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We used fossil Chironomidae assemblages and the transfer function approach to reconstruct summer air temperatures over the past 300 years from a High Arctic lake in Hornsund, Svalbard. Our aims were to compare reconstructed summer temperatures with observed (last 100 years) seasonal temperatures, to determine a potential climate warming break point in the temperature series and to assess the significance and rate of the climate warming trend at the study site. The reconstructed temperatures were consistent with a previous proxy record from Svalbard and showed good correlation with the meteorological observations from Bjørnøya and Longyearbyen. From the current palaeoclimate record, we found a significant climate warming threshold in the 1930s, after which the temperatures rapidly increased. We also found that the climate warming trend was strong and statistically significant. Compared with the reconstructed Little Ice Age temperatures in late eighteenth century cooling culmination, the present day summer temperatures are >4°C higher and the temperature increase since the 1930s has been 0.5°C per decade. These results highlight the exceptionally rapid recent warming of southern Svalbard and add invaluable information on the seasonality of High Arctic climate change and Arctic amplification.
The annual bluegrass weevil Listronotus maculicollis requires chilling exposure to terminate reproductive diapause during overwintering, but the effects of temperature on its post-diapause development in spring remain unclear. To explore this effect, overwintering adults were transferred from cold conditions (6°C/4°C, L:D 10:14) to different warm-up temperatures at L:D 12:12. When weevils were transferred to 7, 14 and 21°C in December and late January, the sizes of male and female reproductive organs were significantly smaller at 7°C than at 14 and 21°C. When weevils were transferred to 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15°C in late January, higher temperatures facilitated the post-diapause development. In both sexes, the sizes of reproductive organs and developmental rate increased with temperature. Reproductive organs did not grow significantly at 7°C in males and at 7–9°C in females, at which the percentage of developing weevils remained low. The time required for 50% of individuals to resume development was 44, 18, 13 and 8 days at 9, 11, 13 and 15°C, respectively, in males and 19, 14 and 8 days at 11, 13 and 15°C, respectively, in females. The threshold temperature for post-diapause development was 7.8°C in males, based on which 61.7 degree-days coincided with 50% of individuals developing. Under field conditions, the percentage of male and female maturity and insemination rate were low until early March, but all reached 100% by late March.
The understanding of the genetic basis of grain dormancy in wheat has rapidly improved in the last few years, and a number of genes have been identified related to that trait. We recently identified the wheat genes TaPM19-A1 and -A2 and we have now taken the first step towards understanding the role of this class of genes in seeds. By investigating the Arabidopsis homologous PM19-Like 1 (PM19L1) we have found that it has a seed-specific expression pattern and, while its expression is higher in dormant than in non-dormant seeds, knock-out mutations produced seeds with increased dormancy. Not only primary dormancy, but also secondary dormancy in response to high temperature was increased by the loss-of-function. We have also examined the function of PM19L1 by localizing the PM19 protein primarily to the cotyledon cells in seeds, possibly in membranes. By investigating the co-expression network of this gene we have found that it is connected to a small group of abscisic acid (ABA)-induced seed maturation and storage-related genes. The function of PM19L1 represents a good opportunity to explore the interactions of key factors that can influence seed dormancy such as ABA, temperature and membrane properties.
The tettigoniid Barbitistes vicetinus Galvagni & Fontana was described in 1993 as an endemic and rare bush-cricket of north-east Italy. Since 2008, this species has become a pest, causing repeated outbreaks with severe defoliations in broadleaf forests and neighbouring crops. Few data are currently available on ecology and life-cycle of this species, in particular about how temperature regulates egg-diapause and hatching phenology. The present work reports a field study regarding hatching phenology of B. vicetinus, surveyed with 84 emergence traps over four consecutive years (2013–2016). Moreover, the effect of temperature on the hatching was tested in the laboratory, exposing eggs to different temperatures. Field observations showed that hatching occurred between the end of March and beginning of April. In warmer years, hatching started early in the spring and lasted longer, while in colder years, hatching started later and was concentrated in a few days. Moreover, a significant effect of both elevation and exposure on the hatching start was observed. Results obtained from laboratory suggested the ability of the species to develop in the post-final diapause in a wide range of thermal conditions. After the diapause (terminated by a prolonged common exposure to low temperature) B. vicetinus was able to hatch from 6 to 23°C although, due to prolonged post-diapause development, hatching took place progressively later at colder temperatures. To manage B. vicetinus outbreaks, forecasting the seasonal phenology of egg hatching and its duration is important for an effective pest control.
Molluscan shells showing phenotypic variations are ideal models for studying evolution and plasticity. In north-eastern Asia, genetic and morphological diversity of the gastropod, Monodonta labio, were assumed to be influenced by both palaeoclimatic changes and current ecological factors. In this study, we examined spatial variations in shell shape of M. labio using general measurement and geometric morphometric analysis. We also investigated whether shell shape variation is best explained by environmental gradients or by genetic structuring, based on our prior molecular phylogeographic study. Two common morphological forms were observed among Chinese populations and in the adjacent Asian areas. Both the analyses revealed separation patterns in morphological variations of shell shape among the clades and populations. Environmental modelling analysis showed a significant correlation between shape variations and local maximum temperatures of the warmest month, indicating the role of natural selection in the evolution of this species. Data obtained in this study, combined with the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular phylogenetic data from the prior study, showed that morphological variations in M. labio were constrained by both local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. We hypothesized that geographic separation by the Dongshan Landbridge was the first step towards its diversification, and that the temperature gradient between the East China Sea and South China Sea probably was the selective force driving the divergence of its morphological variations.
Understanding variations in the reproductive cycle of commercial and ecologically important bivalve species is essential to address fisheries management and climate oscillation issues. Spatial and temporal trends in the reproductive cycle of Callista chione were analysed using standard histological procedures and gonadosomatic index (GSI) for two consecutive years at two coastal sites in the Adriatic Sea. Reproductive output and fecundity were analysed quantitatively to gain better insight into the seasonal energy balance with respect to gametogenesis. A seawater temperature difference of ~4°C between the two sites likely influenced the onset and duration of spawning. At Cetina (milder temperatures), spawning was prolonged and occurred between spring and July, whereas at Pag there was only one main spawning peak in July. Both histology and GSI showed similar trends, indicating GSI to be a reliable method for analysing the main characteristics of the reproductive cycle. Conversely, the use of the body mass index (BMI) as an indicator of gonad development should be addressed carefully. Intraspecific variation in energy allocation between populations suggested life strategies modified to different habitat conditions. A higher reproductive investment and output in the Pag population directed gonadal resorption to ensure the generation of a new cycle, whereas the higher fecundity at the Cetina site indicated the production of gonads from newly available food. These results suggest successful physiological acclimatization to recent increasing temperatures.
The ecological ubiquity of parasites and their potential impacts on host behaviour have led to the suggestion that parasites can act as ecosystem engineers, structuring their environment and physical habitats. Potential modification of the relationship between parasites and their hosts by climate change has important implications for how hosts interact with both their biotic and abiotic environment. Here, we show that warming and parasitic infection independently increase rates of bioturbation by a key detritivore in aquatic ecosystems (Gammarus). These findings have important implications for ecosystem structure and functioning in a warming world, as alterations to rates of bioturbation could significantly modify oxygenation penetration and nutrient cycling in benthic sediments of rivers and lakes. Our results demonstrate a need for future ecosystem management strategies to account for parasitic infection when predicting the impacts of a warming climate.
Negative interactions between people and large carnivores are common and will probably increase as the human population and livestock production continue to expand. Livestock predation by wild carnivores can significantly affect the livelihoods of farmers, resulting in retaliatory killings and subsequent conflicts between local communities and conservationists. A better understanding of livestock predation patterns could help guide measures to improve both human relationships and coexistence with carnivores. Environmental variables can influence the intensity of livestock predation, are relatively easy to monitor, and could potentially provide a useful predictive framework for targeting mitigation. We chose lion predation of livestock as a model to test whether variations in environmental conditions trigger changes in predation. Analysing 6 years of incident reports for Pandamatenga village in Botswana, an area of high human–lion conflict, we used generalized linear models to show that significantly more attacks coincided with lower moonlight levels and temperatures, and attack severity increased significantly with extreme minimum temperatures. Furthermore, we found a delayed effect of rainfall: lower rainfall was followed by a significantly increased severity of attacks in the following month. Our results suggest that preventative measures, such as introducing deterrents or changing livestock management, could be implemented adaptively based on environmental conditions. This could be a starting point for investigating similar effects in other large carnivores, to reduce livestock attacks and work towards wider human–wildlife coexistence.
Regeneration from seed affects species assembly in plant communities, and temperature is the most important environmental factor controlling the germination process. Thermal dependence of seed germination is thus associated with species occurrence in an ecosystem. Hence, we aimed to investigate the role of temperature on seed germination of ten tree species from the western Brazilian Amazon. Seeds were collected in the state of Rondônia, Brazil, and set to germinate under constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C in germination chambers. We calculated germination capacity (G%), germination rate (GR50, reciprocal of germination time), and thermal parameters, such as cardinal temperatures and thermal time requirements. Most species had a large range of temperatures showing G% ≥80%, with optimal temperature varying from 20 to 40°C. Base temperature ranged from 6 to 12°C and ceiling temperatures were mainly >40°C. Astronium lecointei and Parkia nitida showed high germination capacity under temperatures of 35–40°C, while germination of Theobroma cacao dropped from 100% to zero under temperatures between 37 and 40°C. The climax species Cedrela fissilis had the slowest germination time (10 days) and highest thermal time requirement, while seeds of Enterolobium schomburgkii (a late-successional species) germinated within the first day of the experiment. Rapid recruitment of Amazon species could be favoured with treefall disturbance, which increases temperatures in the understory, but sharp limits might be found in the supra-optimal range of temperatures. Such patterns might indicate different regeneration strategies in the tropical rainforest, providing important information regarding seed germination among Amazon species.
Row-middle weed control in Florida vegetable production is challenging and often necessitates several PRE and POST herbicide applications. Coordinating POST spray applications with emergence timings should increase herbicide efficacy by targeting susceptible growth stages. Most published emergence models were developed in temperate climates, and adapting them to subtropical climates can be complex and requires reductionist insights into seed ecology, particularly germination and dormancy. The study objective was to examine the influence of temperature and osmotic potential on seed germination of carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata L.), Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum L.), eclipta [Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.], and goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.]. Mollugo verticillata seed germination was positively photoblastic, with increased germination at high temperatures (≥35 C), more so with high fluctuating temperatures (35/20 and 35/25 C), and occurred at osmotic potentials as low as −0.5 MPa. Geranium carolinianum seed germinated between 10 and 20 C in light or darkness and at osmotic potentials as low as −0.4 MPa. Eclipta prostrata seed germination was entirely positively photoblastic, occurring optimally between 15 and 25 C and at osmotic potentials as low as −1 MPa. Eleusine indica seed germination demonstrated some degree of positive photoblasticity, with greater germination in the light, peak germination at 35 C, and germination occurring at osmotic potentials as low as −0.5 MPa. Described germination ecology for selected species will provide insights for building ecology-based growing degree-day accounting restrictions for empirically derived emergence models.
We used two sunflower genotypes displaying pericarp-imposed dormancy at high incubation temperatures (i.e. 30°C) to investigate the role of the pericarp as a limitation to oxygen availability to the embryo (hypoxia), and its impact on embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content and sensitivity to ABA. Results showed that both genotypes displayed very different oxygen threshold values for inhibition of embryo germination when incubation was performed at 30°C. Expression of dormancy in one genotype was therefore related to exacerbated embryo sensitivity to hypoxia, whereas in the other genotype, the pericarp appeared to act as a more severe restraint to oxygen entry. Increased sensitivity to hypoxia was, in part, related to increased sensitivity to ABA, but not to alterations in ABA metabolism. The activity of pericarp-microbial communities (bacteria and fungi) at high temperatures was also assessed as a potential determinant of hypoxia to the embryo. Oxygen consumption in pericarps incubated at 30°C was attenuated with antibiotics, which concomitantly promoted achene germination. In agreement with the observed more severe oxygen deprivation to the embryo exerted by the pericarp, the bacterial load in the pericarp was significantly higher in the commercial hybrid than in the inbred line; however, the application of antibiotics strongly reduced the bacterial colony counts for each genotype. Different bacterial and fungal communities, assessed through their profiles of carbon-source utilization, were determined between genotypes and after treatment with antibiotics. This work highlights the relationship between enhancement of sensitivity to hypoxia with incubation temperature and seed dormancy expression, and suggests that microbial activity might be part of the mechanism through which hypoxia is imposed.
Climate and weather conditions may have substantial effects on the ecology of both parasites and hosts in natural populations. The strength and shape of the effects of weather on parasites and hosts are likely to change as global warming affects local climate. These changes may in turn alter fundamental elements of parasite–host dynamics. We explored the influence of temperature and precipitation on parasite prevalence in a metapopulation of avian hosts in northern Norway. We also investigated if annual change in parasite prevalence was related to winter climate, as described by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). We found that parasite prevalence increased with temperature within-years and decreased slightly with increasing precipitation. We also found that a mild winter (positive winter NAO index) was associated with higher mean parasite prevalence the following year. Our results indicate that both local and large scale weather conditions may affect the proportion of hosts that become infected by parasites in natural populations. Understanding the effect of climate and weather on parasite–host relationships in natural populations is vital in order to predict the full consequence of global warming.
Dengue is a widespread vector-borne disease believed to affect between 100 and 390 million people every year. The interaction between vector, host and pathogen is influenced by various climatic factors and the relationship between dengue and climatic conditions has been poorly explored in India. This study explores the relationship between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and dengue cases in India. Additionally, distributed lag non-linear model was used to assess the delayed effects of climatic factors on dengue cases. The weekly dengue cases reported by the Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP) over India during the period 2010–2017 were analysed. The study shows that dengue cases usually follow a seasonal pattern, with most cases reported in August and September. Both temperature and rainfall were positively associated with the number of dengue cases. The precipitation shows the higher transmission risk of dengue was observed between 8 and 15 weeks of lag. The highest relative risk (RR) of dengue was observed at 60 mm rainfall with a 12-week lag period when compared with 40 and 80 mm rainfall. The RR of dengue tends to increase with increasing mean temperature above 24 °C. The largest transmission risk of dengue was observed at 30 °C with a 0–3 weeks of lag. Similarly, the transmission risk increases more than twofold when the minimum temperature reaches 26 °C with a 2-week lag period. The dengue cases and El Niño were positively correlated with a 3–6 months lag period. The significant correlation observed between the IOD and dengue cases was shown for a 0–2 months lag period.
We examined the combined effects of temperature, carbon dioxide (CO2) and watering regime during seed maturation on subsequent germinability and total phenolics of Arabidopsis thaliana [wild-type (WT) and abi1-1 mutant] seeds. Mature seeds were collected from plants that were grown under lower (22/18°C, 16 h light and 8 h dark) or higher (28/24°C, 16 h light and 8 h dark) temperatures, at ambient (400 μmol mol–1) or elevated (700 μmol mol–1) CO2 concentration, and well-watered or water-stressed. Germinated and non-germinated (viable, rotten and empty) seed percentages, germination rate and total phenolics were determined for both genotypes. Higher maturation temperatures increased seed germination percentage, but decreased germination rate, percentage of rotten and non-germinated viable seeds, and total phenolics. Elevated CO2 increased seed total phenolics. Water stress decreased the percentage of non-germinated viable seeds. Neither of the two latter factors affected other measured parameters. Seeds of the abi1-1 mutant had higher total phenolics. The fate of seeds was mostly affected by higher temperatures and water stress. Also, seeds of the abi1-1 mutant had higher germination rate, empty seed percentage and total phenolics than seeds of the WT genotype. Germination percentage was highest for the WT seeds that matured on the water-stressed plants that were grown under higher temperatures at ambient CO2. It can be concluded that higher temperatures had highest effects on seed germinability and other parameters, and elevated CO2 did not alleviate the negative effects of higher temperatures on seed viability.
be open subsets of
is a compact subset of
, and let
be a supertemperature on
. We call a temperature
if there is a supertemperature
. Such a temperature need not be a thermic minorant of
. We show that either there is a unique temperature extendable by
, or there are infinitely many. Examples of temperatures extendable by
include the greatest thermic minorant
, and the Perron–Wiener–Brelot solution of the Dirichlet problem
with boundary values the restriction of
. In the case where these two examples are distinct, we give a formula for producing infinitely many more. Clearly
is the greatest extendable thermic minorant, but we also prove that there is a least one, which is not necessarily equal to
Thanks to the second law, entropy is the concept by wich the arrow of time can be expressed. Irreversibility is defined as internal production of heat. Work by compression of a gas is analysed for both reversible and irreversible processes, making obvious the difference between the internal pressure, which is the conjugate of the volume, and the external pressure associated with the force exerted on a piston. Chemical potentials are defined as the conjugate of the number of moles of substances contained in the system. Chemical reactions are readily seen as source of entropy production. Simple systems are defined, playing a role analogous to point masses in mechanics. Evolution of simple systems is worked out when they are subjected to heat and mechanical action.
In the Rio de la Plata salinity, temperature, chlorophyll a (chl a), and densities (ind. m−3) of the copepods Acartia tonsa and Paracalanus parvus were measured from January to November in 2003 by following a nested weekly and monthly design. Such sampling yielded two separate datasets: (i) Yearly Dataset (YD) which consists of data of one sampling effort per month for 11 consecutive months, and (ii) Seasonal Weekly Datasets (SWD) which consists of data of one sampling effort per week of any four consecutive weeks within each season. YD was assumed as a medium-term low-resolution (MTLR) dataset, and SWD as a short-term high-resolution (STHR) dataset. The hypothesis was, the SWD would always capture (shorter scales generally captures more noise in data) more detail variability of copepod populations (quantified through the regression relationships between temporal changes of salinity, temperature, chl a and copepod densities) than the YD. Analysis of both YD and SWD found that A. tonsa density was neither affected by seasonal cycles, nor temporal variability of salinity, temperature and chl a. Thus, compared to STHR sampling, MTLR sampling did not yield any further information of the variability of population densities of the perennial copepod A. tonsa. Analysis of SWD found that during summer and autumn the population densities of P. parvus had a significant positive relationship to salinity but their density was limited by higher chl a concentration; analysis of YD could not yield such detailed ecological information. That hints the effectiveness of STHR sampling over MTLR sampling in capturing details of the variability of population densities of a seasonal copepod species. Considering the institutional resource limitations (e.g. lack of long-term funding, manpower and infrastructure) and the present hypothesis under consideration, the authors suggest that a STHR sampling may provide useful complementary information to interpret results of longer-term natural changes occurring in estuaries.
Older people are higher contributors to mortality excess and most sensitive to environmental influences, e.g. temperature. As the population ages, variability in temperature is liable to impact a large proportion of life insurance or pension policies in a portfolio. Climate change is projected to significantly affect future mean temperatures. Moreover, future changes in mean temperature are estimated to vary across different regions of the United Kingdom. Accordingly, the present paper investigates the potential impact of future mean temperature changes on older-age mortality in England & Wales and Scotland. The corresponding effect on older-age mortality differences between England & Wales and Scotland is also investigated.
Herbicide active ingredients, formulation type, ambient temperature, and humidity can influence volatility. A method was developed using volatility chambers to compare relative volatility of different synthetic auxin herbicide formulations in controlled environments. 2,4-D or dicamba acid vapors emanating after application were captured in air-sampling tubes at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after herbicide application. The 2,4-D or dicamba was extracted from sample tubes and quantified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Volatility from 2,4-D dimethylamine (DMA) was determined to be greater than that of 2,4-D choline in chambers where temperatures were held at 30 or 40 C and relative humidity (RH) was 20% or 50%. Air concentration of 2,4-D DMA was 0.399 µg m−3 at 40 C and 20% RH compared with 0.005 µg m−3 for 2,4-D choline at the same temperature and humidity at 24 h after application. Volatility from 2,4-D DMA and 2,4-D choline increased as temperature increased from 30 to 40 C. However, volatility from 2,4-D choline was lower than observed from 2,4-D DMA. Volatility from 2,4-D choline at 40 C increased from 0.00458 to 0.0263 µg m−3 and from 0.00341 to 0.025 µg m−3 when humidity increased from 20% to 50% at 72 and 96 h after treatment, respectively, whereas, volatility from 2,4-D DMA tended to be higher at 20% RH compared with 50% RH. Air concentration of dicamba diglycolamine was similar at all time points when measured at 40 C and 20% RH. By 96 h after treatment, there was a trend for lower air concentration of dicamba compared with earlier timings. This method using volatility chambers provided good repeatability with low variability across replications, experiments, and herbicides.
Prairie groundcherry [Physalis hederifolia (A. Gray) var. fendleri (A. Gray) Cronquist] is an invasive perennial weed with the potential to become a significant summer weed across 409 million hectares in Australia. Current management practices do not provide effective control of established populations. A better understanding of the seed biology is needed to effectively manage this weed. A series of field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine plant fecundity, soil seedbank longevity, and the factors that affect seed germination. Physalis hederifolia has the capacity to produce 66 to 86 berries plant−1, 51 to 74 seeds berry−1, and approximately 4,500 seeds plant−1, with the seeds potentially able to persist in the soil seedbank for 20 yr if buried in an intact dry berry pod. The bare-seed component of the soil seedbank can be virtually exhausted within 3 yr if cultivation is minimized to avoid burial of seed. Optimal temperature for germination is diurnal fluctuations of 15 C within the temperature range of 10 and 30 C. Increasing osmotic stress levels reduced the germination under all temperature regimes, with less than 6% germination occurring at −0.96 MPa. Physalis hederifolia seed germination was not significantly affected by substrate pH 4 to 10 or salt levels less than 160 mM, while the germination was significantly reduced at NaCl concentrations above 160 mM. These results suggest that P. hederifolia can adapt to a range of substrate conditions. Stopping seed set, avoiding grazing plants with viable seeds, and minimizing seed burial in the soil are some effective strategies to control this weed.