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Kant's <I>Doctrine of Right</I>
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Published in 1797, the Doctrine of Right is Kant's most significant contribution to legal and political philosophy. As the first part of the Metaphysics of Morals, it deals with the legal rights which persons have or can acquire, and aims at providing the grounding for lasting international peace through the idea of the juridical state (Rechtsstaat). This commentary analyzes Kant's system of individual rights, starting from the original innate right to external freedom, and ending with the right to own property and to have contractual and family claims. Clear and to the point, it guides readers through the most difficult passages of the Doctrine, explaining Kant's terminology, method and ideas in the light of his intellectual environment. One of the very few commentaries on the Doctrine of Right available in English, this book will be essential for anyone with a strong interest in Kant's moral and political philosophy.

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Kant's works
Cited according to: Kant's gesammelte Schriften, which is commonly referred to as Akademie-Ausgabe (Academy Edition), the first volumes of which were edited by the Königlich Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften and later by other academies, Berlin: Reimer/de Gruyter (1902 et seq.).
Published works
“Idee zu einer allgemeinen Geschichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht” [“Idea of a Universal History in Cosmopolitan Design”] (1784), Academy Edition, vol. 8, pp. 15–31, cited: AA VIII (Idea), p., l.
Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten [Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals] (1785), Academy Edition, vol. 4, pp. 385–463, cited: AA IV (Groundwork), p., l.
“Mutmaßlicher Anfang der Menschengeschichte” [“Presumed Beginning of Human History”] (1786), Academy Edition, vol. 8, pp. 107–124, cited: AA VIII (Presumed Beginning), p., l.
Kritik der reinen Vernunft [Critique of Pure Reason] (B = 2nd edn. 1787), Academy Edition, vol. 3, cited: AA III, p., l. (B p.).
Kritik der praktischen Vernunft [Critique of Practical Reason] (1788), Academy Edition, vol. 5, cited: AA V (Practical Reason), p., l.
“Über den Gebrauch teleologischer Prinzipien in der Philosophie” [“On the Use of Teleological Principles in Philosophy”] (1788), Academy Edition, vol. 8, pp. 157–184, cited: AA VIII (Teleological Principles), p., l.
Kritik der Urteilskraft [Critique of Judgment] (1790), Academy Edition, vol. 5, cited: AA V (Judgment), p., l.
Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft [Religion within the Limits of Pure Reason] (1793), Academy Edition, vol. 6, pp. 1–202, cited: AA VI (Religion), p., l.
“Über den Gemeinspruch: Das mag in der Theorie richtig sein, taugt aber nicht für die Praxis” [“On the Adage: That may be right in theory, but it is useless in practice”] (1793), Academy Edition, vol. 8, pp. 273–314, cited: AA VIII (T&P), p., l.
“Das Ende aller Dinge” [“The End of All Things”] (1794), Academy Edition, vol. 8, pp. 325–339, cited: AA VIII (End), p., l.
Zum ewigen Frieden [Perpetual Peace] (1795), Academy Edition, vol. 8, pp. 341–386, cited: AA VIII (PP), p., l.
Die Metaphysik der Sitten [The Metaphysics of Morals] (1797), Academy Edition, vol. 6, pp. 203–493, containing:
Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Rechtslehre, Ludwig, Bernd (ed.), (2nd edn. 1998), Hamburg: Meiner, cited: Ludwig (ed.), Rechtslehre, p.
“Über ein vermeintes Recht aus Menschenliebe zu lügen” [“On a supposed right to lie from philanthropy”] (1797), Academy Edition, vol. 8, pp. 425–430, cited: AA VIII (Right to Lie), p., l.
Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht [Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View] (1798), Academy Edition, vol. 7, cited: AA VII (Anthropology), p., l.
Der Streit der Fakultäten [Contest of the Faculties] (1798), Academy Edition, vol. 7, pp. 1–116, cited: AA VII (Faculties), p., l.
Immanuel Kants Logik [Immanuel Kant's Logic] (1800), Jäsche, Gottlob Benjamin (ed.), Academy Edition, vol. 9, pp. 1–150, cited: AA IX (Logic), section (§), p., l.
Preparatory work
Erläuterungen, Zu G. Achenwalls Iuris naturalis pars posterior [Reflections on G. Achenwall's Iuris naturalis pars posterior], Academy Edition, vol. 19 (1934), pp. 321–613, cited: AA XIX, R., p., l.
Einleitung, Erste in die Kritik der Urteilskraft [First Introduction to the Critique of Judgment], Academy Edition, vol. 20 (1942), pp. 193–251, cited: AA XX (First Introduction), p., l.
Zu, VorarbeitenDie Metaphysik der Sitten, Erster Teil: Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Rechtslehre [Preparatory Work on the Metaphysics of Morals, First Part: Metaphysical Principles of the Doctrine of Right], Academy Edition, vol. 23 (1955), pp. 207–370, cited: AA XXIII (Preparatory DoR), p., l.
Zu, VorarbeitenZum Ewigen Frieden [Preparatory Work on Perpetual Peace], Academy Edition, vol. 23 (1955), pp. 153–192, cited: AA XXIII (Preparatory PP), p., l.
Lecture notes
Feyerabend, Gottfried, Notes on Kant's Lectures on Natural Law according to Achenwall during the summer semester 1784, Academy Edition, vol. 27.2,2 (1979), pp. 1317–1394, cited: Feyerabend, AA XXVII.2,2, p., l.
Vigilantius, , Notes on Kant's Lectures on the Metaphysics of Morals during the winter semester 1793/94, Academy Edition, vol. 27.2,1 (1975), pp. 475–732, cited: Vigilantius, AA XXVII.2,1, p., l.
Powalski, Gottlieb, Notes on Kant's Lectures on Practical Philosophy (taken between 1777 and 1782), Academy Edition, vol. 27.1 (1974), pp. 91–235, cited: Powalski, AA XXVII.1, p., l.
Menzer, Paul (ed.), Eine Vorlesung Kants über Ethik, Berlin: Pan Verlag Rolf Heise (1924), cited: Menzer, p.
Other titles
Entwurf zu einer Opponenten-Rede [Draft of an Opponent Position] (1777), Academy Edition, vol. 15.2 (1923), pp. 901–935, cited: AA XV.2 (Draft), p., l.
Rechtslehre, Bemerkungen zur [Comments on the Doctrine of Right], Academy Edition, vol. 20 (1942), pp. 441–467, cited: AA XX (Comments DoR), p., l.
Bemerkungen zu den Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen [Comments on Observations on the Sentiment of the Beautiful and Sublime], Academy Edition, vol. 20 (1942), pp. 1–192, cited: AA XX (Comments Beauty), p., l.
English translations of Kant's work
The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. Practical Philosophy, Gregor, Mary J. (trans. and ed. 1996), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, cited: Gregor, Cambridge Edition, p. (pagination according to the Academy Edition, and for Gregor's Introduction and notes according to the Cambridge Edition).
The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. Critique of Pure Reason, Wood, Allen W. and Guyer, Paul (trans. and ed. 1998), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, cited: Wood and Guyer, Cambridge Edition (Pure Reason), p. (pagination according to the Academy Edition).
Literature available when Kant wrote the Doctrine of Right
Achenwall, Gottfried, Ius Naturae (3rd edn. 1755), Göttingen: Bossiegel, cited: I.N.I, (3rd edn. 1755), §, p.
Achenwall, Gottfried, Ius Naturae (5th edn. 1763), Göttingen: Bossiegel, cited: I.N.I, §, p.
Achenwall, Gottfried, Ius Naturae (6th edn. 1767), Göttingen: Bossiegel, cited: I.N.I, (6th edn. 1767), §, p.
Achenwall, Gottfried, Iuris Naturalis pars posterior (5th edn. 1763), Göttingen: Bossiegel, reprinted in the Academy Edition, vol. 19, pp. 325–442, cited: I.N.II, § (AA XIX, p., l.).
Achenwall, Gottfried, Prolegomena Iuris Naturalis (2nd edn. 1763), Göttingen: Bossiegel, cited: Prol., §, p.
Achenwall, Gottfried, Staatsverfassung der heutigen vornehmsten Europäischen Reiche (5th edn. 1768), Göttingen: Vandenhoeck, cited: Achenwall, Staatsverfassung, p.
Achenwall, Gottfried/Pütter, Stephan, Johann, Elementa Iuris Naturae (1750), in: Achenwall/Pütter, Anfangsgründe des Naturrechts, Jan Schröder (trans. and ed. 1995), Frankfurt: Insel, cited: Achenwall/Pütter, Elementa, p.
Aristoteles, Latinus, Nicomachean, Ethics, in: S. Thomae Aquinatis, In decem libros Ethicorum Aristotelis ad Nicomachum expositio (3rd edn. 1964), Spiazzi, R. M. (ed.), Marietti, cited: Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Bk., §, p.
Augustinus, Aurelius, Dei, Civitate, in: Opera (Corpus Christianorum, Series Latina, vol. 47), Turnholt (1955), cited: Augustinus, Lib., Cap., p.
Baumgarten, Alexander, Initia Philosophiae Practicae Primae (1760), reprinted in the Academy Edition, vol. 19, pp. 7–91, cited: Baumgarten, § (AA XIX, p., l.).
Beccaria, Cesare Marquis, Dei delitti e delle pene (1764); for the eighteenth-century German translation we used: Des Herren Marquis von Beccaria unsterbliches Werk von Verbrechen und Strafen, [K. F.] Hommel (trans. and ed.), Breslau: Korn (1778), cited: Beccaria, Cap., Hommel, p.
Boehmer, Johann Samuel Friedrich, Observationes Selectae (1759), Frankfurt: Varrentrapp, cited: Boehmer, obs., p.
Bouterwek, Friedrich [published anonymously], Review of the 1st edn. of Kant's Metaphysical Principles of the Doctrine of Right, Göttingsche Anzeigen, 28. Stück, den 18ten Februar 1797, Academy Edition, vol. 20, pp. 445–453, cited: AA XX (Bouterwek), p., l.
Cicero, Marcus Tullius, De, Legibus, in: Staatstheoretische Schriften (3rd edn. 1984), Ziegler, K. (ed.), Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, pp. 211–327, cited: Cicero, De Legibus, Bk., §, p.
Cicero, Marcus Tullius, De, LegibusDe Officiis, Holden, H. A. (ed.), new edn. (1966), Amsterdam: Hakkert, cited: Cicero, De Officiis, Bk., §, p.
Cumberland, Richard, De Legibus Naturae Disquisitio Philosophica (1672), Lübeck/Frankfurt: Samuel Otto (2nd edn. 1683), cited: Cumberland, De Legibus, Cap., §, p.
Daries, Joachim Georg, Observationes Iuris Naturalis, Socialis et Gentium, vol. II (1754), Jena: Güth, cited: Daries, obs., §, p.
[Glossa Ordinaria] Corpus Iuris Civilis Iustinianei cum commentariis Accursii, Feh, Johann (ed.), tomus primus (1627), reprint Osnabrück: O. Zeller (1965), cited: Glossa, keyword on Digests no., col.
Grotius, Hugo, De Iure Belli ac Pacis (1625), Kanter-van, B. J. A.Tromp, Hettinga (ed.), Leiden: Brill (1939), cited: Grotius, Lib./Cap./§/p.
Hobbes, Thomas, De, Cive (1642), Molesworth, W. (ed.), Hobbes, Opera Philosophica II (1839), reprint Aalen: Scientia (1966), cited: Hobbes, De Cive, p.
Hobbes, Thomas, De, Cive (1668), Molesworth, W. (ed.), Hobbes, Opera Philosophica III (1841), reprint Aalen: Scientia (1966), cited: Hobbes, Leviathan, Cap., p.
Hume, David, Essays – Moral, Political, andLiterary, (1742), Part II: “XII. Of the Original Contract,” in: T. H. Green and T. H. Grose (eds.), David Hume – The Philosophical Works, vol. 3 (1882), pp. 443–460, reprint Aalen: Scientia (1964); for the eighteenth-century German translation we used: Moralische und politische Versuche, als dessen vermischter Schriften Vierter and letzter Theil, Hamburg/Leipzig: Grund and Holle (1756), pp. 351–375: “Fünfundzwanzigster Versuch. Von dem ursprünglichen Contracte” (“Twenty-Fifth Essay. Of the Original Contract”), cited: Hume, “Original Contract,” p. (of the English work).
Janiçon, François Michel, État Présent de la République des Provinces-Unies, Tome Premier, The Hague: van Duren (1729), cited: Janiçon, État, p.
Lactantius, L. Caelius Firmianus, Opera Omnia, Brandt, S. and Laubmann, G. (eds.), Pars I, Prague and Vienna: F. Tempsky; Leipzig: G. Freytag (1890), cited: Lactantius, Opera I, p.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, Théodicée, Essais (1710), in: Die philosophischen Schriften, Gerhardt, C. E. (ed.), Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, vol. 6 (1885), cited: Leibniz, Théodicée, p.
Linnaeus, Carolus, Systema Naturae Tomus I (10th edn. 1760), Halle: Curt, cited: Linné, Systema Naturae, p.
Lisola, FrançoisBaron, Paul (published anonymously), Bouclier d'Estat et de Justice contre Le dessein manifestement découvert de la Monarchie Universelle, Sous le vain pretexte des pretentions de la Reyne de France (1667), cited: Lisola, Bouclier d'Estat.
Locke, John, Two Treatises of Government (1690) (5th edn. London 1728), cited: Locke, Two Treatises, Second Treatise, §, p.
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Brède, Baronet de, De l'esprit des lois (1748), in: Oeuvres Complètes, vol. 2 (1951), Gallimard, pp. 225–995, cited: Montesquieu, Livre, Chap., p.
Moser, Johann Jacob, Anfangs-Gründe [der] Wissenschafft von der heutigen Staats-Verfassung von Europa Und dem unter denen Europäischen Potenzien üblichen Völcker – oder allgemeinen Staats-Recht, Erster Theil (1732), Tübingen: Pflicken, cited: Moser, Anfangs-Gründe.
Moser, Johann Jacob, Grund-Sätze des jetzt üblichen Europäischen Völcker-Rechts in Friedens-Zeiten (1763), Frankfurt: Raspe, cited: Moser, Grund-Sätze, p.
Müller, Friedrich August, Einleitung in die philosophischen Wissenschaften, 3 parts (2nd edn. 1733), Leipzig, cited: Müller, Einleitung, Part, p.
Oberhausen, Michael/Pozzo, Riccardo, (eds.), Vorlesungsverzeichnisse der Universität Königsberg (1720–1804), vol. 2, Stuttgart/Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog (1999), cited: Oberhausen/Pozzo, Vorlesungsverzeichnisse, p.
Pausanias, , Beschreibung Griechenlands, Meyer, E. (trans. and ed.), 2 vols. (3rd edn. 1979), Nördlingen: Beck, cited: Pausanias, Bk., Chap., or for the translator's comments cited: Meyer, vol., p., margin no.
Phaedrus, , Liber Fabularum, Schönberger, O. (ed.), Stuttgart: Reclam (1975), cited: Phaedrus, Liber, Fabula no.
Publius (pseudonym for Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay), The Federalist Papers (1787/88), Rossiter, C. (ed.), New York: Penguin (1961), cited: Federalist Papers (author) No., p.
Pufendorf, Samuel, De Jure Naturae et Gentium (1672), Böhling, F. (ed.), Berlin: Akademie Verlag (1998), cited: Pufendorf, De Jure, Lib./Cap./§/p.
Pufendorf, Samuel, De Officio Hominis et Civis (1673), Hartung, G. (ed.), Berlin: Akademie Verlag (1997), cited: Pufendorf, De Officio, Lib./Cap./§/p.
Pufendorf, Samuel, Elementa Jurisprudentiae Universalis (1660), Behme, T. (ed.), Berlin: Akademie Verlag (1999), cited: Pufendorf, Elementa, Lib., Def., §, p.
Reid, Thomas, Essays on the Active Powers of Man (1788), in: Hamilton, W. (ed.), The Works of Thomas Reid (5th edn.), Edinburgh: MacLachlan/Stewart (1858), cited: Reid, Active Powers, p.
Reid, Thomas, Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (1785), in: Hamilton, W. (ed.), The Works of Thomas Reid (5th edn.), Edinburgh: MacLachlan/Stewart (1858), cited: Reid, Intellectual Powers, p.
Rousseau, Jean-Jaques, Du contrat social (1762), in: Oeuvres complètes, Gagnebin, B. and Raymond, M. (eds.), Gallimard, vol. 3 (1964), pp. 347–470, cited: Rousseau, Du contrat social, Livre, Chap., p.
Smith, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1st edn. 1776), R. H. Campbell and A. S. Skinner (eds.), 2 vols., reprint Oxford: Clarendon (1976), cited: Adam Smith, bk.chap.sect.para.
Tacitus, Cornelius, De Vita et Moribus Julii Agricolae, Urlichs, C. L. (ed.), Würzburg: A. Stuber (1875), cited: Tacitus, De Vita, Cap., p.
Thomasius, Christian, Dissertatio de Praesumtione Bonitatis [Resp. Jakob Friedrich Ludovici], Halle (1700), cited: Thomasius, Dissertatio, §, p.
Thomasius, Christian, Fundamenta Juris Naturae et Gentium (1705) (4th edn. 1718), reprint Aalen: Scientia (1963), cited: Thomasius, Lib., Cap., §, p.
Turnbull, George, The Principles of Moral Philosophy, vol. 1 (1740), reprint Hildesheim: Olms (1976), cited: Turnbull, p.
Walch, Johann Georg, Philosophisches Lexicon (1726), Leipzig: Gleditsch, cited: Walch, col.
Walch, Johann Georg, Hennings, J. C. (eds.), Philosophisches Lexicon (4th edn. 1775), reprint Hildesheim: Olms (1968), cited: Walch/Hennings, vol., col.
Wolff, Christian, Jus Naturae pars tertia (1743), reprint Hildesheim: Olms (1968), cited: Wolff, Jus Naturae III, Cap., §, p.
Wolff, Christian, Philosophia Practica Universalis pars prior (1738), reprint Hildesheim: Olms (1971), cited: Wolff, PhPrU, §, p.
Literature published between 1797 and 1850
Bendavid, Lazarus, Versuch einer Rechtslehre (1802), Berlin: Quien, cited: Bendavid, Versuch, p.
Feuerbach, Paul Johann Anselm, Lehrbuch des gemeinen in Deutschland geltenden Peinlichen Rechts (1st edn. 1801), Giessen: Heyer, cited: Feuerbach, Lehrbuch, §, p.
Feuerbach, Paul Johann Anselm, Revision der Grundsätze und Grundbegriffe des positiven peinlichen Rechts, Erster Teil (1799), Erfurt: Henningsche Buchhandlung, cited: Feuerbach, Revision, vol., p.
Hamberger, Georg Christoph/Meusel, Johann, Georg, Das gelehrte Deutschland, vol. 10 (5th edn. 1803), Lemgo: Meyersche Buchhandlung, cited: Hamberger/Meusel, p.
Hegel, GeorgFriedrich, Wilhelm, Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts (1821), in: Sämtliche Werke, Jubiläumsausgabe, Glockner, H. (ed.), 4th edn., vol. 7, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann (1961), cited: Hegel, Grundlinien, §, p.
Krug, Wilhelm Traugott, Allgemeines Handwörterbuch der philosophischen Wissenschaften, 5. Bd., 2. Abteilung (2nd edn. Leipzig 1838), reprint Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog (1969), Art. “Vertrag” [Contract], pp. 428–429, cited: Krug, “Vertrag.”
John Stuart, Mill, System der deductiven und inductiven Logik, Schiel, J. (trans.) (2nd edn. 1862/63), Braunschweig: Vieweg, cited: Schiel.
John Stuart, Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive (1843), Robson, J. M. (ed.) (1973), Toronto: Toronto University Press, cited: Mill, System of Logic, Bk.
Placidus (pseudonym for Petersen), Johann, Wilhelm, Litteratur der Staatslehre – Ein Versuch (1798), Strasburg, cited: Petersen, p.
Literature after 1850
Altenhain, Karsten, “Die Begründung der Strafe durch Kant und Feuerbach.” in: Strafrechtsprofessoren der Tübinger Juristenfakultät (eds.), Gedächtnisschrift für Rolf Keller (2003), Tübingen: Mohr, pp. 1–13.
Bailey, S. H. and Gun, M. J., Smith and Bailey on the Modern English Legal System (2nd edn. 1991), London: Sweet & Maxwell.
Bernstein, Alyssa R., “Kant on Rights and Coercion in International Law: Implications for Humanitarian Military Intervention,” Jahrbuch für Recht und Ethik, vol. 16 (2008), pp. 57–99.
Brandt, Reinhard, “Das Erlaubnisgesetz, oder: Vernunft und Geschichte in Kants Rechtslehre,” in: Brandt, R. (ed.), Rechtsphilosophie der Aufklärung (1982), Berlin: de Gruyter, pp. 233–285.
Brandt, Reinhard, “Das Problem der Erlaubnisgesetze im Spätwerk Kants.” in: Höffe, O. (ed.), Immanuel Kant. Zum ewigen Frieden (1995), Berlin: Akademie Verlag, pp. 69–86.
Byrd, B. Sharon, “Intelligible Possession of Objects of Choice,” in: Denis, Lara (ed.), Kant's “Metaphysics of Morals”: A Critical Guide (2009), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Byrd, B. Sharon, “Kant's Theory of Punishment: Deterrence in its Threat, Retribution in its Execution,” Law and Philosophy, vol. 8 (1989), pp. 151–200.
Byrd, B. Sharon, “The State as a ‘Moral Person,’” in: Robinson, Hoke (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress Memphis (1995), vol. I/1, pp. 171–189.
Byrd, B. Sharon, “Strafgerechtigkeit bei Kant,” in: Bottke, W. and Rauscher, A. (eds.), Gerechtigkeit als Aufgabe: Festgabe für Heinz Lampert (1990), EOS-Verlag: Erzabtei St. Ottilien, pp. 137–158.
Byrd, B. Sharon and Hruschka, Joachim, “The Natural Law Duty to Recognize Private Property Ownership. Kant's Theory of Property in his Doctrine of Right,” University of Toronto Law Journal, vol. 56 (2006), pp. 217–282.
Cavallar, Georg, Kant and the Theory and Practice of International Right (1999), Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Cavallar, Georg, The Rights of Strangers (2002), Aldershot: Ashgate.
Christiano, Thomas, “Two Conceptions of the Dignity of Persons,” Jahrbuch für Recht und Ethik, vol. 16 (2008), pp. 101–126.
Dukminier, Jesse and Krier, James E., Property (3rd edn. 1993), Boston: Little, Brown.
Ehlers, Dirk, “Die Unterscheidung von privatem und öffentlichem Recht,” Die Verwaltung, vol. 20 (1987), pp. 371–385.
Fischer, Hermann, Art. “Petersen,” Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, vol. 25 (1887), reprint Berlin: Duncker & Humblot (1970).
Flikschuh, Katrin, “Freedom and Constraint in Kant's Metaphysical Elements of Justice,” in: Hruschka, S. Byrd and J. (eds.), Kant and Law (2006), Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 87–108.
Flikschuh, Katrin, “Ist das rechtliche Postulat ein Postulat der reinen praktischen Vernunft? Zum Endzweck der Kantischen Rechtslehre,” Jahrbuch für Recht und Ethik, vol. 12 (2004), pp. 299–330.
Flikschuh, Katrin, Kant and Modern Political Philosophy (2000), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Flikschuh, Katrin, “Reason, Right, and Revolution: Kant and Locke,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 36 (2008), pp. 375–404.
Friedrich, Rainer, Eigentum und Staatsbegründung in Kants Metaphysik der Sitten (2004), Berlin: de Gruyter.
Gabriel, G., Art. “Solipsismus,” in: Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, vol. 9 (1995), cols. 1018–1023.
Gabriel, G. and Zantwijk, T., Art. “Urteil,” in: Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, vol. 11 (2001).
Goerke, Heinz, Carl von Linné (2nd edn. 1989), Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft.
Gregor, Mary, “Kant's Theory of Property,” in: Hruschka, S. Byrd and J (eds.), Kant and Law (2006), Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 109–139.
Guyer, Paul, “Kantian Foundations for Liberalism,” Jahrbuch für Recht und Ethik, vol. 5 (1997), pp. 121–140.
Guyer, Paul, “Kant's Deductions of the Principles of Right,” in: Timmons, M. (ed.), Kant's Metaphysics of Morals (2002), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 23–64.
Hare, Richard Mervyn, Freedom and Reason (1963), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Herb, Karlfriedrich and Ludwig, Bernd, “Kants kritisches Staatsrecht,” Jahrbuch für Recht und Ethik, vol. 2 (1994), pp. 431–478.
Hill, Jr ., Thomas, E., Human Welfare and Moral Worth (2002), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hill, Jr ., Thomas, E., “Kant on Punishment: A Coherent Mix of Deterrence and Retribution?,” Jahrbuch für Recht und Ethik, vol. 5 (1997), pp. 291–314.
Hill, Jr ., Thomas, E., “Questions about Kant's Opposition to Revolution,” The Journal of Value Inquiry, vol. 36 (2002), pp. 283–298.
Hruschka, Joachim, Das deontologische Sechseck bei Gottfried Achenwall – Zur Geschichte der deontischen Grundbegriffe in der Universaljurisprudenz zwischen Suarez und Kant (1986), Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Hruschka, Joachim, “Das deontologische Sechseck in der Jurisprudenz,” in: Krause, al. (eds.), Recht der Wirtschaft und der Arbeit in Europa – Gedächtnisschrift für Wolfgang Blomeyer (2004), Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 775–788.
Hruschka, Joachim, “Die Notwehr im Zusammenhang von Kants Rechtslehre,” Zeitschrift für die gesamte Strafrechtswissenschaft, vol. 115 (2003), pp. 201–223.
Hruschka, Joachim, “Die Person als Zweck an sich selbst,” JuristenZeitung (1990), pp. 1–15.
Hruschka, Joachim, “Die Unschuldsvermutung in der Rechtsphilosophie der Aufklärung,” Zeitschrift für die gesamte Strafrechtswissenschaft, vol. 112 (2000), pp. 285–300.
Hruschka, Joachim, “Kant on Human Dignity,” in: Hruschka, S. Byrd and J. (eds.), Kant and Law (2006), Aldershot: Ashgate.
Hruschka, Joachim, “The Permissive Law of Practical Reason in Kant's Metaphysics of Morals,” Law and Philosophy, vol. 23 (2004), pp. 45–72.
Hüning, Dieter, “Kants Strafrechtstheorie und das jus talionis,” in: Hüning, D., Michel, K., and Thomas, A. (eds.), Aufklärung durch Kritik. Festschrift für Manfred Baum zum 65. Geburtstag (2004), Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 333–360.
Joerden, Jan C., Staatswesen und rechtsstaatlicher Anspruch (2008), Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.
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