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Cannabis use has been associated with psychosis through exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), its key psychoactive ingredient. Although preclinical and human evidence suggests that Δ9-THC acutely modulates glial function and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, whether differential sensitivity to the acute psychotomimetic effects of Δ9-THC is associated with differential effects of Δ9-THC on glial function and HPA-axis response has never been tested.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study investigated whether sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effects of Δ9-THC moderates the acute effects of a single Δ9-THC dose (1.19 mg/2 ml) on myo-inositol levels, a surrogate marker of glia, in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC), and circadian cortisol levels, the key neuroendocrine marker of the HPA-axis, in a set of 16 healthy participants (seven males) with modest previous cannabis exposure.
The Δ9-THC-induced change in ACC myo-inositol levels differed significantly between those sensitive to (Δ9-THC minus placebo; M = −0.251, s.d. = 1.242) and those not sensitive (M = 1.615, s.d. = 1.753) to the psychotomimetic effects of the drug (t(14) = 2.459, p = 0.028). Further, the Δ9-THC-induced change in cortisol levels over the study period (baseline minus 2.5 h post-drug injection) differed significantly between those sensitive to (Δ9-THC minus placebo; M = −275.4, s.d. = 207.519) and those not sensitive (M = 74.2, s.d. = 209.281) to the psychotomimetic effects of the drug (t(13) = 3.068, p = 0.009). Specifically, Δ9-THC exposure lowered ACC myo-inositol levels and disrupted the physiological diurnal cortisol decrease only in those subjects developing transient psychosis-like symptoms.
The interindividual differences in transient psychosis-like effects of Δ9-THC are the result of its differential impact on glial function and stress response.
To evaluate an abbreviated NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) protocol that can be administered remotely without any in-person assessments, and explore the agreement between prorated scores from the abbreviated protocol and standard scores from the full protocol.
Participant-level age-corrected NIHTB-CB data were extracted from six studies in individuals with a history of stroke, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), treatment-resistant psychosis, and healthy controls, with testing administered under standard conditions. Prorated fluid and total cognition scores were estimated using regression equations that excluded the three fluid cognition NIHTB-CB instruments which cannot be administered remotely. Paired t tests and intraclass correlations (ICCs) were used to compare the standard and prorated scores.
Data were available for 245 participants. For fluid cognition, overall prorated scores were higher than standard scores (mean difference = +4.5, SD = 14.3; p < 0.001; ICC = 0.86). For total cognition, overall prorated scores were higher than standard scores (mean difference = +2.7, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001; ICC = 0.88). These differences were significant in the stroke and mTBI groups, but not in the healthy control or psychosis groups.
Prorated scores from an abbreviated NIHTB-CB protocol are not a valid replacement for the scores from the standard protocol. Alternative approaches to administering the full protocol, or corrections to scoring of the abbreviated protocol, require further study and validation.
Current psychological interventions for psychosis focus primarily on cognitive and behavioural management of delusions and hallucinations, with modest outcomes. Emotions are not usually targeted directly, despite evidence that people with psychosis have difficulty identifying, accepting and modifying affective states.
This study assessed the impact of emotion regulation skills practice on affect and paranoia in seven people who met criteria for a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.
The study utilised a single case ABA design and measured emotion regulation skills, affect and paranoia over baseline, intervention and withdrawal of intervention phases. We predicted that eight sessions of skills rehearsal would lead to improved emotion regulation, reduced negative affect, increased positive affect, and reduced paranoia.
Most participants were able to learn to regulate their emotions, and reported reduced negative affect and paranoia. There was no clear pattern of change for positive affect.
These findings suggest that emotion can be targeted in psychosis, and is associated with reduced paranoia. Emotion regulation may constitute a key treatment target in cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
Relapse rates among individuals with psychotic disorders are high. In addition to the financial burden placed on clinical services, relapse is associated with worse long-term prognosis and poorer quality of life. Robust evidence indicates that stressful life events commonly precede the onset of the first psychotic episode; however, the extent to which they are associated with relapse remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize available research investigating the association between recent stressful life events and psychotic relapse or relapse of bipolar disorder if the diagnosis included psychotic symptoms. PsycINFO, Medline and EMBASE were searched for cross-sectional, retrospective and prospective studies published between 01/01/1970 and 08/01/2020 that investigated the association between adult stressful life events and relapse of psychosis. Study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project guidelines. Twenty-three studies met eligibility criteria (prospective studies: 14; retrospective studies: 6; cross-sectional: 3) providing data on 2046 participants in total (sample size range: 14–240 participants). Relapse was defined as a return of psychotic symptoms (n = 20), a return of symptoms requiring hospitalization (n = 2) and a return of symptoms or hospitalization (n = 1). Adult stressful life events were defined as life events occurring after the onset of psychosis. Stressful life events included but were not limited to adult trauma, bereavement, financial problems and conflict. Eighteen studies found a significant positive association between adult stressful life events and psychotic relapse and five studies found a non-significant association. We conclude that adult stressful life events, occurring after psychosis onset, appear to be associated with psychotic relapse.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
The prevalence of psychotic experiences (PEs) is higher in low-and-middle-income-countries (LAMIC) than in high-income countries (HIC). Here, we examine whether this effect is explicable by measurement bias.
A community sample from 13 countries (N = 7141) was used to examine the measurement invariance (MI) of a frequently used self-report measure of PEs, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), in LAMIC (n = 2472) and HIC (n = 4669). The CAPE measures positive (e.g. hallucinations), negative (e.g. avolition) and depressive symptoms. MI analyses were conducted with multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses.
MI analyses showed similarities in the structure and understanding of the CAPE factors between LAMIC and HIC. Partial scalar invariance was found, allowing for latent score comparisons. Residual invariance was not found, indicating that sum score comparisons are biased. A comparison of latent scores before and after MI adjustment showed both overestimation (e.g. avolition, d = 0.03 into d = −0.42) and underestimation (e.g. magical thinking, d = −0.03 into d = 0.33) of PE in LAMIC relative to HIC. After adjusting the CAPE for MI, participants from LAMIC reported significantly higher levels on most CAPE factors but a significantly lower level of avolition.
Previous studies using sum scores to compare differences across countries are likely to be biased. The direction of the bias involves both over- and underestimation of PEs in LAMIC compared to HIC. Nevertheless, the study confirms the basic finding that PEs are more frequent in LAMIC than in HIC.
Psychosis is associated with a reasoning bias, which manifests as a tendency to ‘jump to conclusions’. We examined this bias in people at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR) and investigated its relationship with their clinical outcomes.
In total, 303 CHR subjects and 57 healthy controls (HC) were included. Both groups were assessed at baseline, and after 1 and 2 years. A ‘beads’ task was used to assess reasoning bias. Symptoms and level of functioning were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States scale (CAARMS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), respectively. During follow up, 58 (16.1%) of the CHR group developed psychosis (CHR-T), and 245 did not (CHR-NT). Logistic regressions, multilevel mixed models, and Cox regression were used to analyse the relationship between reasoning bias and transition to psychosis and level of functioning, at each time point.
There was no association between reasoning bias at baseline and the subsequent onset of psychosis. However, when assessed after the transition to psychosis, CHR-T participants showed a greater tendency to jump to conclusions than CHR-NT and HC participants (55, 17, 17%; χ2 = 8.13, p = 0.012). There was a significant association between jumping to conclusions (JTC) at baseline and a reduced level of functioning at 2-year follow-up in the CHR group after adjusting for transition, gender, ethnicity, age, and IQ.
In CHR participants, JTC at baseline was associated with adverse functioning at the follow-up. Interventions designed to improve JTC could be beneficial in the CHR population.
Mindfulness-based therapies are increasingly available for a range of mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety. However, there remain concerns that mindfulness has the potential to exacerbate psychosis, despite a growing body of literature demonstrating effectiveness. These concerns may relate to long-standing perceptions about the suitability of offering psychological therapies to people with psychosis.
Service users with severe psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, are more likely to suffer from ill health. There is evidence that lifestyle interventions, for example, exercise, dietary advice and smoking cessation programmes for service users with severe mental illness can be of health benefit. This review was carried out to identify the literature pertaining to physical health interventions for service users who have experienced a first-episode psychosis (FEP), to examine the nature of the interventions which were carried out and to assess these interventions in terms of feasibility and efficacy.
A narrative review was conducted in August 2019 by searching ‘Pubmed’ and ‘Embase’ electronic databases. Studies investigating the effect a physical health intervention had on service users who had experienced a FEP were included in the review.
Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria: 12 quantitative studies and 3 qualitative. Exercise, dietary advice, smoking cessation and motivational coaching were some of the physical health interventions utilised in the identified studies. Positive effects were seen in terms of physical health markers wherever they were investigated, particularly when the intervention was delivered early. The impact on psychiatric symptoms and longer-term impacts on health were less frequently assessed.
Physical health interventions have a positive impact on service users who have experienced a FEP. More research is warranted in this area in Ireland. These studies should include controls, have longer follow-up periods and should assess the impact on psychiatric health.
It is unknown whether patient disengagement from early intervention services for psychosis is as prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India, as it is in high-income countries (HICs). Addressing this gap, we studied two first-episode psychosis programs in Montreal, Canada and Chennai, India. We hypothesized lower service disengagement among patients and higher engagement among families in Chennai, and that family engagement would mediate cross-site differences in patient disengagement.
Sites were compared on their 2-year patient disengagement and family engagement rates conducting time-to-event analyses and independent samples t tests on monthly contact data. Along with site and family involvement, Cox proportional hazards regression included known predictors of patient disengagement (e.g. gender).
The study included data about 333 patients (165 in Montreal, 168 in Chennai) and their family members (156 in Montreal, 168 in Chennai). More Montreal patients (19%) disengaged before 24 months than Chennai patients (1%), χ2(1, N = 333) = 28.87, p < 0.001. Chennai families had more contact with clinicians throughout treatment (Cohen's d = −1.28). Family contact significantly predicted patient disengagement in Montreal (HR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.93). Unlike in Chennai, family contact declined over time in Montreal, with clinicians perceiving such contact as not necessary (Cohen's d = 1.73).
This is the first investigation of early psychosis service engagement across a HIC and an LMIC. Patient and family engagement was strikingly higher in Chennai. Maintaining family contact may benefit patient engagement, irrespective of context. Findings also suggest that differential service utilization may underpin cross-cultural variations in psychosis outcomes.
Associations of socioenvironmental features like urbanicity and neighborhood deprivation with psychosis are well-established. An enduring question, however, is whether these associations are causal. Genetic confounding could occur due to downward mobility of individuals at high genetic risk for psychiatric problems into disadvantaged environments.
We examined correlations of five indices of genetic risk [polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia and depression, maternal psychotic symptoms, family psychiatric history, and zygosity-based latent genetic risk] with multiple area-, neighborhood-, and family-level risks during upbringing. Data were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins born in 1994–1995 and followed to age 18 (93% retention). Socioenvironmental risks included urbanicity, air pollution, neighborhood deprivation, neighborhood crime, neighborhood disorder, social cohesion, residential mobility, family poverty, and a cumulative environmental risk scale. At age 18, participants were privately interviewed about psychotic experiences.
Higher genetic risk on all indices was associated with riskier environments during upbringing. For example, participants with higher schizophrenia PRS (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.06–1.33), depression PRS (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.08–1.34), family history (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.11–1.40), and latent genetic risk (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.07–1.38) had accumulated more socioenvironmental risks for schizophrenia by age 18. However, associations between socioenvironmental risks and psychotic experiences mostly remained significant after covariate adjustment for genetic risk.
Genetic risk is correlated with socioenvironmental risk for schizophrenia during upbringing, but the associations between socioenvironmental risk and adolescent psychotic experiences appear, at present, to exist above and beyond this gene-environment correlation.
Cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is a recommended treatment for psychotic experiences, but its effectiveness has been questioned. One way of addressing this may be to tailor therapy materials to the phenomenology of specific psychotic experiences.
In this study, we investigated the acceptability of a novel treatment manual for subtypes of ‘voice-hearing’ experiences (i.e. auditory verbal hallucinations). An uncontrolled, single-arm design was used to assess feasibility and acceptability of using the manual in routine care for people with frequent voice-hearing experiences.
The manual was delivered on a smart tablet and incorporated recent research evidence and theory into its psychoeducation materials. In total, 24 participants completed a baseline assessment; 19 started treatment, 15 completed treatment and 12 participants completed a follow-up assessment (after 10 sessions of using the manual).
Satisfaction with therapy scores and acceptability ratings were high, while completion rates suggested that the manual may be more appropriate for help with participants from Early Intervention in Psychosis services rather than Community Mental Health Teams.
Within-group changes in symptom scores suggested that overall symptom severity of hallucinations – but not other psychosis features, or beliefs about voices – are likely to be the most appropriate primary outcome for further evaluation in a full randomised controlled trial.
Person-based cognitive therapy (PBCT) was developed as a treatment for psychosis. The effectiveness of group PBCT was examined in the Mindfulness for Voices (M4V) randomized controlled trial and generated promising results. Group PBCT was implemented as a trans-diagnostic treatment for distressing voices within the Sussex Voices Clinic (SVC), a specialist secondary care mental health service.
To conduct a service evaluation of engagement, outcomes and cost of group PBCT within SVC, and to compare engagement and outcomes from routine practice with the M4V trial. Secondary aims were to explore predictors of levels of engagement and change in group PBCT.
Service level data from 95 SVC patients were evaluated. Descriptive statistics, hypothesis tests and linear regression models were used. The primary clinical outcome was voice-related distress. Engagement levels and pre–post effect sizes were estimated; associated predictors were explored.
Fifty-nine per cent of patients completed group PBCT within SVC, compared with 72% within M4V. Completers within SVC had lower baseline depression scores compared with non-completers. There were significant improvements in voice-related distress (Cohen’s d = –0.47; p = 0.001), subjective recovery (Cohen’s d = 0.35; p = 0.001) and depression (Cohen’s d = –0.20; p = 0.044); these outcomes were comparable to M4V. Higher baseline subjective recovery and lower depression both predicted improvement in voice-related distress. Therapy within SVC cost an average of £214 per patient.
PBCT groups can be delivered trans-diagnostically in routine clinical practice. Engagement was lower when compared with an RCT, but outcomes were comparable. The low level of resources involved suggests that group PBCT can offer value for money.
Three broad social factors – childhood adversity, immigration, and urban living – are robustly associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. To date, however, there is no consensus on what it is about these phenomena that raises the risk of psychotic illness. In 2005, J. P. Selten and E. Cantor-Graae proposed a “social defeat” hypothesis according to which the social determinants of schizophrenia are best characterized as experiences of social subordination. In recent years, the social-defeat hypothesis has been broadened to include experiences of social exclusion. In this chapter, we review the different versions of the social defeat hypothesis and argue that it fails to account for the urban effect. We further argue for the potential utility of paying greater attention to social science when theorizing about the social determinants of schizophrenia.
We sought to assess the effectiveness of clozapine augmentation with Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (C+ECT) in patients with clozapine-resistant schizophrenia.
We conducted a retrospective review of electronic health records to identify patients treated with C+ECT. We determined the response to C+ECT and the rate of rehospitalisation over the year following treatment with C+ECT.
Forty-two patients were treated with C+ECT over a 10-year period. The mean age of the patients at initiation of ECT was 46.3 (SD = 8.2) years (range 27–62 years). The mean number of ECTs given was 10.6 (SD = 5.3) (range 3–25) with the majority receiving twice weekly ECT. Seventy-six per cent of patients (n = 32) showed a Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) score of ≤3 (at least minimally improved) following C+ECT. The mean number of ECT treatments was 10.6 (SD = 5.3) (range 3–25) with the majority receiving twice weekly ECT. Sixty-four per cent of patients experienced no adverse events. Response to C+ECT was not associated with gender, age, duration of illness or duration of clozapine treatment. Seventy-five per cent of responders remained out of hospital over the course of 1-year follow-up, while 70% of those with no response to C+ECT were not admitted to hospital. Three patients received maintenance ECT, one of whom was rehospitalised.
This study lends support to emerging evidence for the effectiveness of C+ECT in clozapine-resistant schizophrenia. These results are consistent with the results of a meta-analysis and the only randomised controlled trial (RCT) of this intervention. Further RCTs are required before this treatment can be confidently recommended.
In Europe, the incidence of psychotic disorder is high in certain migrant and minority ethnic groups (hence: ‘minorities’). However, it is unknown how the incidence pattern for these groups varies within this continent. Our objective was to compare, across sites in France, Italy, Spain, the UK and the Netherlands, the incidence rates for minorities and the incidence rate ratios (IRRs, minorities v. the local reference population).
The European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study was conducted between 2010 and 2015. We analyzed data on incident cases of non-organic psychosis (International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, codes F20–F33) from 13 sites.
The standardized incidence rates for minorities, combined into one category, varied from 12.2 in Valencia to 82.5 per 100 000 in Paris. These rates were generally high at sites with high rates for the reference population, and low at sites with low rates for the reference population. IRRs for minorities (combined into one category) varied from 0.70 (95% CI 0.32–1.53) in Valencia to 2.47 (95% CI 1.66–3.69) in Paris (test for interaction: p = 0.031). At most sites, IRRs were higher for persons from non-Western countries than for those from Western countries, with the highest IRRs for individuals from sub-Saharan Africa (adjusted IRR = 3.23, 95% CI 2.66–3.93).
Incidence rates vary by region of origin, region of destination and their combination. This suggests that they are strongly influenced by the social context.
Cocaine and methamphetamine produce elation, confidence, and sharp focus in most users. The drugs also enable long periods of physical or mental effort, but are very addictive and can cause dangerous behavior. The positive reinforcement, autonomic arousal, and behavioral effects come from the drugs’ agonist action on dopamine and noradrenaline. An SUD occurs in about half of cocaine or methamphetamine users, and in about one-third of misusers of pharmaceutical stimulants, including Adderall and Ritalin. Addiction often develops rapidly and is most likely in daily users and those who inject the drugs IV or inhale cocaine vapor. Addicts often use the drugs in binges that continue uninterrupted for days. Extreme irritability, suspicion, and social withdrawal are common. Obsessive thought patterns sometimes lead to psychotic paranoia. Clinical depression and suicide are definite risks. Heavy stimulant use damages the cardiovascular system, kidneys, and the brain, and causes impairment of memory and executive function. Withdrawal brings depression and emotional lability. Smaller, less active babies with increased emotional reactivity result from prenatal exposure to stimulants.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of acute respiratory infection. There is an excess of respiratory infections and deaths in schizophrenia, a condition where vitamin D deficiency is especially prevalent. This potentially offers a modifiable risk factor to reduce the risk for and the severity of respiratory infection in people with schizophrenia, although there is as yet no evidence regarding the risk of COVID-19. In this narrative review, we describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in schizophrenia, report the research examining the relationship between vitamin D levels and COVID-19 and discuss the associations between vitamin D deficiency and respiratory infection, including its immunomodulatory mechanism of action.
Reports of psychiatric morbidity associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection tend to be limited by geography and patients’ clinical status. Representative samples are needed to inform service planning and research.
To describe the psychiatric morbidity associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction) in referrals to a consultation-liaison psychiatry service in Qatar.
Retrospective review of 50 consecutive referrals.
Most patients were male. Median age was 39.5 years. Thirty-one patients were symptomatic (upper respiratory tract symptoms or pneumonia) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 19 were asymptomatic (no characteristic physical symptoms of COVID-19 infection). Seventeen patients (34%) had a past psychiatric history including eight with bipolar I disorder or psychosis, all of whom relapsed. Thirty patients (60%) had physical comorbidity. The principal psychiatric diagnoses made by the consultation-liaison team were delirium (n = 13), psychosis (n = 9), acute stress reaction (n = 8), anxiety disorder (n = 8), depression (n = 8) and mania (n = 8). Delirium was confined to the COVID-19 symptomatic group (the exception being one asymptomatic patient with concurrent physical illness). The other psychiatric diagnoses spanned the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with COVID. One patient with COVID-19 pneumonia experienced an ischaemic stroke. Approximately half the patients with mania and psychosis had no past psychiatric history. Three patients self-harmed. The commonest psychiatric symptoms were sleep disturbance (70%), anxiety (64%), agitation (50%), depressed mood (42%) and irritability (36%).
A wide range of psychiatric morbidity is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and is seen in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Cases of psychosis and mania represented relapses in people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and also new onset cases.