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The dominant accounts of the Indian Supreme Court’s capacity for social transformation place considerable emphasis on the exceptional public trust and confidence in the Indian judiciary. Using National Election Studies post election survey data collected following the 1996 and 2009 Parliamentary elections, this is the first study to evaluate and assess the nature and extent of trust in Indian courts using public opinion data. We find that Indians have remarkably high levels of trust and confidence in the Indian judiciary across socio-demographic factors and consistently across the two time periods examined in this study. Secondly, we find that standard explanations based on caste and religious identity do not find purchase when explaining trust in the judiciary. Nor does class status. Finally, we find that trust in elected institutions is positively associated with trust in the judiciary providing preliminary support for the institutional legitimacy or a diffuse support hypothesis. We conclude that the Indian judiciary enjoys significant public trust and confidence, that provides the institutional legitimacy for an innovative and radical approach to constitutional adjudication.
The Indian Supreme Court sits in panels and can have up to 31 judges. This chapter explores how the Indian Supreme Court developed its current structure and the impact of this structure on its functioning. It argues that the Supreme Court’s structure has a range of inter-related effects that includes increasing access to the Court, producing a “polyvocal” jurisprudence that destabilizes stare decisis, spurring experimentation among judges, fostering a “Chief Justice dominant” Court, and reducing the perceived partisanship of judges. Mapping the structure of the Court, as well as the Court’s relationship with the rest of the judiciary, helps us appreciate how judges ultimately interpret the law and the Constitution not in isolation, but within a larger judicial architecture.
Since to trust implies to run a risk, you may want to make sure your trust is justified before you decide to trust someone. In this chapter, the authors examine the justification of trust in the information we receive from others (epistemic trust). They stipulate that only information which is relevant to the receiver counts as testimony. Contrary to this, irrelevant information, arguments, and the provision of pieces of evidence do not count as testimony. By resorting to the concept of street-level epistemology, that is, by shifting from the truth content of a statement to the content relevance (i.e. relevance to the receiver of the information), it is possible to justify epistemic trust. Between the extreme positions of complete rejection and almost a priori acceptance of epistemic trust, the authors argue that it is responsible to grant derivative authority, i.e. to accept testimony to p if and only if we have sufficient reason to believe that p. To determine what counts as ‘sufficient reason’ they present two strategies: ‘epistemic vigilance’ and assessing the ‘epistemic trustworthiness’ of the trustee.
One of the starting assumptions of this book is that the decline of trust in medicine is a negative development and a reason for concern. This claim is only tenable if it can be demonstrated that trust has an intrinsic value. Despite the fact that there is no convincing empirical evidence for the usefulness of trust in the sense of a positive patient welfare outcome, the authors claim that trust has an instrumental value: (1) because it helps patients cope with uncertainty and risk and reduces the transaction costs caused by the inherent risk, (2) because it reduces uncertainty by inducing trustworthiness in physicians, and (3) because it reduces complexity. Moreover, because neither regulations and controls (which are often instituted to compensate for the decline of trust) nor contracts can compensate for the loss of trust or replace trust in the patient–physician relationship, trust is, in the final analysis, inevitable.
Here, the authors present two justifications usually cited as sufficient to warrant patients‘ trust in physicians: professional status and individual merit. Whereas in ‘status trust’ professionalism is taken as a guarantor of trustworthiness, in ‘merit trust’ a physician’s trustworthiness is assessed individually. On either account, trust is justified by the physician’s professionalism. ‘Professionalism’ may be defined as ‘acting trustworthily’ in exchange for autonomy of decision-making, whereas trustworthiness refers to ‘competence’ in terms of episteme (theoretical knowledge), techne (craft or skill), and phronesis (practical knowledge or experience), and ‘commitment’ as ‘to act in a way that the truster approves’. The authors argue that although in principle trust in physicians is justified, since both professionalism and individually assessed trustworthiness grant derivative authority, the reality is different. because an increasing number of patients reject the concept of professionalism and, accordingly, find it difficult (or even impossible) to assess physicians’ trustworthiness. Hence, they no longer believe that their trust in physicians is justified.
“The everyday usage of ‘trust’ is very broad. A brief analysis of a few typical statements shows that in many instances it would be more appropriate to talk of confidence, reliability, belief in something or someone, or even hope. Not only in folk usage, but even in the scholarly literature, the term ‘trust’ is often used very vaguely. To remedy this, the authors present a definition of trust that is able to both underpin an account of the decline of trust and support an explanation as to why we should worry about the decline of trust.Two clinical model case histories are presented which help illustrate (1) that trust has declined over the past forty years or so; (2) that patients perceive both competence and a patient-oriented commitment of the physician as relevant features of physicians trustworthiness; (3) that uncertainty and risk are important features of ‘trust’; and, finally, (4) that the way patients’ justify taking the risk of trusting has changed over the past decades.
In this chapter, the authors apply the approach of basing a definition on the pattern of characteristic features of a term to that of ‘trust’. Starting from an analysis of ‘a patient trusts his doctor’, they identify seven characteristic features of ‘trust’. (1) Trust refers to an expectation regarding the trustworthiness. (2) Trust presupposes a situation of uncertainty and risk. (3) Trust is responsible if this expectation is justified. (4) This expectation must be realistic. (5) Trust is a free choice and implies the (at least unconscious) acceptance of the trust’s inherent risk. (6) A breach of trust causes a feeling of betrayal on the part of the truster. (7) Trust refers to the relationship between agents, who are competent and autonomous with regard to the topic of trust. Of the seven features, (1), (2), and (3) are essential, i.e., if one of them is absent, it cannot be a case of trust. From this follows their basic definition of trust: ‘trust refers to a justified expectation regarding the trustworthiness of the trustee under conditions of uncertainty and risk’.
This chapter begins with a list of five conditions the authors believe a comprehensive definition or ‘trust’ must fulfil: (1) it must be internally coherent, i.e. ‘trust’ must be understood by previously well-understood terms, and the definition must not lead to inconsistencies or to anything new that does not strictly fall under the concept being defined. (2) It must be comprehensive, i.e. it must encompass all relevant features of trust. (3) It must be applicable both to individuals and to the institutions these individuals work in. (4) It must be able to differentiate trust from concepts such as confidence or reliance, i.e. it must have ‘discriminatory power’. Finally, (5) it must be able to explain the decline of trust and the value of trust, i.e. it must have ‘explanatory power’. The authors then present a brief overview of different types of definitions with a focus on the definitions used in the context of trust in physicians, namely denotative and analytic definitions, followed by a critical examination of existing definitions of ‘trust’. They conclude that none of the existing definitions meets all conditions required for a genuinely comprehensive definition of trust.
In most of the literature, trust is treated as a binary concept: either you trust or you do not trust. Here, the authors argue that this is wrong. Whereas the opposite of knowledge is ignorance, i.e. the absence of knowledge, the opposite of trust (a positive expectation) is not simply the absence of this positive expectation but a negative expectation (distrust). In between trust and distrust there is yet a third option: the suspension of trust (mistrust). To disregard this distinction has serious consequences: opinion polls ask people whether they trust doctors or not. If people answer ‘no’, it remains unclear whether they have suspended their trust or whether they harbour negative expectations. Belief-in, hope, reliance, and confidence are often used interchangeably with trust. This intermingling leads to misunderstanding, as several examples illustrate. Hence, it is mandatory that we distinguish these terms. As the authors demonstrate, this can be achieved by using pattern-based definitions of these related concepts. The chapter ends with a closer look at the role that these four often-conflated concepts play in the patient–physician relationship in separate subsections.
“Most empirical studies on trust examine the influence of certain variables (such as age, sex, education, or ethnicity) on trust at a specific moment in a specific segment of the population. However, only data collected from a representative sample of the general population over an extended period (longitudinal data) can reasonably tell us whether overall trust has declined or not. In this chapter, the authors present the two best longitudinal studies. Both come from opinion poll institutions: one from the United States (Harris Poll®), the other from the United Kingdom (Ipsos MORI®). The results of both studies are analysed and presented in graphic form. This involves a short critical analysis as to how the seeming differences between the studies are, in effect, due to methodological differences and disappear once these differences are taken into account. Although the data are fairly limited, there is still sufficient empirical evidence to suggest that trust (albeit a folk understanding of what trust is) in physicians has declined across Western countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, since the 1960s.
Infrastructure projects require collaborative exploration of what is needed and what is possible. Good leadership creates the goodwill and team spirit which generate a good outcome. To develop a whole global industry – e.g., the wind industry – this has to be sustained over a wide geography and a long period of time. Developing a new sector of an industry – e.g., offshore wind energy – raises new problems, particularly problems of the size of larger wind turbines, and all the necessary subsea infrastructure. This is seriously expensive for a market limited in size. Creating a stable market helps reduce the risk but the investment required to establish the physically large factories to build these large turbines in quantity for what remains a limited market appears prohibitive.
Political science does not offer a distinct subdiscipline to address the subject of energy. Insofar as political science has addressed energy, it has focused on issues often neglected by other disciplines, notably the role of geopolitics and international relations, and the domestic politics of resource-rich states. Apart from the different subfields, we examine different approaches including realism, constructivism, liberalism and Marxism. The rise and fall and rise again of academic articles on energy in leading political science journals is reviewed and linked to exogenous forces such as the price of oil. Two distinct energy topics which have received attention are nuclear power and the oil crises of 1973–79 because of their wider geopolitical ramifications. Perhaps the most prominent or consistent thread through studies of the politics of energy is the question of energy security or energy independence. Finally, in recent years, energy has increasingly emerged as a focus for study in environmental politics and climate change politics in particular.
The aim of this work is to develop a calculation model based on the method of characteristics making it possible to study the effect of the stagnation pressure of the combustion chamber on the 2D and axisymmetric minimum length nozzle design giving a uniform and parallel flow at the exit section. The model is based on the use of the real gas approach. The co-volume and the intermolecular interaction effect are taken into account by the use of the Berthelot state equation. The effect of molecular vibration is considered in our model to evaluate the behaviour of gas at a high temperature. In this case, the stagnation pressure and the stagnation temperature are important parameters in our model. The resolution of the algebraic equations is done by the finite difference corrector predictor algorithm. The validation of the results is controlled by the convergence of the critical section ratios calculated numerically as obtained by the theory. The mass and the thrust are evaluated to improve the efficiency of the nozzle. The comparison is made with the high temperature and perfect gas models. The application is made for air.
Lack of trust toward medical research is a major barrier to research participation, particularly among some population groups. Valid measures of trust are needed to develop appropriate interventions. The study purpose was to compare two previously validated scales that measure trust in biomedical research – one developed by Hall et al. (H-TBR; 2006) and the other by Mainous et al. (M-TBR; 2006) – in relation to socio-demographic variables and attitudes toward research. Differences between Black and White respondents were explored.
Two nearly identical surveys – one with H-TBR and the other with M-TBR – were systematically administered to a convenience sample. Internal consistency reliability of each scale was assessed. Associations were computed between scores on each scale with attitudes toward biomedical research and demographic variables (i.e., gender, age, race, and socioeconomic status). The difference between White and Black respondents on each TBR score while controlling for age, education, and race was also investigated.
A total of 2020 participants completed the H-TBR survey; 1957 completed the M-TBR survey. Mean item scores for M-TBR were higher (F = 56.05, p < 0.001) among Whites than Blacks. Whites also had higher mean item scores than Blacks on H-TBR (F = 7.09, p < 0.001). Both scales showed a strong association with participants’ perceived barriers to research (ps < 0.001) and significant, positive correlations with interest in research participation (ps < 0.001). Age and household income were positive predictors of TBR scores, but the effects of education differed.
Both scales are internally consistent and show associations with attitudes toward research. Whites score higher than Blacks on both TBR scales, even while controlling for age and socioeconomic status.
We develop an overlapping generations model to study how the interplay between social and human capital affects fertility. In a framework where families face a trade-off between the quantity and quality of children, we incorporate the assumption that social capital plays a key role in the accumulation of human capital. We show how the erosion of social capital can trigger a chain of reactions leading households to base their childbearing decisions on quantity, instead of quality, resulting in higher fertility.
Asian Americans constitute 5% of the U.S. population. Their willingness to participate in research is important to examine because it influences participation rates and the representativeness of study results.
A total of 17,339 community members participated from six diverse Clinical and Translational Award (CTSA) sites. Community members were asked about their willingness to volunteer for eight different types of health research, their expectation of monetary compensation for research participation, their trust in research and researchers, their preferred language to receive health information, and their socio-demographic background. We examined Asian Americans’ willingness to participate in various types of health research studies and compared their perceptions with other racial/ethnic groups (i.e., Asian n = 485; African-American n = 9516; Hispanic/Latino n = 1889; Caucasian n = 4760; and other minority n = 689).
Compared to all other racial/ethnic groups, Asian Americans were less willing to participate in all eight types of health research. However, Asian Americans reported a lower amount of fair compensation for research participation than African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos but were as likely to trust researchers as all other racial/ethnic groups.
Asian Americans are less willing to participate in health research than other racial/ethnic groups, and this difference is not due to dissatisfaction with research compensation or lower trust in researchers. Lack of trust in research and language barriers should be addressed to improve representativeness and generalizability of all populations in research.
Communicating about health risks in the Arctic can be challenging. Numerous factors can hinder or promote effective communication. One of the most important components in effective communication is trust in an information source. This is particularly true when a risk is unfamiliar or complex because the public must rely on expert assessment rather than personal evaluation of the risk. A total of 112 Inuit residents from Nunavik, Canada, were interviewed to better understand the factors that influence trust in individuals or organisations. Results indicate that there are six primary factors that influence trust in an information source. These factors include: (1) whether the information source is a friend or family member; (2) past performance of the individual or organisation; (3) the general disposition of the audience member (that is, he or she believes that most people are trustworthy); (4) the openness or candidness of the source; (5) value similarity (referring to the perceived correspondence in values between the audience member and communicator); and (6) the credibility of the source. The results of this study can help determine who or what agencies should provide messages about health risks in the Arctic. It also provides insight about effective strategies for engendering trust among Arctic residents.
The role of trust in long-distance trade has been a topic of inquiry and debate among economists, sociologists, and historians. Much of this literature hinges on the social, legal, and economic structures that undergird, if not obviate, the concept of trust. This article draws on assemblage theory to suggest that trust in Indian Ocean trade is better understood as a key component of a commercial assemblage. Laws or social mores are not external to but rather enrolled within an assemblage constituted by people, commodities, profits, and “feelings,” as well as judicial systems. This conceptualization of trust is demonstrated through a close analysis of one trading relationship between a Somali merchant and an Indian merchant based in Aden and trading in the Idrisi Emirate of Asir. They established a partnership to exploit elevated prices in Asir during the First World War. After several months of trading, accusations of fraud and embezzling unraveled the partnership and entangled both men in years of legal battles. By tracing the changing socio-material assemblage of this partnership, the article demonstrates how trust should be understood as a dynamic and contingent factor in the operation of commercial agency.
This article examines concurrence of self-reported love, trust, and dyadic quality experiences between partners in 293 male couples. Significant yet poor concurrence was observed for all three self-reported relationship measures, but varied by relationship characteristics. Using an actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), actor and partner characteristics were shown to be associated with self-reported relationship concerns, such as satisfaction and intimate partner violence. This knowledge is important in the development and delivery of couples-based health interventions, such as couples HIV testing and counselling, for interventions that respect the unique relationship dynamics of each couple are needed to effectively address dyadic health.
This article offers a new interpretation of the Baring crisis, the most dramatic financial collapse of the nineteenth century, by focusing on how information brokerage allowed Barings to abandon its risk-averse practices in the mid 1880s. I argue that the mediators who bridged structural holes (gaps between social clusters) shaped actors’ access to information as well as their expectations regarding its quality. Information brokers who enjoyed philos ties with at least one of the parties connected by the bridging relationships could promote collaborative arrangements more likely to survive an environment of heightened uncertainty. The performance of such brokers in the 1880s enabled cooperation between Baring Brothers & Co. and the Banque de Paris et des Pays Bas and supported the London house's growing association with the Anglo-Argentine firm of S. B. Hale & Co. in the second half of the 1880s. Cooperation gave Barings an illusion of security amid the costs of increasing competition and supported the house's growing engagement in South American affairs. Nevertheless, the strategy proved ineffective at barring the entry of new players. By the late 1880s, ties produced by brokerage connected Barings to the house's former competitors, producing a cohesive social cluster. Barings thereafter had access to redundant information, which hindered the house's ability to assess risk.