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One-third of patients with depression do not respond satisfactorily to treatment, and approximately 20% of all patients treated for depression develop a chronic depression. One approach to more effective treatment of chronic and treatment-resistant depression is to target rumination – an underlying mechanism implicated in the development and maintenance of depression.
The purpose of this uncontrolled group study was to investigate the feasibility of individual rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (RfCBT) for patients with chronic and treatment-resistant depression.
A total of 10 patients with chronic and treatment-resistant depression were offered 12–16 individual sessions of RfCBT. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms as measured by Hamilton Depression Scale at pre-, post- and 3-month follow-up. Secondary symptoms measured included self-reported rumination and worry.
There was a significant reduction in depressive symptoms (p < 0.05), rumination (p < 0.01) and worry (p < 0.5) from pre- to post-treatment. Half of the participants (n = 5) showed significant reliable change on levels of depressive symptoms post-treatment. The reduction in depressive symptoms, rumination and worry were maintained at follow-up.
RfCBT was associated with significant reductions in depressive symptoms in a small sample with chronic and treatment-resistant depression. Despite limitations of being a small uncontrolled study with limited follow-up, these results are promising in a difficult to treat population. RfCBT warrants further systematic evaluation.
The period before the formation of a persecutory delusion may provide causal insights. Patient accounts are invaluable in informing this understanding.
To inform the understanding of delusion formation, we asked patients about the occurrence of potential causal factors – identified from a cognitive model – before delusion onset.
A total of 100 patients with persecutory delusions completed a checklist about their subjective experiences in the weeks before belief onset. The checklist included items concerning worry, images, low self-esteem, poor sleep, mood dysregulation, dissociation, manic-type symptoms, aberrant salience, hallucinations, substance use and stressors. Time to reach certainty in the delusion was also assessed.
Most commonly it took patients several months to reach delusion certainty (n = 30), although other patients took a few weeks (n = 24), years (n = 21), knew instantly (n = 17) or took a few days (n = 6). The most frequent experiences occurring before delusion onset were: low self-confidence (n = 84); excessive worry (n = 80); not feeling like normal self (n = 77); difficulties concentrating (n = 77); going over problems again and again (n = 75); being very negative about the self (n = 75); images of bad things happening (n = 75); and sleep problems (n = 75). The average number of experiences occurring was high (mean 23.5, s.d. = 8.7). The experiences clustered into six main types, with patients reporting an average of 5.4 (s.d. = 1.0) different types.
Patients report numerous different experiences in the period before full persecutory delusion onset that could be contributory causal factors, consistent with a complex multifactorial view of delusion occurrence. This study, however, relied on retrospective self-report and could not determine causality.
Late-life depression, falls, and fall worry are public health problems. While previous research confirms the cross-sectional relationship between depression and fall worry, few longitudinal studies have examined whether changes in fall worry are associated with changes in depressive illness and vice versa. This study examined longitudinal relationships between probable major depression (PMD) and activity-limiting fall worry (ALW).
Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements:
This longitudinal panel observational study used data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) waves 5 (referred to as T1 in this study) and 6 (T2), conducted in 2015 and 2016, respectively (N = 6,299, aged 65 and older). We examined associations of new and continued ALW between T1 and T2 with T2 PMD, controlling for T1 PMD; and associations of new and continued PMD between T1 and T2 with T2 ALW, controlling for T1 ALW. We used χ2 and t tests for descriptive statistics and logistic regression for multivariable analysis.
Those with new ALW at T2 had significantly greater odds of T2 PMD compared to those without ALW at both time points (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.98−3.51), and those with new PMD at T2 had significantly greater odds of T2 ALW (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.66−3.52). Those with continued PMD also had greater odds of T2 ALW compared to those without PMD at either time point (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.62−3.29).
The findings add to knowledge about bidirectional (mutually reinforcing) relationships between depression and activity-limiting fall worry. Innovative interventions are needed to reduce both late-life depression and activity-limiting fall worry.
Objective: Increased levels of worry, age, and presence of the apolipoprotein-E (ApoE)-ε4 allele are associated with the risk of developing cognitive declines and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Odor memory performance has been shown to vary as a function of age and ApoE genotype, and odor memory tests are sensitive to preclinical AD. Worry is known to influence verbal memory; however, its effects on odor memory are unknown. This study aimed to assess the relationships between worry, age, and ε4 status on odor memory. Method: Worry was evaluated for young (n = 53) and older (n = 45) adults using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Odor memory was assessed using the California Odor Learning Test, an olfactory analogue to the California Verbal Learning Test. Results: A significant main effect of worry on long-delay free recall was found, such that increasing worry was associated with better recall across age and ε4 status. A significant interaction effect between ε4 status and worry on both short-and long-delay cued recall was found, such that across age, higher worry was associated with increased cued recall scores among ε4-negative adults, and decreased scores among ε4-positive adults. Conclusions: Findings demonstrated that worry influences odor memory and exerts a particular effect on cued recall among ε4 carriers who are at a greater risk of developing AD. Worry is a modifiable predictor of cognitive decline and risk of dementia in aging. Future studies on the effects of treatments aimed at reducing worry (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapies for anxiety) on changes in cognitive functioning are warranted.
The cognitive process of worry, which keeps negative thoughts in mind and elaborates the content, contributes to the occurrence of many mental health disorders. Our principal aim was to develop a straightforward measure of general problematic worry suitable for research and clinical treatment. Our secondary aim was to develop a measure of problematic worry specifically concerning paranoid fears.
An item pool concerning worry in the past month was evaluated in 250 non-clinical individuals and 50 patients with psychosis in a worry treatment trial. Exploratory factor analysis and item response theory (IRT) informed the selection of scale items. IRT analyses were repeated with the scales administered to 273 non-clinical individuals, 79 patients with psychosis and 93 patients with social anxiety disorder. Other clinical measures were administered to assess concurrent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed with 75 participants. Sensitivity to change was assessed with 43 patients with psychosis.
A 10-item general worry scale (Dunn Worry Questionnaire; DWQ) and a five-item paranoia worry scale (Paranoia Worries Questionnaire; PWQ) were developed. All items were highly discriminative (DWQ a = 1.98–5.03; PWQ a = 4.10–10.7), indicating small increases in latent worry lead to a high probability of item endorsement. The DWQ was highly informative across a wide range of the worry distribution, whilst the PWQ had greatest precision at clinical levels of paranoia worry. The scales demonstrated excellent internal reliability, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and sensitivity to change.
The new measures of general problematic worry and worry about paranoid fears have excellent psychometric properties.
Background: Cognitive exposure, a treatment of choice for hypothetical fears, involves listening repeatedly to a recorded scenario of one's worst hypothetical fear. A major limitation, however, is that the script cannot be easily modified. Aims: The current study assessed the feasibility of a brief guided internet-based written exposure therapy (iWET) for hypothetical fears, Mind at Peace. Method: Fifty-three adults presenting clinical levels of anxiety (GAD-7 ≥ 8) and worry (PSWQ ≥ 45) were recruited. A single group pre-test/post-test design including a 3-month follow-up was used. Mind at Peace is a 6-week iWET consisting of psychoeducation and five 30-minute weekly writing exposure sessions. Feasibility outcome measures included treatment adherence, attrition, treatment acceptability and preliminary efficacy. Primary outcome measures were the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). Results: Attrition was higher (57%) and adherence lower (28%) than expected. Intent-to-treat repeated measures ANOVAs revealed significant and large improvements on the GAD-7 (ƞp2 = 0.36) and the PSWQ (ƞp2 = 0.23) with similar findings among study completers. Remission rates were higher on the GAD-7 than on the PSWQ, suggesting that Mind at Peace may primarily target general symptoms of generalized anxiety. Rates of acceptability varied, but nearly all study completers reported that they would recommend this treatment to a friend. Conclusions: This study provided valuable information on Mind at Peace. Methodological changes are proposed to improve its feasibility. A more definitive trial incorporating suggested methodological improvements is recommended.
Previous research suggests that CBT focusing on worry in those with persecutory delusions reduces paranoia, severity of delusions and associated distress. This preliminary case series aimed to see whether it is feasible and acceptable to deliver worry-focused CBT in a group setting to those with psychosis. A secondary aim was to examine possible clinical changes. Two groups totalling 11 participants were run for seven sessions using the Worry Intervention Trial manual. Qualitative and quantitative data about the experience of being in the group was also collected via questionnaires, as was data on number of sessions attended. Measures were delivered pre- and post-group and at 3-month follow-up. These included a worry scale, a measure of delusional belief and associated distress and quality of life measures. Of the 11 participants who started the group, nine completed the group. Qualitative and quantitative feedback indicated that most of the participants found it acceptable and helpful, and that discussing these issues in a group setting was not only tolerable but often beneficial. Reliable Change Index indicated that 6/7 of the group members showed reliable reductions in their levels of worry post-group and 5/7 at follow-up. There were positive changes on other measures, which appeared to be more pronounced at follow-up. Delivering a worry intervention in a group format appears to be acceptable and feasible. Further research with a larger sample and control group is indicated to test the clinical effectiveness of this intervention.
Key learning aims
(1)To understand the role of worry in psychosis.
(2)To learn about the possible feasibility of working on worry in a group setting.
(3)To be aware of potential clinical changes from the group.
(4)To consider acceptability for participants of working on worries in a group setting.
Self-practice/self-reflection (SP/SR) allows cognitive behavioural therapists (CBT) to self-experience the techniques they use clinically. However, it is difficult to find published first-hand accounts of CBT therapists’ SP/SR experiences. This may be because CBT research is primarily positivist and objective, while SP/SR is intrinsically subjective. Borrowing from the principles of autoethnography may offer a subjectivist qualitative methodology, allowing CBT therapists to write up their SP/SR experiences as rich, first-hand research material, potentially impacting theory and practice. This novel personal case study of SP/SR borrows from autoethnography, adapting it to analyse the self-practice of the CBT model of worry, in order to understand my own experience of worry as well as the model itself.
Key learning aims
(1) To develop an approach to the research that is applicable to first-hand SP/SR material.
(2) To demonstrate how therapists can continue SP/SR practice post-CBT training.
(3) To illustrate how, with the aid of autoethnographic principles, SP/SR practice can influence not only the practitioner’s personal and therapist-self, but also theory development.
This study examined the role of social support in managing worry among a sample of Malaysian adults. An online questionnaire was completed by 136 participants (age M = 34, SD = 7.65; 71% female, 29% male). Each wrote open-ended, essay-type descriptions of their experiences with social support in relation to worry, as well as completing measures of pathological worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), normal worry (Worry Domains Questionnaire), and perceived social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support). Results indicated that young adults experienced a higher degree of normal worry compared to older adults, but pathological worry was not significantly different between the two groups. No significant differences in worry were found in relation to gender, ethnicity or marital status. Perceived social support was negatively related to levels of both normal and pathological worry. Qualitative analyses pointed towards four important roles for social support: providing a sense of belonging and security, providing emotional relief or catharsis, helping to reappraise situations, and facilitating problem-solving and decision-making. The role of social support as a secure base that facilitates emotion management and helps to ground thinking is discussed.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line strategy in reducing or delaying risk of transition to psychosis among young individuals with at-risk mental states (ARMS). However, there is little knowledge about its effects on other outcomes associated with ARMS. No study on CBT for ARMS has assessed worry, an important process associated with this condition. The present study investigated changes in worry at immediate post-treatment and 14-month follow-up after CBT for young individuals with ARMS seeking psychiatric care in mental health services. Thirty-seven young individuals (mean age = 26 years, SD = 6.07; 22.20% female) seeking psychiatric care in mental health services and classified as reporting ARMS through the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States were included. The Positive And Negative Syndrome Scales (PANSS) and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) were administered at baseline, post-treatment, and follow-up. CBT consisted of 30 weekly individual 1-hour sessions based on a validated CBT for ARMS manual enriched with components targeting worry [psychoeducation, problem-solving, (meta)cognitive restructuring, behavioural experiments]. Seven participants (18.91%) at follow-up had cumulatively made transition to psychosis. Repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc pairwise comparisons showed significant changes in PSWQ scores from baseline to post-treatment and from baseline to follow-up; PSWQ scores remained stable from post-treatment to follow-up. This is the first study investigating changes in worry after CBT for ARMS, which appears to be a promising strategy also for this outcome. Future research with a larger sample size and control group may determine whether changes in worry are also associated with reduced transition risk.
Key learning aims
(1)To understand CBT evidence and procedures for young individuals with ARMS.
(2)To reflect on the current limitations in the literature on CBT for ARMS.
(3)To understand the importance and clinical implications of assessing worry in ARMS.
(4)To focus on changes in worry as an outcome after CBT for ARMS.
(5)To reflect on future research directions on the role of worry in CBT for ARMS.
Worry is a common phenomenon with people who anticipate and want to be prepared for future events. Pathological worry, however, is not limited to anticipating potentially dangerous events, but it is applied to small daily events, too. This kind of worry is perceived as uncontrollable, and it is strongly associated with catastrophism. The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) was developed to assess pathological worry. Despite its excellent psychometric characteristics, its internal structure is still controversial. The combination of regular and reversed items and certain methodological considerations may account for the discrepancies in the results of previous investigations. With the aim to analyze worry in Portugal and the psychometric properties of the PSWQ, for the present study, methodological options were considered in order to minimize previous problems. A sample of 558 Portuguese community participants took part in this study. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were performed with two independent random subsamples. The results showed the unidimensionality of PSWQ and the psychometric adequacy of both the full, 16-item version and a reduced, 11-item version (without reversed scored items). Normative data are presented, the suitability of both versions is discussed, and the authors conclude by encouraging the use of the reduced, 11-item version of the PSWQ in applied settings.
Anxiety and worry are central symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) that have been theorized to negatively impact cognitive functions. However, most of the research has focused on threat-related or emotionally-charged stimuli, and a surprisingly small number of investigations examined ‘cold’ cognitive functions using classic neuropsychological tests. Such investigations are particularly important given that some theoretical models suggest compensatory mechanisms associated with anxiety that in certain circumstances may result in intact performance. The aim of the present study is to assess the neuropsychological profile associated with GAD, using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery.
A sample of 23 college students meeting criteria for DSM-5 GAD and 20 control participants completed a psychometrically valid comprehensive computerized neuropsychological battery and clinical questionnaires.
The GAD sample presented with significantly elevated symptomatic rates of anxiety, worry, depression and stress. However, no significant differences were found on any neuropsychological outcome measures or domain indexes. Effect sizes were small, some of which favored the GAD sample.
Despite substantial psychopathological burden, GAD exhibited intact cognitive functioning. These results support the Cognitive Control Theory of Anxiety, suggesting that elevated primary anxiety may not impact ‘cold’ cognitive functions in the absence of threat or substantial cognitive load. Given that this is one of the only studies employing a comprehensive neuropsychological battery in GAD, more research is needed in this population to replicate these results and to examine the impact of anxiety on cognitive functions at varying degrees of cognitive load in this population.
Background: Neuroticism is associated with inflated somatic symptom reporting. Worry and rumination are a cognitive concomitant of neuroticism and potentially mediate the neuroticism–somatic complaint relationship. Aims: The present study examined the degree to which worry and rumination mediated the relationship between neuroticism and somatic complaints. Method: A sample of 170 volunteers, recruited via convenience sampling, took part. Participants completed a series of self-report measures: the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Short Form, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, the Ruminative Response Scale and the Somatic Symptom Scale-8. Results: Analysis revealed significant positive correlations between neuroticism, rumination and worry. Neuroticism, rumination and worry also correlated positively with somatic complaints. Using structural equation modelling, a mediational model indicated that rumination fully mediated the relationship between neuroticism and somatic complaints. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with the symptom perception hypothesis and have implications for healthcare in terms of managing individuals who present with multiple somatic complaints. Future research would benefit from adopting a longitudinal approach to test how rumination interacts with neuroticism and somatic complaints over time.
Excessive worry is a defining feature of generalized anxiety disorder and is present in a wide range of other psychiatric conditions. Therefore, individualized predictions of worry propensity could be highly relevant in clinical practice, with respect to the assessment of worry symptom severity at the individual level.
We applied a multivariate machine learning approach to predict dispositional worry based on microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) tracts.
We demonstrated that the machine learning model was able to decode individual dispositional worry scores from microstructural properties in widely distributed WM tracts (mean absolute error = 10.46, p < 0.001; root mean squared error = 12.82, p < 0.001; prediction R2 = 0.17, p < 0.001). WM tracts that contributed to worry prediction included the posterior limb of internal capsule, anterior corona radiate, and cerebral peduncle, as well as the corticolimbic pathways (e.g. uncinate fasciculus, cingulum, and fornix) already known to be critical for emotion processing and regulation.
The current work thus elucidates potential neuromarkers for clinical assessment of worry symptoms across a wide range of psychiatric disorders. In addition, the identification of widely distributed pathways underlying worry propensity serves to better improve the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with worry.
Background: A one-to-one cognitive behavioural therapy intervention targeting worry significantly reduces both worry and persecutory delusions (Freeman et al., 2015). Aim: To adapt this intervention for group delivery and conduct a feasibility trial within routine clinical practice. Method: Thirteen participants were randomized to a weekly 8-session worry intervention group (n = 7) or wait-list control (n = 6). Results: All but one participant completed measures at all time points. Participants attended an average of six therapy sessions. Conclusions: Recruitment, retention and therapy uptake were feasible. Observed treatment effects were in the expected direction, but may be diluted compared with one-to-one interventions.
Non-psychotic affective symptoms are important components of psychotic syndromes. They are frequent and are now thought to influence the emergence of paranoia and hallucinations. Evidence supporting this model of psychosis comes from recent cross-fertilising epidemiological and intervention studies. Epidemiological studies identify plausible targets for intervention but must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, causal inference can be strengthened substantially using modern statistical methods.
Directed Acyclic Graphs were used in a dynamic Bayesian network approach to learn the overall dependence structure of chosen variables. DAG-based inference identifies the most likely directional links between multiple variables, thereby locating them in a putative causal cascade. We used initial and 18-month follow-up data from the 2000 British National Psychiatric Morbidity survey (N = 8580 and N = 2406).
We analysed persecutory ideation, hallucinations, a range of affective symptoms and the effects of cannabis and problematic alcohol use. Worry was central to the links between symptoms, with plausible direct effects on insomnia, depressed mood and generalised anxiety, and recent cannabis use. Worry linked the other affective phenomena with paranoia. Hallucinations were connected only to worry and persecutory ideation. General anxiety, worry, sleep problems, and persecutory ideation were strongly self-predicting. Worry and persecutory ideation were connected over the 18-month interval in an apparent feedback loop.
These results have implications for understanding dynamic processes in psychosis and for targeting psychological interventions. The reciprocal influence of worry and paranoia implies that treating either symptom is likely to ameliorate the other.
Background: High comorbidity rates among emotional disorders have led researchers to examine transdiagnostic factors that may contribute to shared psychopathology. Bifactor models provide a unique method for examining transdiagnostic variables by modelling the common and unique factors within measures. Previous findings suggest that the bifactor model of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) may provide a method for examining transdiagnostic factors within emotional disorders. Aims: This study aimed to replicate the bifactor model of the DASS, a multidimensional measure of psychological distress, within a US adult sample and provide initial estimates of the reliability of the general and domain-specific factors. Furthermore, this study hypothesized that Worry, a theorized transdiagnostic variable, would show stronger relations to general emotional distress than domain-specific subscales. Method: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the bifactor model structure of the DASS in 456 US adult participants (279 females and 177 males, mean age 35.9 years) recruited online. Results: The DASS bifactor model fitted well (CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.05). The General Emotional Distress factor accounted for most of the reliable variance in item scores. Domain-specific subscales accounted for modest portions of reliable variance in items after accounting for the general scale. Finally, structural equation modelling indicated that Worry was strongly predicted by the General Emotional Distress factor. Conclusions: The DASS bifactor model is generalizable to a US community sample and General Emotional Distress, but not domain-specific factors, strongly predict the transdiagnostic variable Worry.
This article examines the associations of quantitatively refined trajectories of adjustment to cancer survivorship determined by previously published qualitative narrative analysis.
Patients completed measures of cancer-related worry (Cancer Related Worries Scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), posttraumatic growth (Benefit Finding Scale), and open-ended survey questions 6, 12, and 18 months postdiagnosis of head and neck, esophageal, gastric, or colorectal cancer. Previously published narrative analysis revealed five distinct survivorship “paths,” which were combined into four paths in the present article: Moving On, Seeing the World Differently, Taking One Day at a Time, and Never the Same. To determine the association of qualitatively determined paths with quantitatively assessed adjustment (i.e., Cancer Related Worries Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Benefit Finding Scale), we used linear multilevel modeling to regress the adjustment variables on time, path, the time-by-path interaction, and relevant covariates (age, stage, cancer site, ethnicity, and Deyo score).
There was a significant main effect of path on cancer worry, depression, and posttraumatic growth (p < 0.02 for all). Patients in the Moving On group reported consistently low worry, depression, and growth compared to the other groups. Patients in the Seeing the World Differently and Taking One Day at a Time paths both reported moderate worry and depression; but those in the Seeing the World Differently path reported the highest posttraumatic growth, whereas patients in the Taking One Day at a Time path reported little growth. Finally, patients in the Never the Same path reported the highest worry and depression but lowest posttraumatic growth.
Significance of results
This longitudinal study reinforces the notion that cancer survivorship is not a one-size-fits-all experience nor a dichotomized experience of “distress” or “no distress.” Additionally, this hypothesis-generating study suggests future directions for potential self-report measures to help clinicians identify cancer survivors’ trajectory to develop a more patient-centered survivorship care plan.
This study examined how financial strain, worry about having no care-giver and social engagement modify the association between widowhood and depressive symptoms among older adults in China. Using national representative data from older adults in China in 2006, we ran structural equation models and ordinary least square regressions to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of financial strain, worry about having no care-giver and social engagement on the association between widowhood and depressive symptoms. All three variables significantly mediated the association between widowhood and depressive symptoms. Compared to their married counterparts, widowed older adults showed more worry about having no care-giver, increased financial strain and lower social engagement, which were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Higher level of worry about having no care-giver and lower social engagement significantly exacerbated the adverse effects of widowhood on depressive symptoms in the moderation analyses. Our finding of mediating effects suggests that widowhood is negatively related to psychological wellbeing via financial strain, social engagement and care resources. The results regarding moderating effects suggest that alleviating worry about having no care-giver and increasing social engagement may buffer the deleterious effect of widowhood on psychological wellbeing in later life.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are co-morbid and associated with similar neural disruptions during emotion regulation. In contrast, the lack of optimism examined here may be specific to GAD and could prove an important biomarker for that disorder.
Unmedicated individuals with GAD (n = 18) and age-, intelligence quotient- and gender-matched SAD (n = 18) and healthy (n = 18) comparison individuals were scanned while contemplating likelihoods of high- and low-impact negative (e.g. heart attack; heartburn) or positive (e.g. winning lottery; hug) events occurring to themselves in the future.
As expected, healthy subjects showed significant optimistic bias (OB); they considered themselves significantly less likely to experience future negative but significantly more likely to experience future positive events relative to others (p < 0.001). This was also seen in SAD, albeit at trend level for positive events (p < 0.001 and p < 0.10, respectively). However, GAD patients showed no OB for positive events (t17 = 0.82, n.s.) and showed significantly reduced neural modulation relative to the two other groups of regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and caudate to these events (p < 0.001 for all). The GAD group further differed from the other groups by showing increased neural responses to low-impact events in regions including the rostral mPFC (p < 0.05 for both).
The neural dysfunction identified here may represent a unique feature associated with reduced optimism and increased worry about everyday events in GAD. Consistent with this possibility, patients with SAD did not show such dysfunction. Future studies should consider if this dysfunction represents a biomarker for GAD.