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This chapter explores international working options other than expatriation and migration, focusing, in particular, on three of the main alternative ‘other’ ways of arranging international work: short-term assignments (STAs), international business travel (IBTs), and international commuting (McNulty & Brewster, 2019). These ‘other’ ways of working in another country tend to be shorter and, crucially, do not involve relocating ‘home’ or taking the family, if there is one, with them. The chapter explores some of the advantages and disadvantages of these alternative forms of international experience.
This chapter address the rise of research performance measurement as an instrument of governance designed to steer the higher education sector in a specific direction. Performance measurement is always a political decision and it is about both accountability and control. Performance measurement is directed at many different entities, it serves multiple purposes, and it represents a variety of goals and values. In order to focus on the level of convergence between nations in the use of performance measurement of research in higher education institutions, this chapter examines the range of stated purposes behind the decision to measure performance. The chapter address research performance measurement in Australia, Canada, and the UK, and focuses on assessing convergence in ‘talk’ about performance measurement by senior administrators. It seeks to uncover how performance measurement is labelled and represented in these countries, and to examine the level of similarity across these nations. Hence, performance measurement is an example of a governance instrument which is utilized to shed light on how the higher education sector is being steered in various locations.
Adopting a human rights approach to human subjects research entails shifting an ethic of “avoiding harm” to one of “actively promoting good,” especially in international contexts. The implications for research procedures are discussed as a series of steps in research planning and implementation, selection of participants, and community involvement. Special issues in research with vulnerable populations and in “big data” research are addressed.
This chapter is about finding the law. Research skills are expected of Australian law graduates; indeed, you need these skills to practise law competently. As Chapter 1 highlighted, the law is so immense that we cannot possibly know it all and, besides that, it changes all the time! By the time you enter into legal practice, the law you learned at university may have changed or may no longer apply.
The goal of this book is to synthesize the existing research on social media and democracy. We present reviews of the literature on disinformation, polarization, echo chambers, hate speech, bots, political advertising, and new media. In addition, we
canvass the literature on reform proposals to address the widely perceived threats to
democracy. We seek to examine the current state of knowledge on social media and
democracy, to identify the many knowledge gaps and obstacles to research in this area,
and to chart a course for future research. We hope to advocate for this new field of
study and to suggest that universities, foundations, private firms, and governments
should commit to funding and supporting this research.
Responding to an environment of panic surrounding social media’s effect on democracy, regulators and other political actors are rushing to fill the policy void with proposals based on anecdote and folk wisdom emerging from whatever is the most recent scandal. The need for real-time production of rigorous, policy-relevant scientific research on the effects of new technology on political communication has never been more urgent. This book represents a clarion call for making social media data available for research, with results concomitantly released in the public domain, even while recognizing the importance of privacy and the business interests of the firms. We hope this concluding chapter, as well as the entire volume, can be helpful in providing a path to do so.
This chapter traces recurring topics of the entire modern period and its academic treatment, summarizing the differences between subperiods, briefly pointing at domains for further research, and outlining current scholarly trends. Modern Kabbalah has consistently returned to the Lurianic corpus and to the general themes of gender, messianism and experience. It can be divided into three phases: early, high and late modernity. A crisis of authority posed by Sabbateanism and blended with a more general religious crisis distinguishes the early modern period. This was in turn resolved through the high modern canons of the eighteenth century, an era of stabilization and proliferation of Kabbalah. The rapprochement between Kabbalah and philosophy characterizes the late modern period, along with its messianism, modernism and globalization. Possible areas for future research include a survey of the commentaries on Luria, a treatment of the modern kabbalistic exegesis of a handful of earlier binding sources and a discussion on the role of technology — both in the facilitating and propagation of Kabbalah, and as a theme in kabbalistic discourse.
Kabbalah’s impact as a catalyst on mass social movements, effect on European intellectual life, quantitative vastness and global reach, and its qualitative complex diversity in theosophical systems, techniques, experiences and conflicts cannot be overstated. Nonetheless, the serious treatment of these topics has been limited to specified studies. This book represents the first attempt to provide modern Kabbalah with a comprehensive history, beginning from the mid-sixteenth-century spiritual revolution that took place in the Galilean town of Safed, up until the present day. The implications of the book include the need to place modern Kabbalah within its own context both as autonomous from but also continuous with earlier periods, as well as within a broader Jewish and extra-Jewish historical context. It will offer an account of central schools, figures, works and themes, and a treatment of recent and contemporary developments. Moreover, it will provide a critical history of scholarship in various languages but will prioritize the texts themselves, reflecting their prominence in Kabbalah. Finally, it will point toward areas for further research in the study of modern Kabbalah.
Gambling, legal and illegal, is popular in Nigeria. Lack of stringent regulation and enforcement, coupled with the rise in online gambling opportunities, has resulted in increased gambling-related harm. There needs to be a multipronged public health strategy to address the harms of gambling and for this the government, gambling industry, policy makers and academic experts need to engage in a meaningful debate.
We describe a novel 10-week summer research program aimed at developing academic emergency medicine (EM) interest among medical students. A cohort of students was recruited to participate in the Summer Training and Research in Emergency Medicine (STAR-EM) program with the primary goal of completing and disseminating a scholarly project. Curriculum development and program evaluation were informed by Kern's model and Kirkpatrick's hierarchy, respectively. Students and faculty demonstrated interest in academic EM and research productivity during the curriculum. This program provides a model for other emergency departments seeking to foster the development of academic EM at their institution.
There are concerns that some non-profit organisations, financed by the food industry, promote industry positions in research and policy materials. Using Freedom of Information (FOI) requests, we test the proposition that the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), one prominent non-for profit in international health and nutrition research, promotes industry positions.
U.S. Right to Know filed five FOI from 2015 to 2018 covering communications with researchers at four US institutions: Texas A&M, University of Illinois, University of Colorado and North Carolina State University. It received 15 078 pages, which were uploaded to the University of California San Francisco’s Industry Documents Library. We searched the Library exploring it thematically for instances of: (1) funding research activity that supports industry interests; (2) publishing and promoting industry-sponsored positions or literature; (3) disseminating favourable material to decision makers and the public and (4) suppressing views that do not support industry.
Available emails confirmed that ILSI’s funding by corporate entities leads to industry influence over some of ILSI activities. Emails reveal a pattern of activity in which ILSI sought to exploit the credibility of scientists and academics to bolster industry positions and promote industry-devised content in its meetings, journal and other activities. ILSI also actively seeks to marginalise unfavourable positions.
We conclude that undue influence of industry through third-party entities like ILSI requires enhanced management of conflicts of interest by researchers. We call for ILSI to be recognised as a private sector entity rather than an independent scientific non-profit, to allow for more appropriate appraisal of its outputs and those it funds.
The future and present day state of psychosocial and sociobiological rehabilitation depends on scientific research, the differing rates of development within the autonomous communities, and the “administrative reform”. In the rehabilitation of the chronic mentally ill, these three factors complement existing psycho and sociobiological therapy and cognitive methodology training.
The method of evaluation we describe attempts to establish the criteria applied by clinicians when recommending psychoanalytical psychotherapy or psychoanalysis. A questionnaire was constructed and a study of inter-rater agreement using this research tool was carried out. The results of inter-rater agreement as well as the variations concerning each rater are discussed. Continuation of this study will provide the opportunity to examine the validity of general principles underlying the psychoanalysts’ perceptions of their patients.
The evidence base on the relationship between religion and mental health is growing rapidly, and we summarise the latest research on the topic. This includes studies on religious involvement and depression, bipolar disorder, suicide, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorders, personality disorder, chronic psychotic disorder, marital/family stability, social support and psychological well-being. We also review a relatively new topic in psychiatry, moral injury, which often accompanies PTSD and may interfere with its treatment. We describe a theoretical model that explains how religion might affect mental health and briefly discuss its applications in clinical practice, including a discussion of religiously integrated therapies for depression, anxiety and other emotional problems. Overall, studies indicate that religious involvement often serves as a powerful resource for patients, one that can be integrated into psychiatric care. At times, however, religion may impede or complicate treatment. This article will help clinicians determine, on the basis of the latest research, whether religion is an asset or a liability for a particular patient.
This chapter focuses on the initial phase of practitioner research – the decision to engage in formal and structured research, as distinct from the everyday work of educators. This decision, which can be challenging for educators who are beginning researchers, is usually underpinned by an interest or issue related to an aspect of their practice, such as school or classroom-based priorities, issues, problems or observations. Although this impetus may be powerful and the educator highly motivated to pursue research, it is reasonable to have concerns about taking the step to conduct research. The chapter begins by focusing on common reasons that inform practitioners’ decisions to research, and we describe scenarios that would motivate educators and provide them with an impetus to engage in a study. This discussion includes examples of real-life practitioner researchers’ experiences. The chapter also examines some of the common concerns of beginning researchers and responds to each, giving authentic examples of practitioners’ apprehensions and the ways they were addressed. The final part of the chapter is devoted to planning and writing the research proposal.
This final chapter focuses on professionalism and the contribution of research engagement to educators’ professional knowledge and identities. It briefly revisits the systemic positioning of practitioner research in other countries before elaborating on the current vision of professional standards for educators in Australia. While the standards relate to the broad and diverse aspects of professional practice for teachers, there are explicit references to research engagement in some standards and there is also scope for research to help educators to ensure they are addressing the others. Throughout this chapter we ask the reader to consider the potential of engagement with and in research for supporting educators’ professional growth, and promoting school improvement and collective leadership. The chapter also focuses on the attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of pre-service and in-service teachers in relation to practitioner research as they seek to develop their own professional identities.
This chapter focuses primarily on: making connections among the research questions, creating a manageable research design and deciding on data collection methods. The aim is to assist you with designing a study to answer the research question or questions within the constraints of your context. The chapter begins with a focus on different research paradigms and presents a case for a pragmatic research approach that aligns with the goals of the research. Our intention is not to present a narrow view of possible research approaches, but to make a case for a diverse range of approaches, including those commonly used by practitioners such as evaluation research, action research, and self-study.
This chapter builds on Chapter 5 by considering data collection methods in more detail as it focuses on the design of data collection instruments. There are many useful and detailed texts available that describe the intricacies of data collection instrument design, and this chapter presents important considerations when designing instruments that are commonly used in practitioner research. As with all chapters in this book, this chapter includes examples from real-life case studies to illustrate the ideas presented and to allow discussion of their application. The chapter begins with a discussion about the selection of participants before moving on to consider selection of data and data collection methods. We will consider ways to ensure that research is robust and defendable, especially in the case of qualitative methods, which we believe have great value for practitioners.
This chapter deals with the organisation, analysis and presentation of data. It begins with suggestions about how to arrange your data during and after collection. Examples of commonly used qualitative and quantitative data analyses for practitioner research are described, along with ideas for collating and presenting both quantitative and qualitative data once you have completed your analyses. Bear in mind that if your study used mixed methods, you will find both the quantitative and qualitative sections relevant to you.
Engaging with research can be a focus in itself for practitioners, and it is an informative and essential step for engaging in research. The main ways that educators can engage with research include attending professional learning opportunities presented by researchers or experts in a field, attending conferences and reading professional journals or research-based literature. This chapter looks at the importance of engagement with research literature as a critical consumer. In this chapter, we will focus first on strategies for locating and accessing current research literature, reading and summarising literature, and analysing and evaluating research literature – key considerations when reading research as a critical consumer. The chapter also focuses on how to construct a literature review. We consider the use of literature to identify and narrow a broad field of interest to a more refined topic, and return to the discussion about research questions, with a focus on their refinement as a result of reading research literature and writing the literature review. Finally, the chapter introduces the academic writing style and provides guidelines for citations and referencing.