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Throughout September and October 1918, Allied forces made a series of offensives that threatened and destabilised the last of the German Army’s defensive positions on the Western Front. The BEF broke through German lines between the Schelde and the Sambre rivers in early November, leading to the capture of hundreds of German prisoners and scores of field and heavy siege guns. Suffering a series of defeats from which it could never recover, the German Army collapsed. An armistice was signed at Compiègne on 11 November 1918, bringing an end to four years of fighting on the Western Front. German sailors of the High Seas Fleet had by then mutinied at Kiel, Kaiser Wilhelm II had abdicated and moved to Holland, and Germany was in the midst of revolution. The war had ended, and for 2.5 million Allied prisoners in German captivity, the day of being released after years of deprivation and hardship had finally arrived.
In this article – a review article preceding a series of articles in this themed section considering specific aspects of the impacts and implementation processes of the Welsh legislation – we contextualise the introduction of the prevention agenda in Wales by defining homelessness and highlighting the shift towards prevention policy in an international context. We consider the nature of prevention, and examine related theoretical debates, critiques and the cost/benefits of prevention. We conclude by offering some reflections on the progress of homelessness prevention since the Act’s implementation drawing on data from the longitudinal post-implementation evaluation of the Housing Act (Wales) 2014.
The Great Orme Bronze Age copper mine in Wales is one of Europe's largest, although its size has been attributed to a small-scale, seasonal labour force working for nearly a millennium. Here, the authors report the results of interdisciplinary research that provides evidence that Great Orme was the focus of Britain's first mining boom, c. 1600–1400 BC, probably involving a full-time mining community and the wide distribution of metalwork from Brittany to Sweden. This new interpretation suggests greater integration than previously suspected of Great Orme metal into the European Bronze Age trade/exchange networks, as well as more complex local and regional socio-economic interactions.
The Introduction provides the background that led to the founding of the RCM. It argues that its vision came out of the musical achievements of August Manns and George Grove at the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, which hosted London’s first permanent concert orchestra. It suggests that the long-established trope of the ‘English Musical Renaissance’ gives a misleadingly composer-centric view of the late Victorian British musical condition, which ignores the vitality of the different participative musical cultures of the time, such as brass and wind bands or choral singing. It demonstrates how different Grove’s conception of the RCM was from the then-failing RAM in providing a complete and systematic musical training. It relates the attraction of the RCM’s education to the fact that examined accreditation for music teachers (the ARCM) was now a worthwhile professional investment. The Introduction presents one of the book’s central arguments, that from a national perspective, the College is as important for its students who worked to raise musical standards locally as for its star performers and composers.
New South Wales was very late to receive the Judiacture Act system that effected fusion, and has been significant in discussions of fusion since for that reason. But did New South Wales need to administer law and equity separately in the first place? This chapter shows that when the Supreme Court was established, law and equity were administered without different courts or parts of the one court. There was already fusion, in that sense. But later, under colonial instruction, the fused court was differentiated when rules of court were made to replicate the procedures of the Court of Chancery at Westminster. In time, that differentiation became entrenched, and acquired some of the defects of the dual system abolished in England in 1875. Although the original set-up of the court did not require fusion – since it was already fused – by the 1960s fusion was needed, and came in 1972. The chapter shows the influence of local judicial figures and local events on experiences of fusion.
The nationalist Welsh colony in Patagonia, Y Wladfa, offers a peripheral vantage point from which to reconsider core assumptions about settler colonialism and the British World. Taking a fresh approach to settler colonial studies, this article both pays close attention to settler motives before embarkation and also analyses the case from a global perspective. It foregrounds the role of unequal power relations in Britain, the British World, and the global arena in shaping social relations at home and in the colony, as well as locating Y Wladfa within a constellation of Welsh sites and influences around the world. Analysis reveals the Welsh to occupy a complex position within such global hierarchies, and to be colonizing Patagonia from a colonized position. As such, this case at the margins of settler power reveals important ambiguities, tensions, and affinities that challenge assumptions in settler colonial theory, and open spaces that might enrich and deepen analysis of this fundamentally global relationship of power.
Recent funding from Welsh Government for mental health has helped to develop liaison psychiatry services in Wales. Systematic data collection was undertaken to map the liaison psychiatry services in Wales in collaboration with the Royal College of Psychiatrists in Wales and Public Health Wales 1000 Lives Improvement. A questionnaire was designed and circulated to all the health boards in Wales to gather information to map liaison psychiatry services in Wales. Up-to-date information was confirmed in January 2018, via email.
Over the past 2 years, liaison psychiatry services have been set up in six out of seven health boards in Wales. Staffing levels have increased and the remit of services has broadened.
Mapping has highlighted that liaison psychiatry services in Wales continue to evolve. It will be important to continue to monitor these developments and their effects. Comparison with services in England will provide a useful comparison of service provision. A particular challenge will be to establish and monitor liaison psychiatry standards in Wales.
A total of eight foxhound packs in England and Wales were screened for Echinococcus species using a genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and for Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Echinococcus equinus by coproPCR. Main screening (n = 364 hounds) occurred during 2010–2011 wherein a quarter (25.6%) of the foxhound fecal samples tested were Echinococcus coproantigen-positive (93/364). In total, five of eight (62.5%) hunts screened had coproantigen-positive hounds; coproantigen prevalence for individual foxhound packs ranged from 0 to 61.2% and was shown to be >30% in three hunts (in counties of Powys, Wales and Northumberland, England). Foxhound fecal samples from six of the eight tested hunts (four Welsh and two English hunts) were positive by coproPCR for E. granulosus s.l (including one sequence confirmation of E. granulosus sensu stricto) and E. equinus DNA. Analysis of hunt questionnaire data suggested that there was an association between poor foxhound husbandry, especially feeding practices and Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence. Clearer guidelines regarding the risk of canine echinococcosis are required for safe management of foxhound hunts in England and Wales.
Caloplaca sol is described as a new species from limestone and basic siliceous rocks on the southern and western coasts of Great Britain. It is characterized by a well-developed, crustose, non-placodioid, epilithic, cracked, orange-yellow thallus, almost concolorous apothecia up to 0·66 mm diameter, and ascospores c. 11·0–12·2–13·0 µm long with a septum c. 0·4×the ascospore length. Caloplaca dalmatica is related but differs in the endolithic or only thinly epilithic thallus. Caloplaca marina is darker orange in colour, with more convex areoles, and is mostly confined to the splash zone of the seashore. Caloplaca maritima differs in the typically more convex, sometimes isolated areoles, and often in the presence of a crenulate thalline margin in young apothecia. Caloplaca itiana is newly reported from Great Britain from coastal limestone; it differs from C. sol in the thallus being endolithic or almost so, and from C. dalmatica in the more completely endolithic thallus and the larger ascospores.
Descriptions, illustrations, discussion and an identification key are presented for six saxicolous and terricolous species of the lichen genus Bacidia De Not. occurring in temperate Australia and Tasmania. Three species are described as new to science: B. lithophila Kantvilas from northern Tasmania, characterized by having only brown apothecial pigments and 3–5-septate, acicular ascospores, 23–35×1·5–2·0 µm; B. littoralis Kantvilas from Tasmania, South Australia (Kangaroo Island) and New South Wales, characterized by green and brown apothecial pigments and acicular, 3–7-septate ascospores, 24–48×2·0–3·5 µm; and B. maccarthyi Kantvilas from New South Wales, with pruinose apothecia and long, filiform, 17–25-septate ascospores, 65–115×2·5–4·0 µm. Three further species are reported for the region for the first time: B. bagliettoana (A. Massal. & de Not.) Jatta (Tasmania), B. curvispora Coppins & Fryday (Tasmania) and B. scopulicola (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. (Tasmania, Victoria).
A series of projects by Gwynedd Archaeological Trust has identified two significant sites on the island of Anglesey. The first is a trading settlement on the shore of the Menai Strait which provides evidence for a hitherto unknown level of Romanisation in the remote west of the province. The second is a late first- to early second-century fortlet on the northern coast of the island that probably functioned as both a navigational aid and a point of strength at a landing place. The presence of a fourth-century watchtower on Carmel Head was also confirmed by excavation and its role in the late Roman coastal defence system is considered.
The long-distance transport of the Stonehenge bluestones from the Mynydd Preseli area of north Pembrokeshire was first proposed by geologist H.H. Thomas in 1923. For over 80 years, his work on the provenancing of the Stonehenge bluestones from locations in Mynydd Preseli in south Wales has been accepted at face value. New analytical techniques, alongside transmitted and reflected light microscopy, have recently prompted renewed scrutiny of Thomas's work. While respectable for its time, the results of these new analyses, combined with a thorough checking of the archived samples consulted by Thomas, reveal that key locations long believed to be sources for the Stonehenge bluestones can be discounted in favour of newly identified locations at Craig-Rhos-y-felin and Carn Goedog.
This article challenges the dominant historical paradigms used to analyze imperial plant and animal transfers by examining the role of fodder crops in early colonial development in New South Wales and the Cape of Good Hope. In Alfred Crosby's enduring formulation of ecological imperialism—that is, the ecological transformation of temperate colonies of settlement by European plants, animals, and pathogens—was a largely independent process. To Crosby's critics, his grand narrative fails to acknowledge the technocratic management of plant and animal transfers on the part of increasingly long-armed colonial states from the mid-nineteenth century. Yet neither approach can adequately explain the period between the decline of Britain's Atlantic empire in the 1780s and the rise of its global empire in the 1830s, a period dominated by an aggressive ethos of agrarian improvement but lacking the institutional teeth of a more evolved imperial state. Traveling fodder crops link these embryonic antipodean colonies to the luminaries of the Agricultural Revolution in Britain. The attempt to transfer fodder-centric mixed husbandry to these colonies points to an emerging coalition of imperial ambition and scientific expertise in the late eighteenth-century British Empire.
Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infections are one of the commonest causes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In order to determine if there have been any recent changes in HPIV epidemiology in England and Wales, laboratory surveillance data between 1998 and 2013 were analysed. The UK national laboratory surveillance database, LabBase, and the newly established laboratory-based virological surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), were used. Descriptive analysis was performed to examine the distribution of cases by year, age, sex and serotype, and to examine the overall temporal trend using the χ2 test. A random-effects model was also employed to model the number of cases. Sixty-eight per cent of all HPIV detections were due to HPIV type 3 (HPIV-3). HPIV-3 infections were detected all year round but peaked annually between March and June. HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 circulated at lower levels accounting for 20% and 8%, respectively, peaking during the last quarter of the year with a biennial cycle. HPIV-4 was detected in smaller numbers, accounting for only 4% and also mainly observed in the last quarter of the year. However, in recent years, HPIV-4 detection has been reported much more commonly with an increase from 0% in 1998 to 3·7% in 2013. Although an overall higher proportion of HPIV infection was reported in infants (43·0%), a long-term decreasing trend in proportion in infants was observed. An increase was also observed in older age groups. Continuous surveillance will be important in tracking any future changes.
Diverse and well-preserved acritarchs are reported from the type section of the Cambrian Hanford Brook Formation at Hanford Brook, southern New Brunswick. This section fills an important gap in acritarch studies by providing the first detailed picture of changing acritarch associations close to the traditional lower–middle Cambrian boundary in Avalonia. Acritarchs from the St Martins Member, at the base of the succession, include Skiagia ciliosa, Heliosphaeridium notatum, H. longum and Liepaina plana and suggest attribution to Cambrian Stage 4. Acritarchs from the Somerset Street Member, in the middle of the formation, include Eliasum llaniscum and Comasphaeridium silesiense. This information adds new biochronological context to an ash bed in the Somerset Street Member previously dated as c. 510 Ma or 508 Ma, and to the endemic trilobites from the same member, including Protolenus elegans. It also places absolute ages on the basal range of stratigraphically important acritarchs. Both the acritarch assemblage and the radiometric age are consistent with a position very close to the traditional lower–middle Cambrian transition and likely within Cambrian Stage 5. Acritarchs from the Long Island Member, at the top of the succession, include additional taxa demonstrating assignment to Cambrian Stage 5. Both the Somerset Street and Long Island members probably correlate with the Morocconus notabilis Zone. The new acritarch species Retisphaeridium striatum Palacios is described. New data are presented on acritarchs from the upper part of the Hell's Mouth Formation, Wales, and correlation proposed with the Long Island Member.
In this article Michael Maher, Librarian of the Law Society of England and Wales, examines the history of the extensive library on Chancery Lane, the range of services it provides to help support its members (including their agents i.e. law librarians) and the future plans for the library.
In the 150th anniversary year of both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and the inception of the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting (ICLR) this article by Alison Million considers any possible common contemporaneous connections between their authors. It makes particular reference to Lewis Carroll's legal associations and his fascination with the processes of law, considering to what extent these may have influenced Alice. In briefly reviewing ICLR history and the instigating factors behind reform it looks at the requisite skills needed finally to devise a successful scheme and any potential overlap between those and some of Lewis Carroll's many subject disciplines. The article concludes that just as the law helped shape Alice, so has Alice contributed to English case law by providing a descriptor for “perfect nonsense”.
Porina rivalis Orange is described as new from rocks in streams in Great Britain. The involucrellum is yellow or orange within, but dark grey to purplish red at the surface; the ascospores are 3-septate, 13·0–18·5×4·0–5·5 μm.
Although there has been a divergence in the development of youth policy across the UK, no country comparisons have been undertaken and a gap exists in the literature. This article focuses on the emergence of youth policy in England and Wales under New Labour (1997–2010), providing a cross-national comparison of policy developments in both countries. It critically explores the impact of the context for policy development and the policy content of both countries' key youth policies. The research found significant differences between the two, despite their common goals, with implications for future policy makers. This article identifies these differences, and the key similarities, providing a theoretical understanding of them and indicating lessons to inform future youth policy.