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Chapter 2 - The Intertidal Zone of the North-East Atlantic Region

Pattern and Process

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 September 2019

Stephen J. Hawkins
Affiliation:
Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth
Katrin Bohn
Affiliation:
Natural England
Louise B. Firth
Affiliation:
University of Plymouth
Gray A. Williams
Affiliation:
The University of Hong Kong
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Summary

The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.

Type
Chapter
Information
Interactions in the Marine Benthos
Global Patterns and Processes
, pp. 7 - 46
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

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