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This study investigates and proposes a fire detection and suppression system for a smart air cargo container. A series of smoke spread and fire evolution numerical models are executed to assess the performance of container-based fire detection in various fire scenarios. This is to identify the worst case and optimise the location and threshold setting of fire detection sensors, achieving the shortest detection time. It is found that the fire detection threshold (reduction in light transmission = 12%/ft) for a container-based system can be set at three times the standard activation threshold for a cargo-based fire detection system, which can reduce the number of false alarms by three orders of magnitude. Moreover, effectiveness analysis of passive fire protection for the glass fibre-reinforced polymer-made smart container indicates an allowable leakage size of 0.01m2. The risk of internal overpressure has been found to be negligible for the leakage size required by aircraft pressure equalisation.
Fire and grazing are large-scale disturbances that shape the structure and function of open habitats. In temperate grasslands of southern South America, fire is used as a management tool to control tussock grasses and improve forage quality. In this study, we examined if fire and two of its components (heat and smoke) affect germination from the soil seed bank of a temperate grassland in Uruguay. Soil samples were extracted from a recently burned site and from an adjacent area that had not been burned for at least 4 years. The latter was subjected to four treatments: (1) heat shock, (2) smoke, (3) heat shock and smoke and (4) control. The samples were placed in a germination chamber and germination was recorded for 140 days. Field burn was the treatment that differed most from the control. This treatment produced a significant increase in density and richness of germinants and the germination peak preceded those of the remaining treatments. The three treatments involving fire-related cues did not affect the seedling richness and density, but the germination of some individual species was enhanced by some of them, mainly those in which the seeds were smoked. Our results show that fire and its components stimulate the germination of some species of the Río de la Plata grasslands, contrary to what had been observed previously in the region. We also suggest that, unlike Mediterranean-type systems, other fire cues, alone or in combination with heat and smoke, may promote germination after a fire event.
We examine cross-sectional and prospective associations between objectively measured SHS exposure and mental health using data from the Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS), a large, UK-wide, general population-based, prospective cohort study with measurements of carbon monoxide or salivary cotinine levels.
Mental health was assessed using the 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, height, body mass index, alcohol intake, social status, and longstanding illness were used to analyze the association between exposure to SHS (exhaled CO and salivary cotinine categories) and psychological distress (≥ 5 GHQ).
Fully adjusted cross-sectional analysis revealed a positive relationship between exhaled carbon monoxide and psychological distress among smokers (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.04-1.78) but not among non-smoking adults. In a similar cross-sectional analysis between cotinine level and psychological distress, non-significant associations were found among smokers and non-smokers. Prospective analyses of the cotinine-psychological distress relationship among participants without psychological distress at baseline showed no significant increased risk of psychological distress among both smokers and non-smokers. In a prospective analysis of poor mental health outcome with respect to self-report smoking and SHS status, smokers had an increased risk of psychological distress while SHS and non-smokers did not.
A non-significant association between objectively measured SHS exposure and poor mental health was found in this study. Our findings show discrepancies with recent studies suggesting the need for additional future research in this growing field of study.
Chapter 2 follows the coal extracted from the countryside of rural England to arrive in the humming, phosphorescent, non-stop pulsation of the metropolis. Virginia Woolf’s argument for a writer’s need to control her own rest and living space in A Room of One’s Own provides a basis for analyzing how social action determines the built environment. In order to articulate the growing relation between industrial “exhaust” and physical “exhaustion,” the chapter turns to a discussion of “atmosphere” in James Joyce’s Dubliners, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, and Ulysses. Surveying the trajectory of environmental groups such as the Smoke Abatement League of Great Britain, I consider both the benefits and limitations to the primarily visual aesthetics that surrounded discussions of pollution. The rise of gasworks to create “clean,” smokeless fuels removed soot from the air but often poisoned workers and waterways. I outline a modernist aesthetics of atmosphere that is not primarily visual but proprioceptive. Atmosphere in its local and global, visible and invisible manifestations reveals the subtle interactions between personal and public spaces in the metropolis.
Peer-led school-based anti-smoking programs have been shown to affect the smoking behaviors of students. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a school-based peer-led live theater production advocating a smoke-free life.
This is a cross-section design study. Students from the drama club were recruited as School Health Ambassadors (SHAs). The SHAs were to involve in a theater production in advocating a smoke-free life, and were provided a health education workshop from the project team on facts relating to smoking and smoke-free life. All the students in the school were to watch the theater production as school peer audience members (SPAs). Comparison will be made between the two groups of students in their attitude and decision towards living a smoke-free life after being involved in the theater production or in watching the drama.
A total of 409 students, 21 SHAs, and 388 SPAs were included in the project. Both the SHAs and the SPAs reported confidently about their ability to resist offers or temptation to smoke, and were determined to live a smoke-free life and refrain from smoking the first cigarette.
A peer-led theater production advocating a smoke-free life shows some effects on students’ attitude and decision to resist offers and the temptation to smoke, and to come to the decision to live a smoke-free life and refrain from smoking the first cigarette.
The flora of Mediterranean ecosystems contains families with species having fully and under-developed embryos in their seeds. After-ripening for physiological dormancy release and smoke influence germination in many species. We investigated how after-ripening and embryo growth interact with smoke to influence the temporal dynamics of seedling emergence among fire ephemerals. Seeds were placed in the field and under standardized (50% relative humidity, 30°C) laboratory conditions to test the effects of summer conditions on physiological dormancy loss. Germination was tested with water or smoke compounds (smoke water, KAR1) at a simulated autumn/winter temperature (18/7°C). The timing and amount of seedling emergence with smoke was observed for seeds exposed to near-natural conditions. During summer, physiological dormancy was broken in all species, enabling germination at autumn/winter but not summer temperatures; no embryo growth occurred in seeds with under-developed embryos. At the start of the wet season, seedling emergence from seeds with fully developed embryos occurred earlier than from seeds with under-developed embryos. In a non-consistent manner among our study species, smoke and smoke compounds influenced the rate of embryo growth and amount of germination. Effects of smoke were noticeable in terms of number of emergents in the first emergence season. Among ecologically similar species, we have shown (1) that both thermal and embryo traits exclude germination in the summer, (2) how embryo size influences the timing of seedling emergence in autumn–winter, and (3) a reduced requirement for smoke in the second emergence season after a fire with a shift to reliance on seasonal cues for emergence.
Chapter 13 addresses issues associated with experimental techniques for investigating hydrodynamic instabilties. These issues include the experimental facility, model configuration and instrumentation, all of which impact our understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities.
In January 2006, the Spanish government enacted a tobacco control law that banned smoking in bars and restaurants, with exceptions depending on the floor space of the premises. In January 2011, further legislation in this area was adopted, removing these exceptions. We analyse the effect produced on cigarette sales by these two bans. We approach this problem using an interrupted time series analysis while accounting for the potential effects of autocorrelation and seasonality. The data source used was the official data on legal sales of tobacco in Spain, from January 2000 to December 2015 (excluding the Canary Islands and the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla). As confounder variables, we use the log-transformed average prices for manufactured and hand-rolled cigarettes (or the average minimum excise tax as a proxy), and log-transformed real-household disposable income. The implementation of a total smoke-free ban in Spain was associated with an immediate reduction in cigarette sales between 9% to 11%. In contrast, in the period immediately following the partial ban, no such reduction was detected, beyond the trend already present. Our results indicate that, in Spain, partial bans on smoking in public places failed, and that only a total tobacco ban worked.
Smoking prevalence is doubled among people with mental health problems and reaches 80% in inpatient, substance misuse and prison settings, widening inequalities in morbidity and mortality. As more institutions become smoke-free but most smokers relapse immediately post-discharge, we aimed to review interventions to maintain abstinence post-discharge.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched from inception to May 2016 and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies conducted with adult smokers in prison, inpatient mental health or substance use treatment included. Risk of bias (study quality) was rated using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool. Behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were coded from published papers and manuals using a published taxonomy. Mantel–Haenszel random effects meta-analyses of RCTs used biochemically verified point-prevalence smoking abstinence at (a) longest and (b) 6-month follow-up.
Five RCTs (n = 416 intervention, n = 415 control) and five cohort studies (n = 471) included. Regarding study quality, four RCTs were rated strong, one moderate; one cohort study was rated strong, one moderate and three weak. Most common BCTs were pharmacotherapy (n = 8 nicotine replacement therapy, n = 1 clonidine), problem solving, social support, and elicitation of pros and cons (each n = 6); papers reported fewer techniques than manuals. Meta-analyses found effects in favour of intervention [(a) risk ratio (RR) = 2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30–3.27; (b) RR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.04–3.31].
Medication and/or behavioural support can help maintain smoking abstinence beyond discharge from smoke-free institutions with high mental health comorbidity. However, the small evidence base tested few different interventions and reporting of behavioural interventions is often imprecise.
This study was undertaken to evaluate whether cigarette smoke is associated with changes in the expression of antioxidant enzymes in granulosa cells of women undergoing IVF treatments. For this aim, the expression of three antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, SOD2 and catalase) in non-smokers (n = 20) and smokers (n = 20) was analyzed. There was a statistically significant overexpression of SOD2 and catalase mRNA levels in smokers in comparison with non-smokers. Cigarette smoking was associated with a lower fertilization rate, implantation rate and pregnancy rate in comparison with non-smokers. There was no effect on retrieved oocytes number, metaphase II oocytes number, quality of embryos transferred and live birth rate. These findings suggest that cigarette smoke initiates oxidative stress in granulosa cells.
In Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems, annual species specific to post-fire habitats should have a soil seed bank and should be able to germinate after a fire. Therefore, various fire-related cues can be expected to stimulate germination in post-fire annuals. Germination patterns of the rare annual Chaenorhinum rubrifolium (Plantaginaceae) were examined in response to mechanical scarification, heat shock, aqueous smoke, nitrogenous compounds, gibberellic acid, karrikinolide (KAR1), and mandelonitrile (a cyanohydrin analogue, MAN) under dark and photoperiod conditions in the laboratory. Combinations of these treatments were also included in the experiment. Strong physiological dormancy in the seeds of C. rubrifolium was partially broken by several fire-related germination cues, including smoke and nitrate, under light conditions. KAR1 and MAN also stimulated germination, and the highest improvement in germination was achieved in the KAR1 treatment in the presence of light. Heat shock + smoke and KAR1 + MAN combinations had positive synergetic and additive effects on germination under light conditions, respectively. The light played a crucial role in the promotion of germination. The results suggest that multiple fire-related cues operate to stimulate germination in C. rubrifolium, an annual species from the Mediterranean Basin. However, the species may have a broader germination niche than a fire-restricted one.
Green galenia is a South African woody prostrate perennial that was first
recorded in Australia in the early 1900s and has since become a serious
threat to indigenous temperate grasslands and surrounding agricultural
areas. Laboratory and field based experiments were conducted to examine the
effect of environmental factors on the germination and viability of green
galenia seed. It was shown that green galenia was able to germinate over a
broad range of temperatures, but short bursts (5 min) of high temperatures
(80 C to 120 C replicating possible exposures to a fire) reduced seed
germination. Seed germination was positively favored by light, declined
rapidly in darkness, and decreased by > 80% at a depth of only 0.5 cm in
soil. Water stress greatly reduced seed germination (45% germination at
osmotic potentials below −0.2 MPa). Germination was completely inhibited at
water potentials of −0.4 to −1.0 MPa. This species is moderately tolerant to
salinity, with over 50% of seeds germinating at low levels of salinity (60
mM NaCl), and moderate germination (49%) occurring at 120 mM NaCl, it can
germinate well in both alkaline (pH 10–83%) and acidic (pH 4–80%)
conditions. The results of this study have contributed to our understanding
of the germination and emergence of green galenia, and this will assist in
developing tools and strategies for the long term management of this noxious
weed in Victoria and other parts of Australia.
The International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects, Surveillance and Research reports a rise in the prevalence rate of spina bifida in Japan. We determined first-trimester folate status of Hokkaido women and identified potential predictors. Participants were 15 266 pregnant women of the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health Cohort. Data were extracted from self-reported questionnaires and biochemical assay results. Demographic determinants of low folate status were younger maternal age (adjusted OR (AOR) 1·48; 95 % CI 1·32, 1·66), lower educational level (AOR 1·27; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·39) and lower annual income (AOR 1·11; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·22). Plasma cotinine concentrations of 1·19–65·21 nmol/l increased the risk of low folate status (AOR 1·20; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·31) and concentrations >65·21 nmol/l further increased the risk (AOR 1·91; 95 % CI 1·70, 2·14). The most favourable predictor was use of folic acid (FA) supplements (AOR 0·19; 95 % CI 0·17, 0·22). Certain socio-demographic factors influence folate status among pregnant Japanese women. Modifiable negative and positive predictors were active and passive tobacco smoking and use of FA supplements. Avoiding both active and passive tobacco smoking and using FA supplements could improve the folate status of Japanese women.
The medicinal use of narcotics has a long history, extending back thousands of years, but installations for the ingestion of such substances are rarely preserved. One such installation was found in the Ottoman (fifteenth–seventeenth centuries) levels at Kaman-Kalehöyük, a multi-period settlement mound in central Turkey. Excavations of an Ottoman tandır or ventilated earth-oven have revealed a concentration of charred henbane seeds that suggest the hearth had been used for medicinal fumigation. Henbane smoke was a traditional treatment for relieving toothache and other maladies, but this is the first archaeological evidence for the practice in Asia.
The genus Conostylis (Haemodoraceae) is endemic to fire-prone south-western Australia. To gain an understanding of the effect of some fire-related germination cues, eight Conostylis taxa were tested in response to water, nitrate, smoke water and karrikinolide (KAR1) under light and dark conditions, when seeds were freshly collected and after a year of burial. The germination of all taxa tested was higher in response to smoke water and KAR1 than in water alone, whereas nitrate did not stimulate germination. Germination was higher in all taxa following 1 year of burial than in fresh seeds. Recently, glyceronitrile has been identified as another chemical in smoke water, apart from KAR1, that can stimulate the germination of certain species. The relative response of eight Conostylis taxa to KAR1, glyceronitrile and smoke water was examined in laboratory-stored seeds. Germination of these taxa was promoted by both smoke water and KAR1, except for C. neocymosa, which had high germination regardless of treatment. Four of the other seven taxa germinated to higher levels in at least one of the glyceronitrile concentrations tested (10, 50 or 100 μM) than in water alone. However, in only two of these taxa, C. aculeata subsp. septentrionora and C. juncea, was germination in glyceronitrile as high as that in smoke water. Thus, the response to glyceronitrile is not uniform across Conostylis taxa. Generally, germination was higher with KAR1 than glyceronitrile, suggesting that although some Conostylis taxa have the capacity to respond to glyceronitrile, KAR1 is the more important germination stimulant for this genus.
Weeds pose a great problem to farmers worldwide, and controlling weeds demands a high input cost for herbicides and labor. Because of current environmental regulations, a limited number of herbicides are commercially available (with limited modes of action) to control weeds. Smoke water and the biologically active compounds isolated from smoke affect seed germination in a significant way. Smoke water (SW) and karrikinolide (KAR1, the germination stimulant isolated from smoke) have been tested extensively for their ability to promote seed germination in a vast array of plant species. In addition to KAR1, a germination inhibitor, trimethylbutenolide (TMB), was also isolated from plant-derived smoke. The effects of SW, KAR1, and TMB were tested on five major weed species of South Africa: fleabane, hairy wild lettuce, bugweed, spilanthes, and fameflower. Seeds of these weed species were subjected to 16/8 h light/dark conditions or to constant dark conditions at constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30 C and alternating 30/20 C. SW and KAR1 significantly increased germination, whereas TMB significantly inhibited germination of these weed species. Furthermore, TMB treatment reduced the amylase activity of the tested weed seeds compared with the water control. These results indicate the possibility of manipulating germination of certain weed seeds by SW, KAR1, and TMB. Thus, smoke and smoke-isolated compounds could potentially be used in new weed management strategies.
The role of smoke in fire-stimulated germination in the Mediterranean Basin has often been underestimated. A few records on smoke-enhanced germination are present in Mediterranean Lamiaceae species, but there is still a shortage of information to allow generalizations about this family to be made. To test the hypothesis that smoke enhances germination in Mediterranean Lamiaceae species, we performed a germination experiment, including aqueous smoke treatments in various concentrations (1:1, 1:10 and 1:100) on seven eastern Mediterranean Lamiaceae taxa. Six of the studied taxa (Lavandula stoechas, Origanum onites, Phlomis bourgaei, Stachys cretica ssp. smyrnaea, Satureja thymbra, Teucrium lamiifolium ssp. stachyophyllum) showed significant increments in germination percentage in at least one smoke treatment, as compared to the control. Moreover, L. stoechas, S. thymbra and T. lamiifolium ssp. stachyophyllum displayed faster germination in at least one smoke treatment than in the control. Of the species showing significant increments in germination percentages after aqueous smoke application, at least one single concentration of smoke solution did not stimulate germination, except in L. stoechas and S. thymbra which responded positively to all smoke treatments. Therefore, the concentration of aqueous smoke that improved germination was species-specific. Our results contribute to the current limited knowledge on smoke-enhanced germination in Mediterranean Lamiaceae, and support the idea that smoke is an important germination cue for this family.
Smoke-water (SW), karrikinolide (KAR1) and vermicompost leachate (VCL) have been reported to possess gibberellic acid-like activity. The effects of these plant growth-promoting substances (PGPSs) on biochemical changes occurring during seed germination of Phaseolus vulgaris were assessed. Seeds were incubated/germinated under dark conditions in water (control) or with different concentrations of SW, KAR1, VCL and gibberellic acid (GA3) for 7 d. The maximum seedling fresh weight (1.863 g) was recorded for the SW (1:750 v/v) treatment. The longest seedling axes (9.9 cm) and the highest number of adventitious roots (16.3) were recorded for VCL-treated seedlings (1:10 and 1:5 v/v, respectively). Analysis of two important hydrolytic enzymes, acid phosphatase and alpha-amylase, showed maximum activity [1856 nkat mg− 1 and 3.225 mg min− 1(g FW)− 1, respectively] in the seeds incubated with 10− 8M KAR1. In all the treated seedlings, proline content was significantly reduced [43.67 μg (g FW)− 1; VCL (1:20 v/v)] in comparison to the control [87 μg (g FW)− 1] but there was an increase in amino acids with some concentrations of PGPSs. The tested PGPSs significantly influenced various biochemical parameters that play a significant role in seed germination and plant growth. This study indicates that PGPSs may act via stress-relieving biochemical pathways during seed germination.
Recent systematic reviews have concluded that a single session of exercise ameliorates cravings and tobacco withdrawal symptoms; however, smoking behaviour (topography) has not been adequately addressed in the literature. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of exercise on smoking topography following a temporary period of smoking abstinence. Forty-eight adult smokers (Nfemale = 34, Mage = 43.14), who had been smoking for an average of 23.90 years, were randomised to an acute (10 minutes) bout of exercise (N = 23) or passive sitting (control) group. Cigarette cravings were assessed at baseline and immediately pre and post treatment condition during a 15-hour smoking abstinence period. Smoking topography which included puff count, puff volume, puff duration, inter-puff interval, and total cigarette duration was assessed at baseline and post treatment. Although exercise reduced cravings, compared to the control group, smoking topography remained unchanged across time between groups. Furthermore, craving reduction was unrelated to any smoking topography variables. Although there is evidence that exercise can delay time to first cigarette, this study demonstrates that the change to smoking topography is negligible when participants are invited to smoke.
Due to shared geological history and proximity, the flora of New Caledonia is closely linked to other Gondwanan land fragments such as Australia and New Zealand. Many predominant Australian groups are well represented within the New Caledonian flora, including the genera Hibbertia (23 species) and Scaevola (10 species). Previous studies have found that these two genera in particular have a marked positive germination response to smoke products, although all previous studies have centred on Australian species from fire-prone environments. In this present study, we test the hypothesis that two New Caledonian species of Hibbertia and Scaevola are smoke responsive even though the climate and ecological drivers in New Caledonia are in many respects fundamentally different from those of most of Australia. Preliminary results showed that germination of Hibbertia pancheri was significantly accelerated in response to smoke water while germination in Scaevola montana was also significantly enhanced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that these trends have been illustrated for any New Caledonian species and these results will enhance restoration efforts of ultramafic scrublands impacted by mining activities in New Caledonia.