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The future development of literary radio studies as a discipline requires moving beyond the lingering (and completely understandable) text-fetishism of its early years. Archival lacunae covering the early years of radio, key years for modernist production – the difficulty of hearing works, let alone hearing them in context – has paradoxically flattened broadcast into script, an elision often perpetuated in scholarship. All this has created a critical environment in which the claim that radio is an intrinsically modernist medium is often supported, in circular fashion, by enumerating the already-recognized modernists within broadcast ranks, or citing the importance of radio as a disseminator of modernist poetry – in other words, eliding the medium itself in order to stress its efficacy as a delivery system. To move beyond the invaluable spadework of the recent ‘boom’, then, requires a more robust methodology for tracing the resonances of radio – an intermedial vocabulary not grounded exclusively in inscription
This chapter explores the relationship between improvisational performance and periodical journalism by way of the international reception of celebrity improvvisatore Tommaso Sgricci’s performances in Paris and London in 1824 and 1826. Accounts of Sgricci’s improvised tragedies proliferated in French, German, and English newspapers and literary magazines; when transcripts of his improvisations appeared in book form, they generated further reviews over the next several years. This constellation of live performances and written texts, along with the process of remediation that occurs between them, provokes reflections on the reciprocal relationship between a spontaneous and evanescent form of theatre and the differently time-bound genres of print culture. The international reception of Sgricci’s performances reveals transnational networks between late-Romantic periodicals as well as cultural differences that appear when journalists adapt their reviews to different local readerships.
Taking its cue from Raymond Federman’s programmatically titled essay “The Last Stand of Literature,” the chapter briefly reviews the critical debate about the increasing convergence of literary and television culture. Rather than seeing the influx of TV aesthetics into American literature as causing a demise of literary culture, the chapter argues that the texts by Coover, Wallace, and DeLillo imaginatively reframe TV culture and turn the reflection on visual media into a source of literary innovation. They acknowledge TV as a central force in postmodern culture, rework televisual immediacy effects, and describe TV images and their reception, but they do so in self-reflexive narratives that probe the contributions literature can make to a culture shaped by TV and the commodification of art and experience.
The chapter analyzes how Don DeLillo’s novel Mao II critically refracts TV’s immediacy effects to explore the cultural function that literature performs within the increasingly commodified market dynamics of mass media communication. The chapter argues that DeLillo accomplishes a paradoxical feat: he tells the story of a retrograde writer who loses his life in a futile attempt to resist the commercialization of his work; yet DeLillo suffuses this allegorical tale about the death of an author in the age of mass media and consumer culture with detailed ekphrastic descriptions of TV news footage, photographs, and pop art that ultimately confirm the capacity of literature to respond in innovative ways to the predominance of visual media, the misapprehension of televisual images as real, and the increasing commodification of literature and art. Published as American culture was turning digital, the novel provides an apt terminus for my study of how American writers reworked the immediacy effects of analog new visual media to renew literary culture.
This chapter focuses primarily on two films that use King Lear to comic and romantic ends: Hobson’s Choice (directed by David Lean, 1954) and Life Goes On (directed by Sangeeta Datta, 2011). In remediating Harold Brighouse’s play about a tyrannical, incontinent Lancastrian boot maker and his three daughters, Lean not only captures its Shakespearean echoes but adds new filmic ones, primarily through his visualization of situations only narrated in the 1915 playtext. Datta’s transference of Lear’s familial discord to a first-generation Bengali family in contemporary London goes even further in quoting Shakespeare’s play at crucial moments in the narrative. In each film, the juxtaposition serves to isolate the unreasonable father to the benefit of the daughters’ narrative fates, while also allowing a dimension of sympathy (comic and sentimental, respectively) for men mentally unmoored from a lost political order. Moreover, the chapter enlarges on these patterns by citing family resemblances with other comic Lear intertexts on both small and large screen. These latter draw further attention to media specificity, format and distribution. The analysis not only illuminates the productions but can also enrich current scholarly conversations about genre, gender and Shakespeare’s movement towards tragicomic romance.
Heavy metal contamination in the paddy soils of China is a serious concern because of its health risk through transfer in food chains. A field experiment was conducted in 2014–2015 to investigate the long-term effects of different biochar amendments on cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) immobilisation in a contaminated paddy field in southern China. Two types of biochar, a rice-straw-derived biochar (RB) and a coconut-by-product-derived biochar (CB), were amended separately to determine their impacts on rice yield and their efficacy in reducing Cd and As in rice. The two-year field experiment showed that biochar amendments significantly improved the rice yields and that CB is superior to RB, especially in the first growth season. Using a large amount of biochar amendment (22.5tha–1) significantly increased soil pH and total organic carbon, and concomitantly decreased the Cd content in rice grains over the four growth seasons, regardless of biochar type and application rate. Arsenic levels in rice were similar to the control, and results from this study suggest that there was a sustainable effect of biochar on Cd sequestration in soil and reduction of Cd accumulation in rice for at least two years. Biochar amendment in soil could be considered as a sustainable, reliable and cost-effective option to remediate heavy metal contamination in paddy fields for long periods.
Cognitive deficits are a well-established feature of bipolar disorders (BD), even during periods of euthymia, but risk factors associated with cognitive deficits in euthymic BD are still poorly understood. We aimed to validate classification criteria for the identification of clinically significant cognitive impairment, based on psychometric properties, to estimate the prevalence of neuropsychological deficits in euthymic BD, and identify risk factors for cognitive deficits using a multivariate approach.
We investigated neuropsychological performance in 476 euthymic patients with BD recruited via the French network of BD expert centres. We used a battery of tests, assessing five domains of cognition. Five criteria for the identification of neuropsychological impairment were tested based on their convergent and concurrent validity. Uni- and multivariate logistic regressions between cognitive impairment and several clinical and demographic variables were performed to identify risk factors for neuropsychological impairment in BD.
One cut-off had satisfactory psychometric properties and yielded a prevalence of 12.4% for cognitive deficits in euthymic BD. Antipsychotics use were associated with the presence of a cognitive deficit.
This is the first study to validate a criterion for clinically significant cognitive impairment in BD. We report a lower prevalence of cognitive impairment than previous studies, which may have overestimated its prevalence. Patients with euthymic BD and cognitive impairment may benefit from cognitive remediation.
The effects of increasing nickel contamination of soil on the update of selected microelements by Brassica juncea L. in the presence of raw halloysite (RH) and halloysite modified by thermal treatment (calcination) at 650°C (MH) were investigated experimentally. Such treatment causes partial dehydroxylation and enhances mineral-adsorption properties towards cations. In a vegetative-pot experiment, four different levels of Ni contamination, i.e. 0 (control), 80, 160, 240 and 320 mg kg−1 were applied in the form of an analytical-grade NiSO4·7H2O solution mixed thoroughly with the soil. Among the minerals which were added to soil to alleviate the negative impact of Ni on plant biomass, MH had a particularly beneficial effect on the growth of B. juncea L. The amount of Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb and Cr in Indian mustard depended on the Ni dose and type of accompanying mineral structure. The average accumulation of trace elements in B. juncea L. grown in Ni-contaminated soil follow the decreasing order Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr.
Materiality in some form often becomes the basis for analytically distinguishing language from media for many theorists, even when these scholars disagree over the basic definitions. This chapter focuses on the materiality of the medium itself, aspects such as entextualization, participant structure, and remediation. By turning to materiality, one can begin to focus on some aspects of entextualization as a process in which the ways in which a text is a material form is integral to how a text can be separated from its context and integrated into other contexts. The chapter discusses analyses that result when one takes mediated communication to be the opposite of immediacy, when the central analytical dichotomy is between mediated communication and co-presence. It also focuses on materiality has the potential to transform who or what counts as a mediator, framing in unexpected ways the roles humans and non-humans might play in mediating communication.
This essay traces the emergence of a new contemporary novel form at the conjunction of global violence in the wake of the Cold War, digital hyperconnectivity, and a mediated infrastructure of sympathy. Since the first Gulf War, and more so, in the rhetoric presaging the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, we have come to accept that there is very little difference between the technologies used to wage war and those used to view it. This essay argues that the novels of our time are not contiguous with contemporary cinematic or televisual or new media genres in representing the immediacy of violence, but are rather texts that graph the sedimented and recursive history of such mediation. Their alternative way of documenting “witness”—that is, of abstracting the architectonics of testimonial work—urges us to focus not so much on the question of visibility—and its stock thematics of overexposure and desensitization—as on the legibility of this new mode of witnessing. The distinction between visibility and legibility amounts to calibrating differently the work of witnessing in novels, their textual and tropological play with multiple modes of spectatorship and engagement, and their distinctively different braiding of the factual and the evidentiary in comparison with genres of the visual.
Impairment of cognitive functions is a core feature of schizophrenia with relevant consequences on patients' psychosocial functioning. Cognitive remediation techniques have been recently developed with the aim to restore or compensate for such impairments and improve the functional outcome of the disease. There is now convincing evidence of the efficacy of many of these techniques, especially when delivered in the context of a comprehensive treatment programme. Whether the application of these techniques in the early phases of the disease could modify the disease course and outcome and how they could affect brain plasticity and the trajectory of brain disease of schizophrenia is still under scrutiny.
An interim edition of the IAEA Safety Requirements document: “Radiation Protection and
Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards” (BSS) was published in
November 2011. The revision of the BSS was coordinated by a BSS Secretariat consisting of
representatives of the IAEA, FAO, EC, ILO, UNEP, PAHO, WHO and NEA/OECD. The BSS takes
into account the Fundamental Safety Principles, the findings of the United Nations
Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the 2007 recommendations of
the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and other applicable ICRP
statements and publications. This paper provides an overview of the revised BSS, including
requirements on preparedness for a nuclear or radiological emergency and to remediation of
areas contaminated by residual radioactive material following a nuclear or radiological
Approaches currently used for remediating acid mine drainage (chiefly active chemical treatment and passive bioremediation systems) have a number of major detractions, including their failure to recover potentially valuable metals from these waters. Bioremediation strategies that utilize reactor-housed microorganisms can circumvent this problem, but have tended not to be widely used due to their relatively high costs. We have devised innovative approaches for remediating mine waters that use acidophilic bacteria to remove metals either as oxidized or reduced phases, using modular bioreactors that are designed to operate at minimal cost and to generate products that have commercial value. A composite system is described that combines microbial oxidation of ferrous iron with abiotic precipitation of ferric iron as schwertmannite, a mineral that has commercial value as an absorbent of arsenate and other environmental pollutants, and as a pigment. Sulfidogenic bioreactors maintained at acidic pH values are used to selectively precipitate metal sulfides, such as CuS. Tests with synthetic mine drainage containing mixtures of soluble metals confirmed that these systems can generate relatively pure mineral deposits from complex acid waters. The units are designed to be configured differently, according to the nature of the mine water requiring treatment.
Understanding the biogeochemical behaviour of actinides in the environment is essential for the longterm stewardship of radionuclide contaminated land. Plutonium is of particular concern due its high radiotoxicity, long half-life and complex chemistry, with these factors contributing to the limited literature available on its environmental behaviour. Here, we investigate the biogeochemistry of Pu in contaminated soil as microbial processes have the potential to mobilize Pu through numerous mechanisms including the reduction of Pu(IV) to the potentially more mobile Pu(III). After the addition of glucose to stimulate microbial activities, there was a substantial shift in the 16S rRNA gene profile of the extant microbial communities between days 0 and 44 with an increase in Clostridium species, known glucose fermenters which have been reported to facilitate the reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III). A minor increase in Pu mobility was observed at day 44, returning to initial levels by day 118. The negligible change in Pu mobility, despite the onset of reducing conditions and changing mineralogy, would suggest the Pu is highly refractory. This information is important for developing remediation options for Pu-contaminated soils, suggesting that managing legacy Pu in situ may be preferred to mobilization via the stimulation of metal-reducing bacteria.