(2): 141–50.
22.Albers, GW, von Kummer, R, Truelsen, T, et al. Safety and efficacy of desmoteplase given 3–9 h after ischaemic stroke in patients with occlusion or high-grade stenosis in major cerebral arteries (DIAS-3): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Neurol 2015; 14(6): 575–84.
23.Parsons, M, Spratt, N, Bivard, A, et al. A randomized trial of tenecteplase versus alteplase for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2012; 366(12): 1099–107.
24.Logallo, N, Novotny, V, Assmus, J, et al. Tenecteplase versus alteplase for management of acute ischaemic stroke (NOR-TEST): a phase 3, randomised, open-label, blinded endpoint trial. Lancet Neurol 2017; 16(10): 781–8.
25.Furlan, A, Higashida, R, Wechsler, L, et al. Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial. Prolyse in acute cerebral thromboembolism. JAMA 1999; 282(21): 2003–11.
26.Emberson, J, Lees, KR, Lyden, P, et al. Effect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet 2014; 384(9958): 1929–35.
27.Riedel, CH, Zimmermann, P, Jensen-Kondering, U, et al. The importance of size: successful recanalization by intravenous thrombolysis in acute anterior stroke depends on thrombus length. Stroke 2011; 42(6): 1775–7.
28.Rha, JH, Saver, JL. The impact of recanalization on ischemic stroke outcome: a meta-analysis. Stroke 2007; 38(3): 967–73.
29.Broderick, JP, Palesch, YY, Demchuk, AM, et al. Endovascular therapy after intravenous t-PA versus t-PA alone for stroke. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 893903.
30.Ciccone, A, Valvassori, L, Nichelatti, M, et al. Endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2013; 368(10): 904–13.
31.Kidwell, CS, Jahan, R, Gornbein, J, et al. A trial of imaging selection and endovascular treatment for ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2013; 368(10): 914–23.
32.Demchuk, AM, Goyal, M, Yeatts, SD, et al. Recanalization and clinical outcome of occlusion sites at baseline CT angiography in the Interventional Management of Stroke III trial. Radiology 2014; 273(1): 202–10.
33.Berkhemer, OA, Fransen, PS, Beumer, D, et al. A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2015; 372(1): 1120.
34.Goyal, M, Demchuk, AM, Menon, BK, et al. Randomized assessment of rapid endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2015; 372(11): 1019–30.
35.Saver, JL, Goyal, M, Bonafe, A, et al. Stent-retriever thrombectomy after intravenous t-PA vs. t-PA alone in stroke. N Engl J Med 2015; 372(24): 2285–95.
36.Jovin, TG, Chamorro, A, Cobo, E, et al. Thrombectomy within 8 hours after symptom onset in ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2015; 372(24): 2296–306.
37.Campbell, BC, Mitchell, PJ, Kleinig, TJ, et al. Endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke with perfusion-imaging selection. N Engl J Med 2015; 372(11): 1009–18.
38.Bracard, S, Ducrocq, X, Mas, JL, et al. Mechanical thrombectomy after intravenous alteplase versus alteplase alone after stroke (THRACE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2016; 15(11): 1138–47.
39.Campbell, BC, Donnan, GA, Lees, KR, et al. Endovascular stent thrombectomy: the new standard of care for large vessel ischaemic stroke. Lancet Neurol 2015; 14(8): 846–54.
40.Goyal, M, Menon, BK, van Zwam, WH, et al. Endovascular thrombectomy after large-vessel ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from five randomised trials. Lancet 2016; 387(10029): 1723–31.
41.Church, EW, Gundersen, A, Glantz, MJ, et al. Number needed to treat for stroke thrombectomy based on a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017; 156: 83–8.
42.Nogueira, RG, Jadhav, AP, Haussen, DC, et al. Thrombectomy 6 to 24 hours after stroke with a mismatch between deficit and infarct. N Engl J Med 2018; 378(1): 1121.
43.Straka, M, Albers, GW, Bammer, R. Real-time diffusion-perfusion mismatch analysis in acute stroke. J Magn Reson Imaging 2010; 32(5): 1024–37.
44.Abou-Chebl, A, Lin, R, Hussain, MS, et al. Conscious sedation versus general anesthesia during endovascular therapy for acute anterior circulation stroke: preliminary results from a retrospective, multicenter study. Stroke 2010; 41(6): 1175–9.
45.van den Berg, LA, Koelman, DL, Berkhemer, OA, et al. Type of anesthesia and differences in clinical outcome after intra-arterial treatment for ischemic stroke. Stroke 2015; 46(5): 1257–62.
46.Campbell, BCV, van Zwam, WH, Goyal, M, et al. Effect of general anaesthesia on functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke having endovascular thrombectomy versus standard care: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Neurol 2018; 17(1): 4753.
47.Löwhagen Henden, P, Rentzos, A, Karlsson, JE, et al. General anesthesia versus conscious sedation for endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke: the AnStroke Trial (anesthesia during stroke). Stroke 2017; 48(6): 1601–7.
48.Antiplatelet Trialists' Coorperation. Collaborative overview of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy, I: prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatet therapy in various categories of patients. BMJ 1994; 308(6921): 81106.
49.CAST-Collaborative-Group. CAST: randomised placebo-controlled trial of early aspirin use in 20000 patients with acute ischeaemic stroke. Lancet 1997; 349(June): 1641–9.
50.International-Stroke-Trial-Collaborative-Group. The International Stroke Trial (IST): a randomised trial of aspirin, subcutaneous heparin, both, or neither among 19435 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Lancet 1997; 349(9065): 1569–81.
51.Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ 2002; 324(7329): 7186.
52.Geeganage, CM, Diener, HC, Algra, A, et al. Dual or mono antiplatelet therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Stroke 2012; 43(4): 1058–66.
53.Wang, Y, Wang, Y, Zhao, X, et al. Clopidogrel with aspirin in acute minor stroke or transient ischemic attack. N Engl J Med 2013; 369(1): 1119.
54.Johnston, SC, Easton, JD, Farrant, M, et al. Platelet-oriented inhibition in new TIA and minor ischemic stroke (POINT) trial: rationale and design. Int J Stroke 2013; 8(6): 479–83.
55.Gubitz, G, Sandercock, P, Counsell, C. Anticoagulants for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 3: CD000024.
56.Paciaroni, M, Agnelli, G, Micheli, S, et al. Efficacy and safety of anticoagulant treatment in acute cardioembolic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Stroke 2007; 38(2): 423–30.
57.Whiteley, WN, Adams, HP, Jr., Bath, PM, et al. Targeted use of heparin, heparinoids, or low-molecular-weight heparin to improve outcome after acute ischaemic stroke: an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet Neurol 2013; 12(6): 539–45.
58.O'Collins, VE, Macleod, MR, Donnan, GA, et al. 1,026 experimental treatments in acute stroke. Ann Neurol 2006; 59(3): 467–77.
59.Ginsberg, MD. Neuroprotection for ischemic stroke: past, present and future. Neuropharmacology 2008; 55(3): 363–89.
60.Shuaib, A, Lees, KR, Lyden, P, et al. NXY-059 for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med 2007; 357(6): 562–71.
61.Wu, TC, Grotta, JC. Hypothermia for acute ischaemic stroke. Lancet Neurol 2013; 12(3): 275–84.
62.Zhai, WW, Sun, L, Yu, ZQ, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in experimental and clinical stroke. Med Gas Res 2016; 6(2): 111–18.
63.Shi, SH, Qi, ZF, Luo, YM, et al. Normobaric oxygen treatment in acute ischemic stroke: a clinical perspective. Med Gas Res 2016; 6(3): 147–53.
64.Vahedi, K, Hofmeijer, J, Juettler, E, et al. Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three randomised controlled trials. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6(3): 215–22.
65.Jüttler, E, Unterberg, A, Woitzik, J, et al. Hemicraniectomy in older patients with extensive middle-cerebral-artery stroke. N Engl J Med 2014; 370(12): 1091–100.