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Chapter 30 of The Cambridge Companion to Sappho examines the reception of Sappho’s poetry in Latin America, examining figures such as José Martí, Julio Herrera y Reissig, Esteban de Luca, Lucas José de Alvarenga, TomÁs Antônio Gonzaga, Carlos Guido y Spano, Álvares de Azevedo, Antônio Frederico de Castro Alves, Mario Faustino, SalomÓn de la Selva, Haroldo de Campos, Décio Pignatari, Mercedes Matamoros, Juana de Ibarbourou, Alfonsina Storni, Alejandra Pizarnik, Rosario Castellanos, Mercedes CortÁzar, and Ana Cristina César.
For centuries what remained of Sappho’s poems lay as isolated quotations in the works of other authors who had survived antiquity. Chapter 18 of The Cambridge Companion to Sappho tells the story of how these quotations, or fragments, were gathered together from the sixteenth century on – and how the coming of the papyri in the twentieth century had a dramatic impact on editorial practice too.
Chapter 27 of The Cambridge Companion to Sappho examines the reception of Sappho’s poetry in modern Greece, examining figures such as Odysseus Elytis, Panayis Lekatsas, Sotiris Kakisis, Dimitrios Gouzelis, Eugenios Voulgaris, Anthimos Gazis, Ioannis Kakridis, Sappho Leontias, Pierre Louÿs, Kostas Varnalis, Nikos Kazantzakis, Myrtiotissa.
This article highlights translation as re-contextualization and emphasizes the role of context in translation. The importance of context for both translation and pragmatics is evidence of the close relation between translation and pragmatics. Initially, different classic views of context are briefly discussed. Secondly, linguistic approaches to translation are reviewed, and key concepts are defined. The author’s own theory of translation as re-contextualization is then discussed. Two fundamental, empirically derived translation types as qualitatively different ways of re-contextualization are proposed: overt and covert translation. The concept of a ‘cultural filter’ employed in covert translation is described, and examples are given. In conclusion, the current dominant role of English as a lingua franca and its influence on translation are discussed.
Ostensibly a translation of Sophocles' Antigone, Anne Carson's Antigonick (2012) is in fact a genre-bending, hybrid construct which defies boundaries. It is a crossbreed between translation, adaptation, and rewriting, as well as between text and image. It incorporates a great variety of discourse types and literary or paraliterary genres, and amalgamates hand-inked blocks of text with original colour drawings (by Bianca Stone). This 'transtextual palimpsest' engages in a fascinating dialogue not only with Sophocles' Antigone but also with its translators and commentators, as well as with authors as disparate as Hegel, Beckett, Brecht, Butler, and Irigaray. At times provocative, stirring, funny, and often all of the above, Carson's Antigonick asks us to push the boundaries of genre, textuality, and visuality towards a new synthesis, which may capture something of the unity of speech, visuality, music, and movement that Greek drama managed to achieve.
Seamus Heaney had a complex relationship with English poetry. While Heaney’s essays on the canon of English poetry have preoccupied critics, this chapter looks at the ways in which his poems engage with English places and poets, as settings and exemplars. It then shows how he presents himself as both inheritor of a tradition and critical outsider, especially in his translation of Beowulf, and argues that his example has been central to similar translation projects by younger generations of English poets, including Simon Armitage and Alice Oswald. The chapter concludes by looking at the more global, cosmopolitan context Heaney envisages for his England-set later poems like ‘District and Circle’ and ‘Eelworks’.
From his earliest poetry, Heaney used formal linguistic terminology to describe his poetic practice. After Seeing Things, from the point when he developed a stress on the visionary, his linguistic analysis increasingly dwelt on the process by which instinctive observation of objects and experiences underlies language: what he called ‘raids on the prearticulate’. Earlier poems like ‘Alphabets’ described this as a process of education; later poems reverse the process so that existing language is taken back to the unarticulated sentiments and physical realities that underlie it. For Heaney the great image for this is Braille by which material figures work backwards by sensory exploration to the things they represent. He uses it as an image from ‘Bog Queen’ in North to 'At the Wellhead' in Seeing Things.
This chapter explores what we mean by ‘adaptation’ when discussing classic Greek tragedy in performance and to what extent terms such as translation, version, (re)writing, (re)imagining, etc. can or indeed should be distinguished from one another. Examining the nomenclature attached to four different recent theatrical adaptations of classic Greek tragedy, namely Medea, Phaedra, Iphigenia, and The Persians, this chapter establishes that the differentiation between adaptation and related modalities such as rewriting, translation, and version, is intrinsically linked to processes of reception. Elucidating the difficulty of establishing boundaries between original writing and rewriting, or indeed adaptation for performance, this chapter takes the position that the act of (re)writing asserts the validity of an established dramatic text; it confirms that a text belongs to the category of classic drama. At the same time, it promises an often radical (re)investigation of its premises.
This chapter discusses how translation and adaptation are key factors in the 'thick' cultural processes that reconnect past and present. Starting from the premise that translations are works in their own right, the argument shows how translation and adaptation of works from other times, places, and languages are themselves forms of reception and of cultural commentary. Special attention is given to situating mediations, displacements, and moments of heightened receptivity in language, performance, and hermeneutics. Three examples from the translation and performance history of Aeschylus' Oresteia are analysed in depth: the subtitled YouTube production of the Watchman's scene by Barefaced Greek; the collaboration in text, performance, and mask design between Tony Harrison and Jocelyn Herbert; and the symbiosis of translation and adaptation in Yael Farber's Molora. The concluding section of the discussion points to future directions in the relationship between translation/adaptation and the construction of cultural memories.
For Europeans, Matteo Ricci's mission memoirs proved to be the most comprehensive and accessible book about China. Ricci's account of the early Jesuit mission was immensely popular, receiving translations into most European languages. Until the twentieth century, however, anyone who read Ricci's narrative was not reading what Ricci himself had written. Rather, they were reading a curated translation produced by one of his successors, Nicolas Trigault. The resulting work, De Christiana Expeditione apud Sinas, was an edited translation, substantially the same but often different than Ricci's original manuscript.
This article reexamines Trigault's translation, on its own terms, as an artefact of globalisation. Not only does the adaptation reveal information about the Jesuit missions that Ricci's manuscript did not, but it also had a significant impact on European Catholics, as its dissemination inspired would-be missionaries to seek their vocations in China.
This article suggests that Turkey’s queer times are co-constitutive with Jasbir Puar’s queer times of homonationalism. If the queer times of homonationalism correspond to a folding of some queers into life and respectability at the cost of rising Islamophobia in the “West,” Turkey’s queer times witnessed the increasing marginalization and “queering” of variously respectable subjects in the name of Islam and strong LGBT organizing against such marginalization. It discusses the epistemic challenges of studying Turkey’s queer times that stem from a theoretical suspicion that “queer” operates as a tool of colonial modernity when it spreads to the “non-West,” a suspicion that is due both to a perception of Islam as a target and victim of Western neocolonialism and to an ahistorical and rigidly discursive understanding of language. In turn, scholarship on Turkey’s queer times has the potential to truly transnationalize queer studies, both getting us out of the binaries of global–local, colonial–authentic, and West–East and reminding scholars that hegemonies are scattered.
Whereas much scholarship on the history of the novel focuses on its relationship to large narrative forms such as epic or romance, this chapter argues that the novella tradition plays a central role in the development of the novelistic world. We show how intercalated novellas, translated or adapted from Italian or Spanish, inflect the emergence of the French novelistic canon, functioning as sites at which cultural difference is explored and managed. Material from the novella tradition helps shape and define the notions of national character and identity, as well as the role of a national language, in the emerging French canon. The chapter moves from the history of translation and editing, through a discussion of Scarron and Mme de Lafayette, to a study of the politics of genre.
The business of novels in the long eighteenth century was an international affair. This chapter argues that literary histories giving accounts of the ‘rise’ of the novel should look again at influential nineteenth and twentieth century national histories, and challenge them: the European novel can be seen to develop as a cross-channel product in the period. Taking a book-historical perspective, and giving evidence of reception of French Fiction in Britain via that most English of authors, Jane Austen herself, I document the presence of the French novel on British bookshelves. Via readings of the ways in which fiction crossed the channel, it becomes apparent that British anxieties about French fiction have their roots in the eighteenth century and – I argue – with the establishment of formal reviewing and periodical culture. Anglo-French exchanges in the novel in the long eighteenth century look very different if we look beyond the canonical texts and authors of the period. Now neglected eighteenth-century women writers – often translated, and themselves translators – adopted a feminised cosmopolitanism in their novels. I conclude that taking a cross-channel approach is the most appropriate way to write our histories of the novel in the eighteenth century.
This chapter considers why Roman comedy was important generally for Catullus and what about this genre caught his attention in the first place. The chapter suggests that three qualities of the genre are especially pertinent to this question: (1) a nugatory sensibility; (2) a domestic, urban, and local perspective; (3) an interest in Greco-Roman hybridity and translation. Throughout this book, the author returns to these overarching themes, which can be seen to undergird Catullus’ engagement with Roman comedy, but here he sketches their essential features by using a few concrete examples in the Catullan corpus that highlight the poet’s theatrical outlook but whose comic substructure has gone overlooked or underappreciated.
This essay explores the legacy and afterlife of François Macandal, a man who escaped enslavement on an eighteenth-century plantation in the French colony of Saint-Domingue. His fame as a poisoner and immortal rebel persist over time and space, reflecting transcaribbean associations of fetish making with spiritual and physical resistance on the plantation. Stories of Macandal and the fetish objects he crafted, also called macandals, continued to circulate in nineteenth-century Louisiana as one of many narratives of slave uprising and Revolution in the Americas. One example of the reach of Macandal’s story is the 1892 novel, Le Macandal: Épisode de l’Insurrection des Noirs à St. Domingue, published in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Marie-Joséphine Augustin. This work is part of a larger archive of how Macandal and his macandals shaped the literary realm. His story moves across genres arguing that Macandal is simultaneously the man, the fetish object, and the story in its many forms.
The combination of two seemingly simple and commonly used words causes problems of understanding in a specific syntactic unit. The precise meaning of the phrase σὺ λέγεις appears to be unclear. A detailed semantic analysis indicates a certain and clear meaning of this phrase. It occurs in all four canonical Gospels as Jesus’ answer within the judicial proceedings leading up to his crucifixion. Consequently, it is of fundamental importance to understanding Jesus’ trial. The semantic analysis of the phrase σὺ λέγεις presented in this article offers a new basis for the discussion of the question whether Jesus may be seen as confessus according to Roman law.
This paper explores multilingual language contact in seemingly unrelated settings: translation and English as a lingua franca, also touching on learner language. By delving into similar processes in these settings at three levels – the macro level of a language as a whole, the intermediate level of social interaction and the micro level of cognition – it argues that translation and ELF are sites of multilingual contact resulting in a degree of hybridization in the languages involved, and are thereby important drivers of language change. It is suggested that macro-level similarities in translation and ELF, such as the relative over-representation of high-frequency items and structures and untypical multiword combinations, ensue from interactional and cognitive processes where one fundamental mechanism is priming. Translations engage in cross-linguistic textual priming, while users of ELF interact with other ‘similects’ in complex second-order language contact. Both can contribute crucially to understanding processes of change and contact-induced variation.
The first chapter examines the British East India Company’s transformation into Bengal’s territorial sovereign in 1764 as an embodied history. The British men who worked for this trading monopoly adopted Persian titles that recall the polite historical protocols of Perso-Turkic-Mongol empires since the fifteenth century. These titles personified a corporate English body as an individual nobleman who was the imperial family’s only and most powerful patriarch – the ultimate mimic men. A shared ethical and linguistic orientation inspired Asian travelers and their British hosts to imagine an ethnic kinship, as mediated by the Indo-Persian political treatises that Company lexicographers had translated into conduct books for genteel Englishmen aspiring to a career in India. This trans-imperial masculinity was what empowered Asian travelers to climb social rank and challenge the Company’s claim to Mughal sovereignty as they befriended metropolitans in public showplaces – theaters, salons, and drawing rooms. The chapter proposes that orientalism and occidentalism are inadequate paradigms for understanding these travelers’ multimedia engagements in Britain.
This study aimed to identify the nature and effects of implementation strategies to increase the use of evidence-based, non-pharmacological interventions designed to reduce the frequency and/or severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms associated with dementia, for people living in the community.
This was a systematic review of implementation studies. We searched six databases (in January 2019) and hand-searched reference lists of reports. Studies were included if they used quantitative methods evaluating the use of implementation strategies to increase the use of non-pharmacological interventions. These interventions had to have been tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and found to reduce behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, for those living in the community. Studies needed to report the effect of the implementation on clinical practice, for example, a change in practice or the adoption of the intervention in community settings.
Twelve studies were included: 11 one-group pre-post design studies and 1 cluster RCT. All studies reported practice change – the majority implementing a new intervention, with six different types of interventions implemented. All studies reported including using partnerships, new funding, educational strategies, and ongoing support and consultation. Seven implementation studies reported positive outcomes for clients on some aspect of behavior or depression for the person with dementia.
Implementation studies using multiple implementation strategies to increase the use of non-pharmacological interventions have demonstrated improvements in behavioral and psychological symptoms common in people with dementia, when provided by clinicians as part of their everyday work routines.
In this paper, I will focus on the emergence and uses of political economy in late-nineteenth–early-twentieth century China. I will discuss how the concept of “economy” came to be conceived as an autonomous sphere of human life, with its own rules and its own order, and how the production of “wealth” was conceptually divorced from ethics, politics, and administration. For this purpose, I will focus on a group which played a key role in reshaping the social and political discourse of the empire: a group of nationalist reformers who wanted to transform the Qing empire into a constitutional monarchy. I will explore how these reformers brought together two different sets of traditions – the Chinese imperial traditions of literati statecraft on the one hand, and mostly British, French, and German traditions of political economy on the other – and how they used them to naturalize a particular idea of what the “Chinese nation” was and should be.