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This chapter explores the efforts of the Founders to harness the power of education to create a citizenry capable of self-government. It emphasizes that while the Founders built a Constitution premised upon a cautious view of human nature, they saw education in a more optimistic light. Specifically, they viewed its role as helping to create a body of citizens capable of forming and maintaining meaningful relationships. In fact, they saw this as an indispensible task. Additionally, the chapter recounts the efforts of individuals such as Benjamin Rush and Horace Mann to expand educational access The chapter concludes with a critical analysis of Reconstruction, highlighting the missed opportunities and faulty historiography that continue to deny many citizens an equal chance to obtain an education. Though intended as a “re-founding” of the nation, Reconstruction in practice failed to live up to the Founders’ vision. The early promise of the “Civil War Amendments” and similar legislation went largely unfulfilled due to an adverse Supreme Court ruling and lack of political will.
Two texts bookend the major phase of literary activity by Creoles of color in New Orleans, the first book of poetry by US citizens of African descent, Les cenelles (1845) and Nos Hommes et Notres Histoires (1911). The first – a collection of poems – evokes sexual and romantic relationships between people of different races, a notion that runs radically counter to the racial politics of the rest of the US South. The second emerged as polemic as the Jim Crow Era gained full ascendance and marginalized nonwhite people in ways that ran counter to long-standing cultural patterns in New Orleans regarding the elite Creoles of color.
The most celebrated literary figure of nineteenth-century New Orleans was George Washington Cable. From his early work on mixed-race mothers coping with their light-skinned daughters’ abilities to pass back and forth between white and black communities to his discovery and national dissemination via Scribner’s to his masterpiece, The Grandissimes, its hostile reception in Creole New Orleans, and Cable’s consequent departure from the city and then his final reconciliation: Cable’s life stands as the most literary life in the New Orleans of that era. Cable’s engagement with the issue of race presages some of the discourse surrounding the topic today, with his particular attention to institutional racism and the often subtle, even unconscious ways that racism is perpetuated in ordinary, daily life.
Robert Penn Warren produced in the early 1950s a classic portrait of New Orleans during the 1860s, particularly during its occupation by Union troops. The novel is subtly preoccupied by the events of its own time, as Warren addressed them explicitly in other texts composed while this novel was in process. The novel engages the long-established tradition of the tragic mulatress through a main character who had grown up in Kentucky with the assumption that she was white but discovered, upon her father’s death, that she is black and will be sold at auction in New Orleans; the novel then follows her experiences through the Federal occupation of the city and into Reconstruction and The Gilded Age, each step of the way conjuring in vivid detail its historical setting and the complex persistence of racism even in those who would presume to fight hard against it.
From simple averaging to more sophisticated registration and restoration strategies, such as super-resolution (SR), there exist different computational techniques that use a series of images of the same object to generate enhanced images where noise and other distortions have been reduced. In this work, we provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of this enhancement for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. These images are compared in two ways, qualitatively through visual inspection in real and reciprocal space, and quantitatively, through the calculation of objective measurements, such as signal-to-noise ratio and atom column roundness. Results show that these techniques improve the quality of the images. In this paper, we use an SR methodology that allows us to take advantage of the information present in the image frames and to reliably facilitate the analysis of more difficult regions of interest in experimental images, such as surfaces and interfaces. By acquiring a series of cross-sectional experimental images of magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films (111), we have generated interpolated images using averaging and SR, and reconstructed the atomic structure of the very top surface layer that consists of a full monolayer of Fe, with topmost Fe atoms in tetrahedrally coordinated sites.
This chapter traces the evolution of human memory from Aristotle’s theory of recollection to current versions of Frederic Bartlett’s theory of memory as a reconstruction rather than reproduction of the past. Through constant updating of its content, memory serves an adaptive purpose. The chapter describes Endel Tulving’s definition of what memories are and outlines Larry Squire’s taxonomy of declarative and nondeclarative memory. It describes the stages of the memory process, the brain regions that mediate them and how they become dysfunctional in disorders of memory capacity and content. The reconstructive model serves as a theoretical framework for discussing metaphysical, ethical and legal issues regrading normal and abnormal memory, as well as interventions to improve, restore, weaken or erase memories.
The syntax literature has overwhelmingly adopted the view that Condition C reconstruction takes place in wh-chains for R-expressions contained within arguments, but not within adjuncts of fronted wh-phrases. At the same time, this empirical picture has been questioned by various authors. We undertake a series of grammaticality surveys using Amazon Mechanical Turk in an attempt to clarify the empirical picture regarding reconstruction for Binding Condition C. We find absolutely no evidence of an argument–adjunct distinction in reconstruction for Binding Condition C. Neither arguments nor adjuncts reconstruct for Condition C. We suggest that those speakers who report such a contrast (linguists, primarily) are following a pragmatic bias, and not Condition C. While we do not find reconstruction of dependents of fronted NPs for Binding Condition C, we do find reconstruction of fronted PPs. That is, the NP complement of a fronted P must reconstruct for Binding Condition C. The literature also finds reconstruction of NP complements of verbs and adjectives. This means that fronted Ns are special in not requiring reconstruction of their arguments and adjuncts. We suggest that, syntactically, arguments of Ns are treated as adjuncts: semantic arguments simply adjoin in the same manner as true adjuncts. Syntactic adjuncts can be left out of lower copies in chains, something that we suggest follows from a left-to-right syntactic derivation plus an economy condition on copying.
Understanding oxide–metal interfaces is crucial to the advancement of materials and components for many industries, most notably for semiconductor devices and power generation. Atom probe tomography provides three-dimensional, atomic scale information about chemical composition, making it an excellent technique for interface analysis. However, difficulties arise when analyzing interfacial regions due to trajectory aberrations, such as local magnification, and reconstruction artifacts. Correlative microscopy and field simulation techniques have revealed that nonuniform evolution of the tip geometry, caused by heterogeneous field evaporation, is partly responsible for these artifacts. Here we attempt to understand these trajectory artifacts through a study of the local evaporation field conditions. With a better understanding of the local evaporation field, it may be possible to account for some of the local magnification effects during the reconstruction process, eliminating these artifacts before data analysis.
All Semitic languages use a relative marker as at least one strategy of relativization, and all branches show reflexes or relics of reflexes of an interdental relative marker. The wide consensus that the relative pronoun was originally identical to the proximal demonstrative is based on the formal identity between the bases of the two in West Semitic, and on the wide attestation of the process Demonstrative > Relative in world languages. In this paper, we will show that there are a number of significant problems with the reconstruction of the relative pronoun, which, when taken together, make tracing its origin to the demonstrative highly unlikely. Instead we will argue that the opposite is true: the demonstrative in West Semitic is a secondary formation on the basis of the relative marker.
In this paper, we consider two kinds of vP-fronting constructions in English and argue that they receive quite different analyses. First, we show that English vP-preposing does not have the properties that would be expected of a movement-derived dependency. Evidence for this conclusion is adduced from the licensing conditions on its occurrence, from the availability of morphological mismatches, and from reconstruction facts. By contrast, we show that English participle preposing is a well-behaved case of vP-movement, contrasting with vP-preposing with respect to reconstruction properties in particular. We propose that the differences between the two constructions follow from the interaction of two constraints: the excluded middle constraint (EMC), which rules out derivations involving spellout of linearly intermediate copies only, and the N-only constraint, which restricts movement to occurring where the trace position would license a nominal. The EMC rules out deriving vP-fronting by true movement and instead necessitates a base-generation analysis, while the N-only constraint ensures that participle preposing is only possible in limited circumstances.
Several verbal forms reconstructed for proto-Semitic strongly resemble reconstructed forms in proto-Berber: compare Semitic yV-PaRRaS to Berber y-əFăRRăS, Semitic yV-PRaS to Berber y-əFRăS, and Semitic yV-PRuS and yV-PRiS to Berber y-ăFRəS. We suggest that these forms are historically related and sketch a line of development from the reconstructed meanings to their attested uses. yVPaRRaS, originally imperfective, retains that value in both Berber and Semitic. yVPRas, originally stative, gained a perfective meaning in Berber and Semitic; the stative meaning is retained in Berber, but was largely lost in Semitic. yVPRus/yVPRiS, originally perfective, retained that meaning in Semitic, merging with the newly perfective yVPRas forms; in Berber, yVPRaS completely replaced perfective yVPRuS/yVPRiS, relegating the latter to non-aspectual uses. We conclude by considering the quality of the first vowel; the alternation seen in Berber y-əFRăS and y-ăFRəS supports reconstructions as yiPRaS and yaPRuS/yaPRiS, conforming to the Barth–Ginsberg Law of Semitic.
Acellular dermal matrices are increasingly used in laryngotracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction, but specific indications and the type of acellular dermal matrix used vary. The authors systematically reviewed outcomes relating to acellular dermal matrix use in head and neck reconstruction.
Electronic databases were searched through 1 May 2016 for literature on acellular dermal matrix use in laryngotracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction. Studies were appraised for surgical indications, outcomes and study design.
Eleven publications with 170 cases were included. Eight articles reported on acellular dermal matrix use in oncological reconstruction. Most studies were case series; no high-level evidence studies were identified. Graft extrusion was more common in non-oncological applications. In general, post-oncological reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix demonstrated complication rates similar to those reported without an acellular dermal matrix.
Evidence in support of acellular dermal matrix use in head and neck reconstruction is generally poor. Prospective comparative studies are required to define the indications, safety and effectiveness of acellular dermal matrices in laryngotracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction.
Three-dimensional (3D) density distribution of inhomogeneous dense deuterium tritium plasmas in laser fusion is revealed by the energy loss of fast protons going through the plasmas. The fast protons generated in the laser–plasma interaction can be used for the simulation of a plasma density diagnostics. The large linear and ill-posed equation set of the densities of all grids is obtained and then solved by the Tikhonov regularization method after dividing a 3D area into grids and knowing the initial and final energies of the protons. 3D density reconstructions with six proton sources are done without and with random noises added to the final energy. The revealed density is a little smaller than the simulated one in most simulated zones and the error is as much as those of 2D reconstructions with four proton sources. The picture element N is chosen as 2744 with consideration of smoothness and calculation memory of the computers. With fast calculation speed and low error, the Tikhonov regularization method is more suitable for 3D density reconstructions with large calculation amount than simultaneous iterative reconstruction method. Also the analytical expressions between the errors and the noises are established. Furthermore, the density reconstruction method in this paper is particularly suitable for plasmas with small density gradient. The errors without noises and with 2% noises added to the final proton energies are 3 and 20%, respectively, for the homogeneous plasma.
Dendroclimatology in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region has made important contributions to the understanding of climate variability on timescales of decades to centuries. These contributions, beginning in the mid-20th century, have value for resource management, archaeology, and climatology. A gradually expanding tree-ring network developed by the first author over the past 15 years has been the framework for some of the most important recent advances in EM dendroclimatology. The network, now consisting of 79 sites, has been widely applied in large-scale climatic reconstruction and in helping to identify drivers of climatic variation on regional to global spatial scales. This article reviews EM dendroclimatology and highlights contributions on the national and international scale.
We extend Ahlbrandt and Ziegler’s reconstruction results () to the metric setting: we show that separably categorical structures are determined, up to bi-interpretability, by their automorphism groups.
Kuduro, meaning “hard-ass” or “in a hard place,” is a contemporary genre of music and dance produced and consumed in Angola, especially in Luanda. This article maps kuduro historically and assesses it in its current moment. While the dance is full of invention and the genre has thrived in the informal economy, this alternative expression and the infrastructure it produces cannot be considered politically or economically liberatory. But the international “os Kuduristas” campaign promoted by two of the Angolan president’s children and companies they own shows the dangers of a culturally conservative discourse that dismisses kuduro as a vulgar popular phenomenon while hegemonic political and commercial forces embrace it.
Sediment-based reconstructions of late-Quaternary lake levels provide direct evidence of hydrologic responses to climate change, but many studies only provide approximate lake-elevation curves. Here, we demonstrate a new method for producing quantitative time series of lake elevation based on the facies and elevations of multiple cores collected from a lake's margin. The approach determines the facies represented in each core using diagnostic data, such as sand content, and then compares the results across cores to determine the elevation of the littoral zone over time. By applying the approach computationally, decisions are made systematically and iteratively using different facies classification schemes to evaluate the associated uncertainty. After evaluating our assumptions using ground-penetrating radar (GPR), we quantify past lake-elevation changes, precipitation minus evapotranspiration (ΔP−ET), and uncertainty in both at Lake of the Woods and Little Windy Hill Pond, Wyoming. The well-correlated (r = 0.802 ± 0.002) reconstructions indicate that water levels at both lakes fell at >11,300, 8000–5500, and 4700–1600 cal yr BP when ΔP − ET decreased to −50 to −250 mm/yr. Differences between the reconstructions are typically small (10 ± 24 mm/yr since 7000 cal yr BP), and the similarity indicates that our reconstruction method can produce statistically comparable paleohydrologic datasets across networks of sites.
Considered costly, divisive, and backward-looking, reparations for slavery and Jim Crow appear to have no place in the politics of the “postracial epoch.” This essay proposes that the dismissal of reparations concedes too much. First, I contend that the conjunction of postracial discourse, on the one hand, and deepening racial inequalities, on the other, demands a counter-language, one that ties the analysis of the present to the historical conditions out of which it was produced. I explore reparations as a political language that (1) situates political claims within the historical framework of slavery, reconstruction, and segregation; (2) links past to present to future in its demand for concrete forms of redress; and (3) has played an important role in African American political life and in contemporary democracies in transition. Second, in contrast to much of the reparations scholarship, I focus on the demands of democracy rather than justice. Doing so both helps to evade some of the technical questions that have prevented full consideration of the political work of reparations and provides a vehicle for redefining both governmental and civic responsibility in the shadow of slavery and Jim Crow.