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This chapter teases out key developments in discourse studies that have involved a radical rethinking of how stories and identities are being conceptualized and studied. First, we focus on how the role of the teller has been rethought by discussing the shift to interactional approaches to identities (cf. identities-in-interaction), including positioning analysis and small stories research. We then discuss how the personal story and story ownership have been reconceptualized with a focus on the uses and mobilization of stories in public arenas, especially politics. Third, we move to the reexamining of the role of space in the constitution of identities in stories, by focusing on work on mobile and migrant populations and on chronotopes as a concept increasingly employed for exploring the contextualization of stories. Finally, we discuss the implications of digital environments and media affordances, including the actual design and “curation” of stories, for how we tell stories and present ourselves online.
This chapter offers a language socialization view on everyday experiences with food in an ethnically diverse kindergarten classroom in Copenhagen, Denmark. It examines discursive encounters that take place between teachers and children during the social activity of lunch, focused primarily on rye bread. It analyzes the ways in which teachers, children, and parents are positioned, using Goffman’s (1981) “production format,” in order to understand how teachers and children occupy different speaker positions, and how teachers attempt to socialize parents through the children. It also looks at the discursive practice of accounts, or social actions expected and presented in the case of unexpected and (often) dispreferred actions (e.g., not bringing Rye bread in one’s lunchbox). It shows how the children presented accounts in numerous cases, yet these were often treated as illegitimate by teachers. The chapter adds to research on food socialization in classrooms under conditions of migration by focusing on the vital role of language and demonstrating the difficulties that emerge when (what is seen as) non-compatible food understandings meet in classrooms.
This chapter presents a brief history of the “first wave” of language socialization research (1980s) and related research occurring during the same time in communities and classrooms. It discusses how research on language socialization has increasingly focused over the years on educational settings both inside and outside of classrooms, including schools, universities, and virtual spaces, where students from various backgrounds frequently have to negotiate changing and multiple languages, norms, roles, ideologies, identities, curricula, and/or ethnolinguistic communities. The chapter summarizes the major findings of the ten empirical cases studies presented in this volume, ties together some common themes among them, and argues that more attention needs to be paid towards examining outcomes of language socialization processes. It also offers suggestions of avenues for further exploration of the process of language socialization inside (and outside) classrooms.
Policies allowing enfranchisement of non-resident citizens (emigrants and their descendants) are now implemented in the majority of states worldwide. A growing number of case studies show that the extension of voting rights to non-resident citizens is often contested among country of origin political parties. However, there is no systematic comparative study of why different political parties support or oppose external voting rights and how this position is framed by the parties. Drawing on a unique data set based on 34 debates across 13 countries, we estimate the extent to which ideology and party family are correlated with the positioning and framing of parties. Among the findings are that the more to the right is a party, the more it tends to support external voting rights, except in the case of radical right parties. The position on emigrant voting rights is largely framed along more pragmatic arguments.
This chapter argues that disciplining of bilingual education as a scholarly field served to divorce discussions of bilingual education from broader political and economic struggles in favor of the seemingly objective pursuit of the benefits of bilingual education. This disciplining of bilingual education was part of a larger discursive shift that reframed discussions of racial inequality from a focus on unequal access and the need for structural change to a focus on the deficiencies of racialized communities and the need for modifying these deficiencies. The chapter ends with a call for bilingual education scholars to situate issues of language inequality within the broader white supremacist and capitalist relations of power. This will offer bilingual education scholars tools for rejecting deficit perspectives of language-minoritized children and pointing to the broader racial stratification that makes these deficit perspectives possible to begin with.
Minnesota has a decades-long history of welcoming and resettling refugees, but there exists a longstanding gap in programming for minority language students and an absence of instruction to develop and build upon students’ native languages. To address these educational inequities, the 2014 Learning English for Academic Proficiency and Success (LEAPS) Act was written and passed in the Minnesota state legislature. This sweeping state law revises many statutes to draw greater attention to English learner education, including recommendations for increased support for native languages. Drawing on interviews with key policy officials, close analysis of the text of the law, we examine the development and implementation of the law. We demonstrate how local culture, in particular what has been termed ‘Minnesota Nice,’ has shaped both the law’s development and implementation path. This chapter demonstrates the utility of narrative analysis in yielding insights into how language policies are developed, interpreted, and prioritized.
Operational deep-sea manned submersibles are important underwater vehicles that provide strong technical support for international deep-sea research. Navigation and positioning technologies are expected to facilitate the complete exploitation of the scientific value of samples and data collected by such submersibles, improve their underwater operation efficiency and enhance their safety. This paper first briefly describes six operational deep-sea manned submersibles that can dive to depths of more than 4,500 m. Then, the paper focuses on the navigation and positioning technologies used in these submersibles. Finally, considering the existing problems in the navigation and positioning systems of China's manned submersible Jiaolong, the paper discusses future development trends of the navigation and positioning technologies used in operational deep-sea manned submersibles.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination and positioning play an important role in many navigation applications. However, the two GNSS-based problems are usually treated separately. This ignores the constraint information of the GNSS antenna array and the accuracy is limited. To improve the performance of navigation, an integrated attitude and position determination method based on an affine constraint model is presented. In the first part, the GNSS array model and affine constrained attitude determination method are compared with the unconstrained methods. Then the integrated attitude and position determination method is presented. The performance of the proposed method is tested with a series of static data and dynamic experimental GNSS data. The results show that the proposed method can improve the success rate of ambiguity resolution to further improve the accuracy of attitude determination and relative positioning compared to the unconstrained methods.
This study explores policy makers’, health-care professionals’ and senior volunteers’ perceptions of senior volunteers. Two Norwegian government white papers regarding older adult care and welfare services, which were published over a period of 19 years, were selected for close examination. Furthermore, focus group interviews with a purposeful sample of five senior volunteers and 15 health-care professionals were conducted. The study explores the discursive formations of senior volunteers in the government white papers and how they are negotiated in the senior volunteers’ and the health-care professionals’ narratives. Two dominant discourses were presented in the white papers: a prevention discourse (in which volunteering was presented primarily as a means to prevent volunteers’ loneliness and need for care services) and a sustainability discourse (in which the volunteers were presented as instrumental in future sustainable care services). Both discourses echo a common overarching discourse about a capacity crisis due to the ageing population. The senior volunteers were positioned as partners and active agents in both their own narratives and the health-care professionals’ narratives. Their position as independent and as spokespersons for the less empowered were evident only in the senior volunteers’ own narratives. Only the health-care professionals referenced the prevention discourse and capacity issues. The senior volunteers presented themselves as competent, efficient political actors, and they resisted both the prevention and sustainability discourses. In the senior volunteers’ narratives, social and political participation were interrelated. The study demonstrates that new discursive landscapes must be created to capture the diversity among senior volunteers and their efforts. While senior volunteers must be meaningfully involved in decision making, planning and design, their positions as independent and active agents must also be ensured. Authentic partnerships between senior volunteers and public care services involve a balance between involvement and independence.
Low and high-skilled contractors are often positioned in an analogous way within the literature drawing attention to the benefits of highly skilled contracting in contrast to the precarious nature of low-skilled contracting. Highly skilled contractors are largely identified within the free agent view; as self-directed professionals who add significant value to client organisations. However, very little research has focused specifically on how highly skilled contractors identify themselves through the process of positioning. We present the findings of a qualitative study of 34 highly skilled contractors. We found that participants positioned themselves in three specific ways: as expert, outsider and stranger and theorise about why highly skilled contractors construct simultaneous but diverse positions of themselves. In doing so, we argue that developing a more thorough understanding of how highly skilled contractors identify themselves provides valuable insights for those tasked with managing different groups of workers in the one workplace.
The food industry operates in an explicitly dynamic environment which demands constant adjustments and responses. The purpose of this paper is to identify important elements of brand positioning by reviewing literature and research into successful poultry brands in Slovenia. A investigation into leading Slovenian poultry brands was used to illustrate the importance of certain elements in repositioning brands in competitive markets. The analysis of competitors in the food market in Slovenia, Austria, Germany, Czech Republic and Switzerland, the analysis of the branding, the results of primary qualitative market research, and the development and testing of possible concepts all offer a basic starting-point for new market positioning. The method used for the implementation of the primary research and for the subsequent testing of the concept was via focus groups. The presented conceptual model for strategic positioning of a brand in a competitive market of high-volume products can enable the definition of various concepts for the new positioning in markets.
Aorta catheterisation can serve both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in patients with aortic coarctation, especially when non-invasive evaluation cannot define severity of the abnormality. We report a case of bilateral brachial plexus injury due to standard positioning of the patient’s arms during non-complicated aorta catheterisation and aortic stent implantation under general anaesthesia. In discussion, we consider our patient’s predisposing factors, the understanding of which may be helpful in avoiding this complication in the future.
Single parent families sometimes represent specific challenges to family therapists. In this article a dialogical frame with important concepts such as voice and positioning is proposed to reflect on family therapy practice. This frame is used to reflect on a common invitation in family therapy with single-parent families: the invitation to take the place of the absent parent. A case of family therapy with a single-parent family is presented in order to illustrate the importance of flexibility in the therapist's positioning and the way the therapist's experiencing can be used as an empathic bridge to create a dialogical space in which the important issues at stake can be addressed.
A framing analysis of family interaction during dinnertime demonstrates that the mother and father linguistically create gendered identities through the number and types of discursive positions they take up within the frames they create and maintain. The mother accomplishes numerous tasks and activities by taking up multiple discursive positions within several interactional frames, whereas the father takes up fewer positions within fewer frames. Furthermore, the positions they take up are gendered, reflecting a sex-based division of labor, even though both parents work full-time outside the home. Through these gendered patterns of participation, the parents create gendered parental identities and negotiate their parental authority with their daughter and with each other. The attention to speech acts, footings, positioning, and framing reveals the intricate and dynamic details of interaction. Furthermore, this discourse model captures and explicates the process through which individuals create gendered identities as they enact and constitute other social identities.
Recent studies confirm the importance of satellite positioning in location-based services (LBS) development. A field study was conducted in suburban and rural areas near Zagreb, Croatia in order to examine the real-time data compliance with recently established positioning performance requirements for LBS quality of service (QoS). Data analysis was based on comparison between actual positioning performance and pre-specified positioning parameter values using defined comparative procedures. The results presented here confirm a good correlation between the actual and required positioning performance, even without implementation of any of augmentation or assistance positioning methods.
The main problems faced by a dynamic model within a Kalman filter occur when the system experiences unexpected dynamic conditions, a change in data acquisition rate, or when the dynamics of the system are non-linear. To minimize the errors produced from dynamic modelling in unusual conditions, an extended dynamic model is developed in this paper, and its usefulness demonstrated through comparison of the performance of a Kalman filter's response to simulated data with a standard dynamic model and the extended dynamic model. The results show that, in use, the proposed extended dynamic model is superior to a standard dynamic model, due mainly to its ability to adapt to a wider range of dynamic conditions, which in turn ensures the optimization of the Kalman filter and the consequent generation of reliable positioning results.
A new approach to the control of indirect simultaneous positioning of deformable objects is presented. Many manufacturing processes that deal with deformable objects such as clothes and rubber sheets involve a positioning of multiple points on a deformable object. The multiple points should be guided simultaneously to the desired locations. Moreover, these positioned points cannot be manipulated directly. This operation is referred to as indirect simultaneous positioning. In this article, we will propose a new control law for indirect simultaneous positioning of a deformable object based on its uncertain model and
will show the robustness of the proposed control law. First, a simplified physical model of a deformable object is developed for its positioning operation. Second, indirect simultaneous positioning of an extensible object is formulated. Based on a linearized model of an extensible object, we will propose a novel control law for indirect simultaneous positioning. Next, we will prove the robustness of the proposed control law theoretically. Finally, experimental results will show the robustness of our proposed control law against the
discrepancy between a real fabric and its uncertain model.
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