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Australian higher education policy espouses the need to expose students to Indigenous knowledges, cultures and pedagogies by embedding appropriate content into the curriculum. One way to overcome the challenges of guest speakers, lack of capacity and a crowded curriculum is to use digital materials regularly during lectures and tutorials. Videos have been shown to create empathy and emotional connection between students and the storyteller. The Voices project consisted of 12 semi-structured conversations with local Indigenous people covering a range of topics, each of which was edited for particular topics and courses to avoid student resistance to difficult material and avoid homogenous representations of Indigenous peoples. The edited video clips were shown in class and evaluated. This research reports on formal anonymous student feedback on teaching, questionnaire responses from 115 students and 10 in-depth interviews. Findings include the authenticity, emotional connection and empathy the storytellers provide, and the need for cultural courage to reflect on one's own positionality and privilege. We argue that digital storytelling is an effective pedagogy that also engages the community and helps further the higher education agenda for culturally inclusive knowledges and perspectives.
Chapter 4 contains extensive references to exemplifications of the voice quality categories described in Chapters 1 and 2. Distinctive voice quality settings of actors, singers, media announcers, politicians, and other personalities are cited with specific references to be used as search terms to locate video and audio material online. A separate ‘Multimedia References’ section is included at the end of the text to facilitate searching. Long-term voice qualities are essentially extralinguistic, but they can also alternate among phrases of speech as paralinguistic ‘registers’. Many laryngeal postures, and their auditory output, are employed linguistically as syllabic registers or segmental units to signal contrastive lexical meaning. This is a result of the positioning of the laryngeal articulator at the beginning of the shaping of the sound stream, where background elements are easily patterned behind oral articulations. Extensive references to linguistic examples of lower-vocal-tract consonantal strictures and tonal register effects are presented within the text notes and are included among the video and audio materials online.
Most older Canadians do not engage in sufficient physical activity. There is an urgent need for outside-the-box strategies that encourage and sustain active lifestyles. Video is a promising knowledge translation (KT) tool to engage diverse audiences in discussion and action around health promoting behaviours. We adopted a KT framework to inform a structured process of video development we have named systematic approach to evidence-informed video (SAEV). This guided the creation and dissemination of a 19-minute documentary video: I’d Rather Stay (https://vimeo.com/80503957). Following screenings, we collected focus group and questionnaire data from 48 participants aged 60 years and older at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The video educated, encouraged, and activated older people around issues such as independence, physical activity and social connectedness. We encourage researchers to adopt KT strategies – and to use evidence-informed video – that older adults can relate to and critically engage with on an accessible, emotional, and intellectual level.
The aims of this exploratory study were: to investigate the process of visual art appreciation in a person with dementia, in real time; and to test the feasibility of using video-analysis as a method to explore this process by and with a person who has minimal verbal expression. Gallery personnel guided a woman with severe dementia around an exhibition. Audio-visual recordings of the interactions were analysed. Patterns were identified, and interpreted in the light of conversation analysis theory and research. Evidence was found of turn-taking vocalisations on the part of the research participant. Her participation in a dialogical process was facilitated by the skilled and empathic gallery personnel in ways that the analysis makes clear. We argue that this supports the inference that successful communicative acts took place, contrary to expectations in the light of the participant's level of disability. We demonstrate in this paper how a woman with minimal speech due to dementia was enabled to engage with visual art through the facilitation of an expert guide, attuned to her needs. This is a novel example of a person-centred approach, because it takes place outside the context of caring, which is the typical setting for examining person-centred ways of relating to individuals with dementia.
Early diagnosis of dementia allows people to access effective treatment and make advance decisions while they still have capacity. We aimed to encourage people to attend memory clinic, in order to boost rates of diagnosis. We created a patient information video about Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust Memory Clinics, to inform and empower those awaiting assessment and to promote early diagnosis.
Fourteen people (patients, carers, and staff) were approached prior to developing the video to ascertain their views on the themes the video should cover. The video consisted of unscripted interviews with patients, carers, and staff. We surveyed participants and new patients attending memory clinic to get feedback on the video and to assess patients’ level of understanding and confidence about a memory assessment before and after watching the video. The video content was refined based on this feedback and a final version was produced.
Patient feedback demonstrated that confidence and understanding increased after watching the video.
Although this study is limited by its small sample size and lack of access to those with undiagnosed dementia, feedback suggested that the video empowered and reassured those awaiting assessment and could be used as a tool to reduce barriers to early diagnosis. Patients and carers involved in making the video found it a therapeutic activity in itself.
Significant progress has been made internationally in the training of clinical supervisors, yet much remains to be done, such as refining training through the improved use of video material. A review of currently available video recordings used in supervisor training indicates that they are generally used informally, are manifestly lacking in procedural detail, are narrowly applied, and lack an educational rationale or research support. After reviewing current options, a more precise, comprehensive and educationally informed framework is proposed, broadening the video options to 10 complementary applications. Systematic links are made between these applications, the core supervision competencies, and the related workshop content (especially training objectives and learning outcomes), culminating in an educational rationale for the use of video within a supervisor training curriculum. It is concluded that application of this framework can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of supervisor training, helping to maintain progress.
In this second of a series of two articles, Daniel Bates considers some of the most popular online platforms which are available to host and promote audio and video content for purposes including knowledge-sharing, teaching, research dissemination, and profile-building.
Our aim was to evaluate caregivers' perceptions of a video, telephone follow-up, and online forum as components of a psychoeducational intervention.
Qualitative semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 12 participants two weeks post-intervention. The study was conducted from September of 2012 to May of 2015. Family caregivers were recruited from four home hospice organizations (HCA Hospice Care, Metta Hospice, Singapore Cancer Centre, and Agape Methodist Hospice) and the National Cancer Centre outpatient clinic in Singapore. A purposive sample was employed, and participants were recruited until data saturation. Qualitative interviews were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using content analysis. Two of the research team members were involved in the data analysis.
Two-thirds of participants were females (n = 8). Their ages ranged from 22 to 67 (mean = 50.50, SD = 11.53). About two-thirds were married (n = 7). Most participants were caring for a parent (n = 10), one for a spouse, and one for her mother-in-law. Caregivers favored the use of video for delivery of educational information. They liked the visual and audio aspects of the video. The ability to identify with the caregiver and scenarios in the video helped in the learning process. They appreciated telephone follow-ups from healthcare professionals for informational and emotional support. The online forum as a platform for sharing of information and provision of support was not received well by the caregivers in this study. The reasons for this included their being busy, not being computer savvy, rarely surfing the internet, and not feeling comfortable sharing with strangers on an online platform.
Significance of Results:
This study provided insight into caregivers' perceptions of various components of a psychoeducational intervention. It also gave us a better understanding of how future psychoeducational interventions and support for caregivers of persons with advanced cancer could be provided.
In his first of two articles, Daniel Bates explains the process for creating high quality audio and video recordings to capture knowledge or experience in your organisation, either for internal or external consumption. The article arises from a paper delivered at the 2015 BIALL Conference. The second article will consider the online platforms which are available to host and promote such content.
The aim of this study was twofold: we investigated (a) the effect of two types of captioned video (i.e., on-screen text in the same language as the video) on listening comprehension; (b) L2 learners’ perception of the usefulness of captions while watching L2 video. The participants, 226 university-level students from a Flemish university, watched three short French clips in one of three conditions: the control group watched the clips without captions (N = 70), the second group had fully captioned clips (N = 81), the third group had keyword captioned clips (N = 75). After each clip, all participants took a listening comprehension test, which consisted of global and detailed questions. To answer the detailed questions, participants had access to an audio passage of the corresponding clip. At the end of the experiment, participants completed a questionnaire and open-ended survey questions about their perception of captions. Our findings revealed that the full captioning group outperformed both the no captioning and the keyword captioning group on the global comprehension questions. However, no difference was found between the keyword captioning and the no captioning group. Results of the detailed comprehension questions (with audio) revealed no differences between the three conditions. A content-analysis approach to the questionnaire indicated that learners’ perceived need for full captions is strong. Participants consider captions useful for speech decoding and meaning-making processes. Surprisingly, keyword captions were considered highly distracting. These findings suggest that full rather than keyword captioning should be considered when proposing video-based listening comprehension activities to L2 learners.
The response of a deep-water megafaunal assemblage to sedimentation disturbance from hydrocarbon drilling was investigated using remotely operated vehicle video off the Atlantic coast of Venezuela. This was the first assessment of megafauna in bathyal waters in this region. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) design was used to assess patterns in density and assemblage structure both temporally, before and after the drilling event, and spatially, at different distances from the disturbance. High levels of sedimentation occurred within a radius of 20 to 50 m from the drilling site. Megafaunal densities were reduced with high levels of disturbance (from 0.60 m−2 to 0.17 m−2 <20 m from the drilling site). The responses of motile and sessile fauna were different. Sessile fauna were most common (77% total) and reflected trends for total density. Motile megafaunal density was generally higher after drilling (up to double the pre-drill density). Species richness was reduced by disturbance and proximity to the disturbance. Multivariate ANOVA revealed significant differences in assemblage composition with distance and before and after drilling but no interaction. This was most likely a result of variable species-specific responses to disturbance. Megafaunal densities were generally much higher than reported densities from comparable depths in the Gulf of Mexico or from deeper locations in the Caribbean Sea. The responses to sedimentation disturbance were generally less obvious than observed elsewhere and may result from the fauna being adapted to the naturally high levels of sedimentation deriving from the Orinoco River.
International efforts are currently being made to establish networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the purposes of conservation of marine biodiversity. One of the primary objectives of MPA networks is to achieve representation of all marine biological diversity. Since we do not know the extent of biological diversity nor its distribution and function, we use surrogates to represent biological diversity. At a broad scale, measures of the physical environment are used, however at a fine scale biological assemblages have been shown to provide better representation of known biological diversity. While there are well known descriptions of assemblages for shallow water environments, few such descriptions of deep-sea benthic assemblages have been attempted. This paper provides descriptions of deep-sea epibenthic megafaunal assemblages based on a broad-scale video and stills image survey of the upper bathyal (200–1000 m) regions of the Rockall Trough and eastern Faroe–Shetland Channel. One thousand nine hundred and eighty-seven images were analysed from 139 video transects sampled from Dangaard and Explorer Canyons, Rosemary Bank Seamount, Hatton Bank, Wyville-Thomson Ridge, and the continental slope west and north-west of Shetland. Quantitative data obtained were analysed using cluster analysis and SIMPER analysis in Primer V.6 to identify benthic assemblages and their characterizing species. Thirty-one epibenthic megafaunal assemblages are defined by their characterizing species, and their distribution in terms of site, depth, temperature and substratum type. These 31 ‘biotopes’ provide consistent units for use in biological mapping efforts and assessments of representativeness in MPA network design. To facilitate the incorporation of these biotopes into existing deep-sea classification systems the biotopes have been assigned to broad substratum types. This is consistent with the use of substratum as a surrogate in many existing systems.
We present an alternative video-making framework for children with tools that integrate video capture with movie production. We propose different forms of interaction with physical artifacts to capture storytelling. Play interactions as input to video editing systems assuage the interface complexities of film construction in commercial software. We aim to motivate young users in telling their stories, extracting meaning from their experiences by capturing supporting video to accompany their stories, and driving reflection on the outcomes of their movies. We report on our design process over the course of four research projects that span from a graphical user interface to a physical instantiation of video. We interface the digital and physical realms using tangible metaphors for digital data, providing a spontaneous and collaborative approach to video composition. We evaluate our systems during observations with 4- to 14-year-old users and analyze their different approaches to capturing, collecting, editing, and performing visual and sound clips.
In the prehospital setting, the emergency care provider must anticipate that some patients will manifest with difficult airways. The use of video laryngoscopy to secure an airway in the prehospital setting has not been explored widely, but has the potential to be a useful tool. This article briefly reviews some of the major video laryngoscopes on the market and their usefulness in the prehospital setting. Studies and case reports indicate that the video laryngoscope is a promising device for emergency intubation, and it has been predicted that, in the future, video laryngoscopy will dominate the field of emergency airway management.
Direct laryngoscopy always should be retained as a primary skill; however, the video laryngoscope has the potential to be a good primary choice for the patient with potential cervical spine injuries or limited jaw or spine mobility, and in the difficult-to-access patient.The role of video laryngoscopes in securing an airway in head and neck trauma victims in the prehospital setting has yet to be determined, but offers interesting possibilities. Further clinical studies are necessary to evaluate its role in airway management by prehospital emergency medical services.
The presence of Orcinus orca in Venezuelan waters has remained somewhat unclear. On 15 April 2007 a group of three killer whales was recorded on video interacting with a leatherback turtle off north-eastern Venezuela. This report is based on an extensive review of the original video taken during the sighting event and a detailed interview with the observers. This record of killer whales interacting with Dermochelys coriacea, as well as opportunistic sightings recorded in photographs between 2001 and 2008, represent the most solid confirmation of the species occurrence in Venezuelan territorial waters.
This study was performed in the Finnish Defense Forces to assess the potential applicability and value of short video clips as educational material to teach advanced airway management and as the first means of introducing the use of a laryngeal tube (LT) or an intubating laryngeal mask (ILMA) to inexperienced, military, first-responder trainees with no prior hands-on experience.
The 60 non-commissioned medical officers participating in this study were randomly assigned into one of two groups: the LT- and the ILMA-group. After viewing the video clips, the trainees were required to perform 10 consecutive, successful insertions of the given instrument into a manikin. The number and duration of the attempts required prior to the 10 consecutive successful insertions were measured.
The goal of 10 consecutive successful insertions was attained by all 30 subjects in the LT-group, and by 27 of 29 subjects in the ILMA-group with a maximum of 30 attempts. Improvement in the ease and speed of insertion was evident between the first and last consecutive insertions in both groups.
“Satisfactory” to “good” skill levels are achieved with the applied video-clip demonstration method, even in inexperienced first-responder trainees lacking previous hands on experience.
We created an instructional waiting room video that explained what patients should expect during their emergency department (ED) visit and sought to determine whether preparing patients using this video would 1) improve satisfaction, 2) decrease perceived waiting room times and 3) increase calls to an outpatient referral line in an ambulatory population.
This serial cross-sectional study took place over a period of 2 months before (control) and 2 months after the introduction of an educational waiting room video that described a typical patient visit to our ED. We enrolled a convenience sample of adult patients or parents of pediatric patients who were triaged to the ED waiting room; a research assistant distributed and collected the surveys as patients were being discharged after treatment. Subjects were excluded if they were admitted. The primary outcome was overall satisfaction measured on a 5-point Likert scale, and secondary outcomes included perceived waiting room time, and the number of outpatient referral-line calls.
There were 1132 subjects surveyed: 551 prevideo and 581 postvideo. The mean age was 38 years (standard deviation [SD] 18), 61% were female and the mean ED length of stay was 5.9 hours (SD 3.6). Satisfaction scores were significantly higher postvideo, with 65% of participants ranking their visit as either “excellent” or “very good,” compared with 58.1% in the prevideo group (p = 0.019); however, perceived waiting room time was not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.24). Patient calls to our specialty outpatient clinic referral line increased from 1.5 per month (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58–2.42) to 4.5 per month (95% CI 1.19–7.18) (p = 0.032). After adjusting for possible covariates, the most significant determinants of overall satisfaction were perceived waiting room time (odds ratio [OR] 0.41, 95% CI 0.34–0.48) and having seen the ED waiting room video (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06–1.86).
Preparing patients for their ED experience by describing the ED process of care through a waiting room video can improve ED patient satisfaction and the knowledge of outpatient clinic resources in an ambulatory population. Future studies should research the implementation of this educational intervention in a randomized fashion.