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Because of its transboundary effects and because states will be the primary actors, large-scale solar geoengineering and its governance are matters of international law. This is the third of four chapters that consider international legal rules, here regarding human rights. The chapter introduces international human rights law and how it relates to the environment and climate change. It reviews and critiques the limited literature on human rights and solar geoengineering. The remainder considers the issues in four ways. First, solar geoengineering is presently being explored as scientific research, for which international human rights law has provisions for the researcher and the potential beneficiaries of resulting knowledge. Second, outdoor research may affect people as research subjects, for whom international human rights law provides some protections. Third, procedural human rights to information, participation in public affairs, and legal remedies are widely recognized. Finally, the international law of substantive human rights such as those to health, to an adequate standard of living, to be free from hunger, and to life could inform solar geoengineering governance.
Objective: To increase understanding of the community neuropsychological rehabilitation goals of young people with acquired brain injuries (ABIs). Method: Three hundred twenty-six neuropsychological rehabilitation goals were extracted from the clinical records of 98 young people with ABIs. The participants were 59% male, 2–19 years old, and 64% had a traumatic brain injury. Goals were coded using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to assess the distribution of goals across the ICF-CY. Chi-squared and Cramer’s V were used to identify demographic and injury-related associations of goal type. Results: The distribution of goals was 52% activities and participation (AP), 28% body functions (BF), 20% environmental factors (EF), and <1% body structures (BS). The number of EF goals increased with age at assessment (V = .14). Non-traumatic causes of ABIs were associated with more EF goals (V = .12). There was no association between sex or time post-injury and the distribution of goals across the ICF-CY. Conclusions: Young people with ABIs have a wide range of community neuropsychological rehabilitation goals that require an individualized, context-sensitive, and interdisciplinary approach. Community neuropsychological rehabilitation services may wish to ensure they are resourced to focus intervention on AP, with increasing consideration for EF as a young person progresses through adolescence. The findings of this research support models of community neuropsychological rehabilitation that enable wellness by combining direct rehabilitative interventions with attention to social context and systemic working across agencies. (JINS, 2019, 25, 403–412)
Africa is currently experiencing rapid urbanisation impacting on people's food environments and dietary habits. Such changes are associated with higher prevalence of obesity coexisting with undernutrition. The present paper provides an overview of the healthiness of African urban food environments. We discuss the ways that food environments can be characterised and summarise the methods that can be used to investigate and intervene in the food environment. Data for Africa over a 50-year period (1961–2013) suggest an increasing availability of energy, animal products, fruit and vegetables, vegetable oils, sugar and sweeteners but a decrease in animal fats. There is a lack of evidence about how social, physical and macro-environments drive dietary habits in urban Africa, as most research has focused on the individual level. Examining how food consumption is embedded in everyday life, by investigating social environments is crucial to developing effective interventions. The informal food sector plays an important role in the retail food environment. Macro-level food price changes are an important factor influencing nutritional quality of African diets. The rapid expansion of food/beverages advertising in Africa threatens traditional food habits. Liberalisation of food trade is already impacting on the nutritional quality of food available. Improving African food environments represents a pressing public health concern and has the potential to prevent all forms of malnutrition. Hence, by conducting research into the role of urban social, physical and macro-environments, emerging interventions and policies are likely to positively impact on nutritional status, thereby enhancing social and economic development.