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This chapter consists of two parts. The first part covers basic aspects of machine autonomy as a technical concept, explaining how it constitutes a form of control over a machine and how degrees of autonomous capability manifest in complex machines. This part is not about weapon systems in particular, but about electromechanical systems in general. It briefly outlines adaptive and intelligent control methodologies and explains that autonomy does not sever the connection between a machine and its operator but only alters the relationship between them. The second part discusses some aspects of how autonomous systems are used in military applications. Specifically, autonomous behaviour will extend to systems ancillary to combat operations and autonomous systems will be employed in roles wherein they effectively ‘collaborate’ with human soldiers and with each other. Assessing the legal consequences of using autonomous systems in military operations is therefore not simply a matter of studying the properties of a new type of weapon; it is about understanding a new relationship between soldiers and weapons.
This final chapter briefly sets out two lists of recommendations with the intention of helping to progress the debate about regulation of autonomous weapon systems currently being conducted by the States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. The first set relates to the definition of autonomous weapons. This has been a point of contention since the first informal Meeting of Experts was held in 2014. The recommendations given here are drawn from the points made in earlier chapters and can be used to formulate a definition of autonomous weapons which will support regulatory efforts. The second set of recommendations briefly outlines a proposed regulatory response based on the approaches taken in existing Protocols of the CCW.
This chapter links the distinguishing technological features of autonomous machines, identified in the previous chapter, to matters which are the subject of legal regulation: the decisions and actions of combatants, and the behaviour of weapon systems. It outlines the effects that weapon autonomy I likely to have on military decision-making processes and discusses the novel sources of risk and modes of failure associated with operating complex autonomous machines in combat. The problem of how to categorise autonomous weapons for legal purposes is addressed, as a response to suggestions by some commentators that weapon systems which are able to ‘step into the shoes’ of soldiers in some respects should perhaps be considered to be something more than just weapons when assessing their legal compliance. Finally, the conditions under which use of autonomous weapons may transgress the law are identified, as preparation for the detailed legal analysis to follow in the remainder of the book.
A software release game was formulated by Zeephongsekul and Chiera [Zeephongsekul, P. & Chiera, C. (1995). Optimal software release policy based on a two-person game of timing. Journal of Applied Probability 32: 470–481] and was reconsidered by Dohi et al. [Dohi, T., Teraoka, Y., & Osaki, S. (2000). Software release games. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications 105(2): 325–346] in a framework of two-person nonzero-sum games. In this paper, we further point out the faults in the above literature and revisit the Nash equilibrium strategies in the software release games from the viewpoints of both silent and noisy type of games. It is shown that the Nash equilibrium strategies in the silent and noisy of software release games exist under some parametric conditions.
The process of software testing usually involves the correction of a detected bug immediately upon detection. In this article, in contrast, we discuss continuous time testing of a software with periodic debugging in which bugs are corrected, instead of at the instants of their detection, at some pre-specified time points. Under the assumption of renewal distribution for the time between successive occurrence of a bug, maximum-likelihood estimation of the initial number of bugs in the software is considered, when the renewal distribution belongs to any general parametric family or is arbitrary. The asymptotic properties of the estimated model parameters are also discussed. Finally, we investigate the finite sample properties of the estimators, specially that of the number of initial number of bugs, through simulation.
This is the first of two articles on the Extant Life Volumetric Imaging System (ELVIS) describing a combined digital holographic microscope (DHM) and a fluorescence light-field microscope (FLFM). The instrument is modular and robust enough for field use. Each mode uses its own illumination source and camera, but both microscopes share a common objective lens and sample viewing chamber. This allows correlative volumetric imaging in amplitude, quantitative phase, and fluorescence modes. A detailed schematic and parts list is presented, as well as links to open-source software packages for data acquisition and analysis that permits interested researchers to duplicate the design. Instrument performance is quantified using test targets and beads. In the second article on ELVIS, to be published in the next issue of Microscopy Today, analysis of data from field tests and images of microorganisms will be presented.
The chapter introduces and explains some terms and concepts that are important for the understanding of the international legal questions with regard to transnational cybersecurity, such as hacking and software vulnerabilities, exploits, phishing, ransomware, or botnets. Furthermore, some basic categories like espionage, cybercrime, or cyberterrorism are laid out in order to distinguish the most prevalent forms of malicious behaviour in cyberspace and to conceptually prepare the subsequent focus on adversarial state conduct in cyberspace.
The number of medical mobile phone applications continues to grow. Although otorhinolaryngology-specific applications represent a small proportion, there are exciting innovations emerging for the specialty. This article will assess the number of applications available and review how they may be used in clinical practice.
The application stores of the two most popular mobile phone platforms, Apple and android, were searched using multiple search terms.
A total of 107 ENT applications were identified and categorised according to intended use. Eight applications were reviewed in more detail and assessed on whether a doctor or allied health professional was involved in their design and if they were evidence-based.
There are a number of ENT-specific smartphone applications currently available. As the technology progresses, their scope has extended beyond being purely for reference. Nevertheless, it remains difficult to assess the validity and security of these applications.
The conclusion comments on the cultural functions that experiences of immediacy possess and outlines the productive contributions that the academic study of literary immediacy can make to literary and cultural studies, especially if it approaches literature from a comparative media perspective. The chapter summarizes that American Literature and Immediacy explores literary narratives of new media encounter, and the stylistic and thematic innovations they inspired, to show that American literary culture absorbs media cultural changes as it participates in the pervasive cultural quest for increased immediacy. The book describes how American writers compared the immediacy effects of photography, film, and television to literature’s representational possibilities to re-envision the imaginative and critical role that literary practice could play in a culture increasingly shaped by mass media. The conclusion also discusses the use of voice recognition software by the novelist Richard Powers and cites his compositional strategy as an example of how contemporary writers continue to successfully appropriate new media technologies in search of immediacy, full expression, and literary innovation.
In the field of educational technology there are classic oppositions that shape what we do in our use of technology in higher education (HE) – behaviourism versus constructivism, open versus for-profit, conventional versus innovative curriculum design, technocracy versus democracy. Both sides of the binaries are critical components of what we might determine as the ‘social’ in HE, and the extent to which their oppositions govern our approach to curriculum design also determines the type of learning that our students undertake in their programmes. In this chapter we explore the effect of the antinomies on the development of simulation software designed and built last decade and still in use at Strathclyde Law School, and adapted elsewhere. The chapter will analyse the assumptions and the history – legal educational, technological and social – that are part of the software build and outline future use and expectations for the software as it develops beyond what might, to date, be characterised as its early beta or incunabula stages of development in HE. Above all we shall begin to trace what we hope is one resolution of the classic opposition of technocracy and democracy, a theme that will be developed in future publications.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an electronically steered low-frequency (<300 MHz) radio interferometer, with a ‘slew’ time less than 8 s. Low-frequency (∼100 MHz) radio telescopes are ideally suited for rapid response follow-up of transients due to their large field of view, the inverted spectrum of coherent emission, and the fact that the dispersion delay between a 1 GHz and 100 MHz pulse is on the order of 1–10 min for dispersion measures of 100–2000 pc/cm3. The MWA has previously been used to provide fast follow-up for transient events including gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fast radio bursts (FRBs), and gravitational waves, using systems that respond to gamma-ray coordinates network packet-based notifications. We describe a system for automatically triggering MWA observations of such events, based on Virtual Observatory Event standard triggers, which is more flexible, capable, and accurate than previous systems. The system can respond to external multi-messenger triggers, which makes it well-suited to searching for prompt coherent radio emission from GRBs, the study of FRBs and gravitational waves, single pulse studies of pulsars, and rapid follow-up of high-energy superflares from flare stars. The new triggering system has the capability to trigger observations in both the regular correlator mode (limited to ≥0.5 s integrations) and using the Voltage Capture System (VCS, 0.1 ms integration) of the MWA and represents a new mode of operation for the MWA. The upgraded standard correlator triggering capability has been in use since MWA observing semester 2018B (July–Dec 2018), and the VCS and buffered mode triggers will become available for observing in a future semester.
A new era in radio astronomy will begin with the upcoming large-scale surveys planned at the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). ASKAP started its Early Science programme in October 2017 and several target fields were observed during the array commissioning phase. The Scorpio field was the first observed in the Galactic Plane in Band 1 (792–1 032 MHz) using 15 commissioned antennas. The achieved sensitivity and large field of view already allow to discover new sources and survey thousands of existing ones with improved precision with respect to previous surveys. Data analysis is currently ongoing to deliver the first source catalogue. Given the increased scale of the data, source extraction and characterisation, even in this Early Science phase, have to be carried out in a mostly automated way. This process presents significant challenges due to the presence of extended objects and diffuse emission close to the Galactic Plane.
In this context, we have extended and optimised a novel source finding tool, named Caesar, to allow extraction of both compact and extended sources from radio maps. A number of developments have been done driven by the analysis of the Scorpio map and in view of the future ASKAP Galactic Plane survey. The main goals are the improvement of algorithm performances and scalability as well as of software maintainability and usability within the radio community. In this paper, we present the current status of Caesar and report a first systematic characterisation of its performance for both compact and extended sources using simulated maps. Future prospects are discussed in the light of the obtained results.
Chapter 4 analyzes the doctrine of patentable subject matter. Delving into American, European, and Japanese patent jurisprudence, it first describes how these legal systems handle software-related inventions in general. Next, it applies that jurisprudence to 3D printable files to demonstrate why only one of the three 3D printing file formats is likely to constitute patentable subject matter. More intriguingly, it turns out that this file format is of least interest to would-be patent holders. In other words, a patent protection gap exists. Chapter 4 also analyzes jurisdictions’ differential treatment of patent claims directed to electronic signals. The Japanese and European patent systems consider these claims to be patentable subject matter, whereas the U.S. system does not. The upshot is that patent protection for software and 3D printable files is weaker in the United States because most 3D printable files are sold as internet signal transmissions. I argue that the United States should provide protection for signal claims.
Chapter 8 focuses on a specific issue created by 3D printing technology: whether DMFs of purely (or primarily) utilitarian objects should receive copyright protection. Tangible objects dominated by utilitarian concerns do not receive copyright protection. Neither should the corresponding DMF, I argue. This novel argument has attracted criticism, but I defend it as a matter of doctrine and policy. Doctrinally, I argue that U.S. law excludes copyright protection not only for useful articles, but also for designs of (i.e., the shape of) useful articles, even if depicted in a two-dimensional drawing. Moreover, most jurisdictions around the world extend copyright protection only to works containing creativity, and I argue that DMFs of utilitarian objects contain no copyrightable creativity – they are exact, uncreative representations of the unprotected tangible objects. As a matter of policy, allowing copyright protection for DMFs of useful articles would cause copyright law, which is geared toward aesthetic works, to trespass on patent law, which is geared toward utilitarian works. In short, granting these DMFs copyright protection would inhibit the progress of utilitarian innovation.
The time it takes to acquire a satellite signal is one of the most important parameters for a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The Parallel Frequency space search acquisition Algorithm (PFA) runs faster than the Parallel Code phase search acquisition Algorithm (PCA) when the approximate phase of Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN) code and the approximate value of a Doppler shift are known. However, a large amount of data is needed to be dealt with by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) in a traditional PFA algorithm because it processes a narrow-band signal with the initial sampling frequency after the PRN code is stripped. In order to reduce the computational complexity of the traditional PFA algorithm, a down-conversion module and a downsampling module were added to the traditional PFA in the work reported here. Experiments demonstrated that this method not only succeeded in acquiring BeiDou B1I signals, but also the time for acquirement was reduced by at least 80% with the modified PFA algorithm compared with the traditional PFA algorithm. The loss in Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) did not exceed 0·5 dB when the number of coherent points was less than 500.
Technology of 3D printing is opening the possibility for small-scale production in quantities between ten and several hundred pieces. The technology of adding material enables the production of complex and integrated functional concepts in a single-pass process, which consequently potentially reduces the need for assembly operations. Design approaches and manufacturing processing are not mastered well because of a constant stream of new materials and manufacturing options. Well-designed products need to consider attributes of 3D printing as early as the conceptual phase. The cost of the product can be reduced with a systematic research and considering principles for small-scale production. In a cheaper, alternative production process the quality range of products is often lower. It has to be compensated with appropriate construction solutions which are less tolerance-sensitive. Therefore, in order to support the designer, to reduce the costs and design time of the product, a computer program was created to provide the user with an insight into the appropriate 3D printing technology. For simplifying the use, the program is also integrated into the product development process.
This chapter first introduces the basic concept of the cloud computing and cloud networking. A general cloud network architecture is presented and follows by the specific cloud systems, i.e., cloud data center networking, mobile cloud networking, and edge computing. Then, the chapter presents a survey on the game theoretic and auction models developed and applied to solve issues in cloud networking. Such issues include bandwidth reservation and allocation, request allocation, wireless bandwidth allocation, resource management in edge computing, and bandwidth allocation in software defined networking for cloud computing. The chapter then presents a cooperative game model for mobile cloud resource management in which the full formulation, algorithms, and performance evaluation are included. Finally, the chapter investigates how to provide efficient insurance in cloud computing market.
The General Structure Analysis System (GSAS-II) package provides materials and crystallographic analysis for all types of diffraction data. It was initially made available with very limited capabilities, but over much of the last decade the features have been expanded, so that GSAS-II is now a comprehensive tool for nearly all types of structural and materials characterization studies. The need to provide materials to teach use of GSAS-II, while the software has been undergoing constant revision and expansion, has required new approaches for documentation. This has included providing tutorials, as each major new capability has been added, and context-sensitive help for each section of the program. Comments in the code are also expanded into a software reference guide. Most recently, video versions of more than half of the tutorials were created and others were provided with animated graphics. All GSAS-II documentation is web-based.