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The solvent-casting method was used to synthesize a silver–zeolite–chitosan (AgZ-Ch) composite from Philippine natural zeolites. X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy (OES), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) were used to investigate the different properties of the composite before and after plasma treatment. The major phase of the zeolite is Na-clinoptilolite with trace amounts of mordenite, feldspar and quartz. UV-Vis and OES analyses confirmed the presence of Ag and zeolite on the chitosan matrix. The decrease in the transmittance signal at 290 nm and the emission spectra of the discharge showed the presence of Ag I, Al I and Si I signals at 705–852 nm. The TGA and DTG curves revealed the thermal stability of the natural zeolites after ion exchange and after incorporation in the chitosan matrix, where the onset of degradation was observed to occur above ~37°C, the human body temperature. Bacterial count showed minimal growth of colonies on all samples, both pristine and plasma-treated, suggesting that the surface of the composites does not influence bacterial habitation. The fabricated composites meet the minimum requirements for biomedical application such as thermal stability with respect to the average human body temperature and absence of bacteria.
Maternal one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy is crucial for fetal development and programming by DNA methylation. However, evidence on one-carbon biomarkers other than folate is lacking. We, therefore, investigated whether maternal plasma methyl donors, that is, choline, betaine and methionine, are associated with birth outcomes. Blood samples were obtained from 115 women during gestation (median 26·3 weeks, 90 % range 22·7–33·0 weeks). Plasma choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine were measured using HPLC-tandem MS. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma biomarkers and birth weight, birth length, the risk of small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA). Higher level of maternal betaine was associated with lower birth weight (–130·3 (95 % CI –244·8, –15·9) per 1 sd increment for log-transformed betaine). Higher maternal methionine was associated with lower risk of LGA, and adjusted OR, with 95 % CI for 1 sd increase in methionine concentration was 0·44 (95 % CI 0·21, 0·89). Stratified analyses according to infant sex or maternal plasma homocysteine status showed that reduction in birth weight in relation to maternal betaine was only limited to male infants or to who had higher maternal homocysteine status (≥5·1 µmol/l). Higher maternal betaine status was associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal methionine was inversely associated with LGA risk. These findings are needed to be replicated in future larger studies.
Hypoimmunity and numerous stresses are two major challenges in broiler industry. Nutrient intervention at the specific time of embryonic stage is a feasible way to improve animal performance. This study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of vitamin C at embryonic age 15th day (E15) on growth performance, antioxidation and immune function of broilers. A total of 240 broiler fertile eggs were randomly divided into two groups (0 and 3 mg injected dose of vitamin C at E15), and new-hatched chicks from each treatment were randomly allocated into six replicates with 10 chicks per replicate after incubation. The results indicated that in ovo vitamin C injection improved the hatchability (P < 0.05) and increased immunoglobulin M (IgM) (at the broiler’s age 1st day, D1), IgG and IgM concentrations (D21), as well as lysozyme activity (D21, P < 0.05) and total antioxidant capacity (D42, P < 0.01) in plasma of broilers. On D21, the splenic expression level of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was up-regulated in vitamin C (VC) group, whereas interleukin (IL)-6, interferon-γ, ten-eleven translocation protein 1 and thymine-DNA glycosylase were down-regulated (P < 0.05). On D42, in ovo vitamin C injection up-regulated splenic expression levels of DNMT1, DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein beta (P < 0.05), whereas down-regulated splenic expression levels of IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 4 (P < 0.05). Our findings suggested that IOF of 3 mg vitamin C at E15 could improve, to some extent, the antioxidant activity and immune function in plasma, corresponding with the lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen. However, IOF of vitamin C leading to the changes in the expression of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases may suggest an increased trend of DNA methylation level in spleen and whether DNA methylation variation is associated with the lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spleen warrants future study.
The collimated electron jets ejected from cylindrical plasma are produced in particle-in-cell simulation under the applied longitudinal magnetostatic field and radial electrostatic field, which is a process that can be conveniently performed in a laboratory. We find that the applied magnetostatic field contributes significantly to the jet collimation, whereas the applied electrostatic field plays a vital role in the jet formation. The generation mechanism of collimated jets can be well understood through energy gain of the tagged electrons, and we conclude that the longitudinal momentum of the electrons is converted from the transverse momentum via the transverse-induced magnetic field. It has been found that the ejecting velocity of the jets is close to the speed of light when the applied electrostatic field reaches 3 × 1010 V/m. The present scheme may also give us an insight into the formation of astrophysical jets in celestial bodies.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
Wheat and rye, the most consumed whole grains (WG) in the Nordic countries, contain alkylresorcinols (AR) in their bran. AR concentrations in human adipose tissue might reflect long-term WG rye and wheat intake. We aimed to evaluate AR concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies as a long-term biomarker of WG wheat and rye intake in free-living Swedish men and women.
Cross-sectional study. AR concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies were analysed and compared with long-term WG intake assessed by three FFQ (repeated over a period of 14 years in men, 17 years in women) and with plasma AR concentrations.
The Cohort of Swedish Men between 1997 and 2010 and the Swedish Mammography Cohort between 1987 and 2003, Sweden.
Men (n 149) and women (n 109).
Long-term WG rye intake estimated with repeated FFQ correlated (r=0·31–0·41, P<0·01) with adipose-tissue AR concentrations, while WG wheat intake correlated only weakly (r=0·17–0·33, P<0·05). Total AR concentration in adipose tissue was 61 % lower in women than in men at similar energy-adjusted WG wheat and rye intakes, but plasma concentrations were similar. AR concentrations in adipose tissue correlated well with plasma concentrations (r=0·49–0·81, P<0·001).
AR in adipose tissue reflected long-term WG rye but not WG wheat intake, probably due to poor precision in estimating WG wheat intake by FFQ. AR in adipose tissue appears promising as a biomarker of long-term WG rye intake but should be adjusted for sex.
This paper reports the measurement of the energy loss of protons at the energy of 100 keV penetrating a partially ionized hydrogen plasma. The plasma of ne ≈ 1015–16 cm−3; Te ≈ 1–2 eV and lifetime of about 8 µs is created by the hydrogen gas discharge. The experimental results show an increase of a factor of 2.8 in the energy loss, which are in good agreement with the Bethe, Standard Stopping Model, Li–Petrasso and Vlasov models’ predictions within the error limit. The Bethe–Bloch Coulomb logarithm term is found to increase by a factor of 4.0 for free electrons as compared with the situation where bound electrons prevail. The potential application of protons energy loss for diagnosing the electron density in plasma is proposed too.
The effect of the ingestion of diets containing either myo-inositol or exogenous phytase on plasma metabolites was examined using 29 kg barrows. The diets were: control (maize, soya, rapeseed, rice bran), control plus 2 g/kg myo-inositol, control plus 1000 phytase units (FYT)/kg or 3000 FYT/kg exogenous phytase. Pigs were housed in a PigTurn device and blood was collected, from jugular catheters, via an automated system at −30, (30 min before feeding), 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min post-feeding. The addition of 2 g/kg myo-inositol to the basal diet resulted in an increase in plasma myo-inositol concentration that was evident 45–60 min after diet introduction and persisted to 360 min post-feeding. Similarly, supplementation of the basal diet with either 1000 or 3000 FYT/kg exogenous phytase resulted in an increase in plasma myo-inositol concentration that was still rising 360 min post-feeding. Plasma P concentration was increased over time by the addition of 1000 and 3000 FYT/kg phytase, but not by the addition of myo-inositol. Other plasma metabolites examined were not affected by dietary treatment. It can be concluded that oral delivery of myo-inositol results in rapid increase in plasma myo-inositol concentrations that peak approximately 45–60 min after feeding. Use of supplemental phytase achieves similar increases in myo-inositol concentration in plasma but the appearance is more gradual. Furthermore, supplementation of pig diets with exogenous phytase results in rapid appearance of P in plasma that may be sustained over time relative to diets with no added phytase.
As a continuation of developing multiscale method for the transport phenomena, a unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for multi-scale and multi-component plasma simulation is constructed. The current scheme is a direct modeling method, where the time evolution solutions from the Vlasov-BGK equations of electron and ion and the Maxwell equations are used to construct a scale-dependent plasma simulation model. The modeling scale used in the UGKS is the mesh size scale, which can be comparable to or much larger than the local mean free path. As a result, with the variation of modeling scales in space and time through the so-called cell's Knudsen number and normalized Larmor radius, the discretized governing equations can recover a wide range of plasma evolution from the Vlasov equation in the kinetic scale to different-type of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in the hydrodynamic scale. The UGKS provides a general evolution model, which goes to the Vlasov equation in the kinetic scale and many types of MHD equations in the hydrodynamic scale, such as the two fluids model, the Hall, the resistive, and the ideal MHD equations. All current existing governing equations become the subsets of the UGKS, and the UGKS bridges these distinguishable governing equations seamlessly. The construction of UGKS is based on the implementation of physical conservation laws and the un-splitting treatment of particle collision, acceleration, and transport in the construction of a scale-dependent numerical flux across a cell interface. At the same time, the discretized plasma evolution equations are coupled with the Maxwell equations for electro-magnetic fields, which also cover a scale-dependent transition between the Ampére's law and the Ohm's law for the calculation of electric field. The time step of UGKS is not limited by the relaxation time, the cyclotron period, and the speed of light in the ideal-MHD regime. Our scheme is able to give a physically accurate solution for plasma simulation with a wide range of Knudsen number and normalized Larmor radius. It can be used to study the phenomena from the Vlasov limit to the scale of plasma skin depth for the capturing of two-fluid effect, and the phenomena in the plasma transition regime with a modest Knudsen number and Larmor radius. The UGKS is validated by numerical test cases, such as the Landau damping and two stream instability in the kinetic regime, and the Brio-Wu shock tube problem, and the Orszag-Tang MHD turbulence problem in the hydrodynamic regime. The scheme is also used to study the geospace environment modeling (GEM), such as the challenging magnetic reconnection problem in the transition regime. At the same time, the magnetic reconnection mechanism of the Sweet-Parker model and the Hall effect model can be connected smoothly through the variation of Larmor radius in the UGKS simulations. Overall, the UGKS is a physically reliable multi-scale plasma simulation method, and it provides a powerful and unified approach for the study of plasma physics.
Proton radiography is a key diagnostics to measure and image the electric/magnetic field in laser-produced plasmas. A thin solid target is irradiated with an intense laser pulse to produce a proton beam. The accelerated proton can achieve higher energy with thinner target. In order to produce an extremely thin target, we have developed a large-area suspended graphene as a laser target for energetic ion sources. We describe the manufacturing process of the suspended graphene, and show the results of quality evaluations.
As biomarkers of dietary intake or disease risk factor, n-3 fatty acid (FA) can be measured in plasma phospholipids (PL), total lipids (TL) or erythrocytes. However, the numeric relationships between n-3 FA in these lipid pools are not clear. Our goal was to derive conversion ratios for plasma and erythrocyte n-3 FA. Potential studies were identified through systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library of Systematic reviews (1950 to October 2014). In all, fifty-six studies reporting n-3 in healthy individuals were included, of which thirty-four articles reported plasma PL and erythrocytes, and twenty-two reported plasma TL and erythrocytes. Meta-regressions were performed to quantify the ratio between plasma and erythrocyte n-3 FA weight percentages, controlling for covariates including age, sex and study design. The conversion ratios from plasma PL to erythrocytes for EPA, DHA, DPA and total n-3 PUFA are 0·75, 1·16, 2·32 and 1·22; the corresponding conversion ratios from plasma TL to erythrocytes are 1·00, 2·10, 3·85 and 2·08, respectively. The conversion ratios were validated using reported values from the literature and measured data from fifty individuals. The relative error of the predicted results were within 10 % of the mean reported values except for EPA, and the individual measured data except for DPA, in plasma TL. The conversion ratios between plasma PL and erythrocytes were more stable compared with plasma TL. Such conversion ratios will be useful for nutritionists or public health professionals to assess FA profiles of different populations using data collected with different methodologies.
Plasma waves with frequencies close to the particular gyrofrequencies of the charged particles in the plasma lose energy due to cyclotron damping. We briefly discuss the gyro-resonance of low frequency plasma waves and ions particularly with regard to particle-in-cell (PiC) simulations. A setup is outlined which uses artificially excited waves in the damped regime of the wave mode's dispersion relation to track the damping of the wave's electromagnetic fields. Extracting the damping rate directly fromthe field data in real or Fourier space is an intricate and non-trivial task. We therefore present a simple method of obtaining the damping rate Γ from the simulation data. This method is described in detail, focusing on a step-by-step explanation of the course of actions. In a first application to a test simulation we find that the damping rates obtained from this simulation generally are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We then compare the results of one-, two- and three-dimensional simulation setups and simulations with different physical parameter sets.
Laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) is an important parameter used to describe the resistance of optical thin films to laser damage. The service life and cost of optical systems depend on the LIDT of the film. Thus, the precision with which the film's LIDT can be measured impacts how well the service life and cost of the system can be predicted. Therefore, it is important to find a precise approach to diagnose a film's laser-induced damage. In this paper, characteristics of the peak sound pressure of laser-induced plasma shock waves from thin films have been systematically investigated experimentally. We found that the peak sound pressure decays rapidly with propagation distance during air transmission. Based on a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the peak sound pressure and the laser damage to a film, we propose a method for diagnosing laser damage using the peak sound pressure of a thin film's shock wave. Our results show that this method can simplify implementation, which will provide a new method with which to diagnose laser damage to thin films.
ArbiTER (Arbitrary Topology Equation Reader) is a new code for solving linear eigenvalue problems arising from a broad range of physics and geometry models. The primary application area envisioned is boundary plasma physics in magnetic confinement devices; however ArbiTER should be applicable to other science and engineering fields as well. The code permits a variable numbers of dimensions, making possible application to both fluid and kinetic models. The use of specialized equation and topology parsers permits a high degree of flexibility in specifying the physics and geometry.
Electron acceleration by a circularly polarized Hermite–Gaussian (HG) laser beam in the plasma has been investigated theoretically for the different transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode indices (m, n) as (0, 1), (0, 2), (0, 3), and (0, 4). HG laser beam possesses higher trapping force compared with a standard Gaussian beam owing to its propagation characteristics during laser–electron interaction. A single-particle simulation indicates a resonant enhancement in the electron acceleration with HG laser beam. We present the intensity distribution for different TEM modes. We also analyze the dependence of beam width parameter on electron acceleration distance, which effectively influences the electron dynamics. Electron acceleration up to longer distance is observed with the lower modes. However, the higher electron energy gain is observed with higher modes at shorter distance of propagation.
Until the ULYSSES spacecraft reached high latitude, the only means for measuring the solar wind velocity in the polar regions was from radio scattering observations (IPS), and these remain the only way to measure the velocity near the sun. However, IPS, like many remote sensing observations, is a “line-of-sight” integrated measurement. This integration is particularly troublesome when the line-of-sight passes through a fast stream but that stream does not occupy the entire scattering region. Observations from the HELIOS spacecraft have shown that the solar wind has a bimodal character which becomes more pronounced near the sun. Recent observations from ULYSSES have confirmed that this structure is clear at high latitudes even at relatively large solar distances. We have developed a method of separating the fast and slow contributions to an IPS observation which takes advantage of this bimodal structure. In this paper I will describe the technique and its application to IPS observations made using the receiving antennas of the EISCAT incoherent backscatter radar observatory in northern Scandinavia.
Plant lignans are diphenolic compounds ingested with whole grains and seeds and converted to enterolignans by the colonic microbiota. In the present study, we investigated absorption and metabolism of plant lignans and enterolignans in vivo after consumption of cereal-based diets. Six pigs fitted with catheters in the mesenteric artery and portal vein and with a flow probe attached to the portal vein along with twenty pigs for quantitative collection of urine were used for this study. The animals were fed bread based on wheat flour low in plant lignans and three lignan-rich breads based on whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone flour or rye aleurone flour. Plant lignans and enterolignans in plasma were monitored daily at fast after 0–3 d of lignan-rich intake, and on the 4th day of lignan-rich intake a 10-h profile was completed. Urine samples were collected after 11 d of lignan-rich diet consumption. The concentrations of plant lignans were low at fast, and was 1·2–2·6 nmol/l after switching from the low-lignan diet to the lignan-rich diets. However, on the profile day, the concentration and quantitative absorption of plant lignans increased significantly from 33 nmol/h at fast to 310 nmol/h 0–2·5 h after ingestion with a gradual increase in the following periods. Quantitatively, the absorption of plant lignans across diets amounted to 7 % of ingested plant lignans, whereas the urinary excretion of plant lignans was 3 % across diets. In conclusion, there is a substantial postprandial uptake of plant lignans from cereals, suggesting that plant lignans are absorbed from the small intestine.
To evaluate the influence of acute restraint stress (ARS) on plasma enkephalinase and oxytocinase activities. ARS modifies basal activities in cortico-limbic regions of rats and induces changes in the correlations observed between these regions. The interactions between plasma and cortico-limbic activities will be also evaluated.
Enkephalinase (AlaAP and LeuAP) and oxytocinase (P-LeuAP) activities were fluorometrically determined in plasma of control and stressed rats using aminoacyl-β-naphthylamides (aaNNap), AlaNNap and LeuNNap as substrates.
No differences in enzymatic activities were observed between control and stressed animals in plasma. In contrast, highly significant positive and negative correlations between plasma and cortico-limbic regions were demonstrated in controls. Stress conditions significantly alter the pattern of these correlations.
The present results clearly support a connection between plasma and brain involving certain neuropeptidase activities that change under stress conditions.
A metallurgical by product mostly constituted of Wustita (FeO) was transformed to Magnetite (Fe3O4) spheres using a flame treatment. Then magnetite spheres surface was modified by cold plasma treatment with ethylene, where a thin polyethylene film was deposited on the spheres surface. Finally, HDPE composites with modified spheres were obtained by melt mixing and its thermal conductivity was determined by MDSC. It was found that spheres surface modification helps to increase composites thermal conductivity.
Massive hemorrhage with coagulopathy is one of the leading causes of preventable death in the battlefield. The development of freeze-dried plasma (FDP) allows for early treatment with coagulation-optimizing resuscitation fluid in the prehospital setting. This report describes the first prehospital use of FDP in a patient with carotid artery injury due to a high-velocity gunshot wound (HVGSW) to the neck. It also describes in-flight constitution and administration of FDP in a Medevac Helicopter. Early administration of FDP may contribute to hemodynamic stabilization and reduction in trauma-induced coagulopathy and acidosis. However, large-scale studies are needed to define the prehospital use of FDP and other blood products.
GellerforsM, LindeJ, GrythD. Helicopter In-flight Resuscitation with Freeze-dried Plasma of a Patient with a High-velocity Gunshot Wound to the Neck in Afghanistan – A Case Report. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(5):509–511.