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Communication is both an activity in which we participate and the means by which we participate in a range of other activities. Therefore, the ability to communicate (or ‘communication capacity’) is closely linked with the ability to participate in life activities and in society. Cohort studies that consider communication capacity and explore participation in life activities provide an opportunity to understand these links at a single point in time or longitudinally. This chapter introduces the reader to four Australian cohort studies: Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC), Building a New Life in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Humanitarian Migrants (BNLA), and the Australian Census of Population and Housing. The WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is used as a framework to examine links between communication and participation. The chapter presents communication and participation data from the four cohort studies for children and adults who have speech, language and communication needs (SLCN), as well as people who are Indigenous (First Nations), multilingual and migrants, to reflect strengths and capacity within communities and societies.
The relationship between religion and concern for the environment has not always been an easy one. Theological ascription of ultimate value to God, rather than to creatures, has been said to underlie ecological destruction, exacerbated also by religious notions of human uniqueness. Conversely, some religious groups have feared that concern for nature will risk deflecting attention from God. Faced with such a stand-off, we turn to the idea of ‘participation’ – of partaking from, or sharing in – which offers common ground between these two domains, with its sense of dependence and derivation. From a theological perspective (here concentrating on the Christian tradition), particular emphasis will fall on the idea of creation as good gift, and on the derivation of all things from God, in all of their aspects. From the side of biology, themes of participation appear both in the form of ecological dependence in the present and of evolutionary relations of derivation and reception running down biological history. Approached in these terms, the theologian conviction that creation is not ultimate need not degrade it, nor need attention to creation stand in competition with religious devotion.
The oldest cave paintings yet discovered are in a cave in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The paintings depict other animals in symbolic forms as participant agents, alongside early humans. Such conceptions of co-agency endured throughout human history in indigenous religions, particularly culturally isolated groups dwelling in deserts, forests, islands, and mountains. This ‘original’ ontology was taken up from indigenous religions into world religious traditions first in the Vedas and then in ‘axial age’ traditions including those of classical Greece, Judaism and, under their influence, Christianity. However in Latin Christianity the cultural imaginary of participation in a shared realm of being declined in favour of a new religious narrative focused on human souls. The subsequent rise of Enlightenment rationalism and personalism conferred on modern humans a sense of control and dominance in their agency of Earthly habitats in which they have progressively sought to eradicate the agency, and diversity, of the other beings. In this chapter I outline the original participative ontology in indigenous and world religious traditions; I examine the reasons for and impacts of its decline; and I discuss ways in which it may be recovered.
Ancient Greek philosophy has often been dismissed as irrelevant to contemporary environmental thought or part of the problem in environmental terms because of its apparent dualism and anthropocentrism; Plato is often seen as emblematic of this philosophical stance. Following the research of Timothy Mahoney, this chapter calls into question this characterisation of Plato’s philosophy. Additionally, it examines the environmental perspectives of several philosophers within the later Platonic tradition, whose philosophy was closely connected with ancient Mediterranean religions and has been largely marginalised and excluded from the canon of western philosophy. This chapter argues that there is an important strand in ancient philosophy which is participatory, relational and ecocentric, depicting the philosopher as rooted in place and landscape, and necessitating the philosopher’s recognition of the interconnectedness and sacredness of the natural world and the kinship and ensouled nature of all beings and natural entities. As such, this chapter suggests that ecocentric environmental perspectives can be discerned within Platonism (especially within late antique theurgy) and that, consequently, this strand of ancient philosophy has a great deal to offer to environmental ethics and contemporary environmental thinking on nature and the natural world.
This examination begins with the poetical exploration of human alienation from nature. It then examines the resilient capacity of aesthetics, particularly aesthetic realism, to disrupt and critique the anthropocentrism that is the cause of this alienation. Aesthetic realism is elaborated through three central, recurrent and evolving concepts: methexis, mimesis and poesis. Taken together, these articulate and enact a relationship between humans and nature that recognises nature’s own inherent meaning and value apart from those imposed upon it by human minds. These dimensions of aesthetic realism are explored through poetry, painting, music and architecture, each in its own way challenging anthropocentrism. In doing so, aesthetics presents itself as a resource for overcoming the disconnection from nature that is essential to addressing the environmental crisis.
This chapter explores how we might, by our practice, give more vigor to the democratic aspiration that a people should rule themselves. It does so in two steps. First, it examines the form of governance of the Gitxsan people, a First Nation of northern British Columbia. The traditional governance of the Gitxsan, like that of most Indigenous peoples, is not organized in the manner of a state. The nature of Gitxsan members’ attachment to their legal and political order is not masked, then, by the heavy institutionalization of a state, and the characteristics of their adherence can be perceived and weighed more easily. Second, the chapter reflects upon how a similar quality of adherence might be achieved within state-structured polities. In short, this chapter uses the Gitxsan comparison to seek more precision in how we ought to understand citizens’ attachment to – their “consent” to – their legal and political order, and it suggests practical steps that might promote that end in contemporary states.
Responsive and respectful relationships are principal elements of early childhood curricula in many countries. Children seek to interact with peers, be included as part of a group, and make friends. Successful relationships in the early years lead to better communication skills, increased general knowledge, and feelings of wellbeing, all necessary for successful life and work outcomes. Making friends is often viewed as a ‘natural’ state of childhood, and consequently, assumes an individual’s social skills are the sole reason for a child’s ability to make friends or not. This chapter takes an interactional view to show that friendships are linked to ongoing and inter-dependent actions of the peer group. Seven examples of peer interactions highlight the ways in which children actively seek to participate and build friendships. It is these ‘implications for practice’ that demonstrate how early childhood educators might support children’s play and participation so as to develop responsive and respectful relationships. The chapter argues that when an interactional process approach, based on conversation analysis is adopted, educators can identify the criticality of the social context, and best support children’s opportunities to be included and make friends.
Chapter 8 treats books XIX–XXII, the final segment of The City of God, focusing on the last end or summum bonum. In these key books, the antidote to pride, flowing from humility, emerges in Augustine’s narrative as “participation” – free and willing partaking by creatures in God’s being, wisdom, and love. Crucial to this participation, and the genuine community or res publica it makes possible, are recognition of humanity’s creaturely status and the rejection of the pull toward autarchy or a false sense of self-sufficiency.
Chapter 3 is an analysis of the sociological and ecological literature surrounding the problem of human–wildlife conflict and so describes the non-legal context. It begins with an analysis of the problem itself and the terminology surrounding human–wildlife conflict. The chapter then suggests that specific management models are not equipped to deal with the value conflicts that surround instances of human–wildlife conflict. Approaches to wildlife management are heavily based on reductionist scientific formulations that exclude consideration of the needs of the community and the wildlife concerned with conflict. They often do not allow for an emotional connection with wildlife or encourage positive experiences. They also often do not consider the historical social conflicts surrounding the symptomatic wildlife behaviour. Such approaches are vulnerable to political pressure and work in conjunction with a top-down state response to exclude particular people and reduce human and ecological security. The primary finding of the chapter is that management of wildlife at the ground level most often seeks to promote individual autonomy and, as discussed in Chapter 2, such an emphasis is not conducive to an appropriate response to human–wildlife conflict.
Children and young people constitute more than one quarter of all plaintiffs in rights-based strategic climate litigation cases filed globally up to 2021. This article examines the implications of this development for children's environmental rights inside and outside the courtroom, relying on the analysis of case documents, media coverage, and the broader literature on strategic climate litigation and children's rights. The article finds that children are well placed to make powerful arguments for intergenerational justice. Conversely, children's rights arguments that address their current-day grievances are under-utilized. More consistent inclusion of these types of claim could strengthen children's environmental rights, clarifying and enforcing legal obligations towards children in the context of the climate crisis as it unfolds. The involvement of children in strategic climate litigation, moreover, can advance the critical role of this demographic as stakeholder in climate solutions. However, the participation of children also raises ethical and practical dilemmas, which are currently poorly understood and only haphazardly addressed.
Can physics be beneficial for bringing about human moral and spiritual goods? Modern physics is perpetually in search for grand unification of our world-pictures, but its method is arbitrarily self-limiting in ruling out any place in its conception of nature for the human as spiritual and moral beings. But this estrangement between nature and the human has not always been the case. Drawing from Pierre Hadot’s pioneering work, this essay retrieves the notion of physics as ‘spiritual exercise’ from ancient philosophy and early Christianity for reimagining the enterprise of physics today. Envisaged as spiritual exercise, ancient physics goes beyond a mere acquisition of ‘objective’ knowledge of nature towards the fashioning of human moral and spiritual transformation. Illustrating from Origen of Alexandria, I show that this vision of physics is principally grounded upon a metaphysics that unites all parts of nature, including human nature, into a single whole. This chapter argues that it is desirable to retrieve the ancient vision today not as a displacement of modern physics but through the re-invention of natural philosophy alongside it. This retrieval should give urgency to the task of rethinking the desirability of a comprehensive and unified metaphysical account of nature for today.
Even when they are not directly related to the provision of water and sanitation services, business activities can be an important driver for the realization or, more frequent, violation of the HRtWS. The different ways those economic activities engage in development projects can affect the way people, notably traditional communities, access water and sanitation services. Usually, when confronting the economic and social benefits of those projects with the human rights risks for the affected communities, the mainstream narrative overestimates the former and makes the latter invisible. Among those business activities, megaprojects have a prominent role in terms of concerns for the HRtWS.
Policies are the instrument that governments mobilize for carrying out their intentions to interfere in reality, transforming their vision for the development of the territories they encompass into reality, whether on a national, local or supralocal scale. Several definitions have been proposed for the concept, with the following being suitable for the purposes of this publication: “a process, which involves decisions on the part of governmental bodies and authorities, and actions, carried out by an actor or a group of actors, which consists of goals and the means to achieve them” (Heller & Castro, 2007).
Inequalities based on gender exist basically in every country and in all aspects of social life, and are echoed in the vast divides between men and women in their ability to access, manage and benefit from water, sanitation and hygiene. A large and growing body of studies suggests that women and men often have differentiated access, use, experiences and knowledge of water, sanitation and hygiene. Cultural, social, economic and biological differences between women and men consistently lead to unequal opportunities for women in the enjoyment of the HRtWS, with devastating consequences for the enjoyment of other human rights and gender equality more generally.
Community stroke rehabilitation teams (CSRT) provide an individualized home-based rehabilitation service to patients recovering from stroke.
To examine whether there is an improvement in the social participation of patients who received a rehabilitation program provided by CSRT. The secondary objectives were to show if there is an improvement in the patients’ quality of life and a reduction in the caregiver burden.
Retrospective cohort study, pragmatic in real-care conditions. The rehabilitation program delivered by the CSRT was adapted to the needs of the patients and caregivers. The outcome questionnaires included: the Frenchay Activity Index (FAI), the Minizarit, the EuroQol EQ5D, and the Barthel Index. The primary outcome measure was the FAI.
We included 206 patients followed by the CSRT over the 2018–2020 study period, for whom the primary endpoint was present. The mean age was 66.3 ± 12.7 years, the post-stroke delay was 16.4 ± 32.7 months, and the Barthel index was 66.42 ± 12.6. The duration of the rehabilitation program was on average 162 ± 109 days. We observed a significant improvement in the FAI, from 12.9 ± 10.4 to 17.85 ± 12.4 (p < 0.00001); in the EuroQol, from 57.51 ± 19.96 to 66.36 ± 18.87 (p < 0.00001); in the mini-Zarit, from 2.49 ± 1.75 to 2.06 ± 1.67 (p = 0.0002); and in the Barthel index, from 66.42 ± 12.67 to 84.81 ± 23.70 (p < 0.001).
Patients who received a rehabilitation program by the CSRT have an improvement in their social participation, and their informal caregivers have a reduction in their burden.
This chapter is dedicated to presenting the distinctive features of the regulative ideal that I employ in this book, that is, the ideal of a “conversation among equals”. I introduce the six defining characteristics of an egalitarian conversation: equality among its participants; the reasonable disagreements that separate those participants; the inclusive and deliberative character of their conversation; their focus on topics of public (rather than private) interest; and the open, continuous and ongoing nature of their dialogue.
If the past two years have proven anything, it is that students today hold a tremendous capacity to adapt to incredibly difficult learning environments. This paper explores student learning experiences in one such learning environment, the period of online learning that occurred between January and March 2021 due to COVID-19-related school closures. Investigating the effectiveness of the digital learning platform Padlet in terms of student engagement with the Latin curriculum and its cultivation of Latin comprehension skills, this case study of Year 8 students in a state-maintained girls’ grammar school demonstrates the value of collaborative, discussion-based approaches to remote teaching. The value of digital learning platforms in our post-pandemic educational environment is demonstrated in its potential to bridge the communicative gap felt by many students when taught online, simulating the lively classroom climate which so often generates exciting and effective learning opportunities for each student. As this paper demonstrates, digital learning platforms hold the potential not only to assist educators in coping with the challenges of remote learning, but also to extend student learning in ways once considered unimaginable beyond the realms of the physical classroom. As a result, this paper argues that the position of such platforms in the post-pandemic classroom must be advocated and supported further.
Social influence among people is widely understood to be a universal component of the human experience. However, studies of political behavior have generally approached social influence as specific to a type of behavior, such as voting, in a particular national context. There are good reasons to expect that social influence is observable across diverse behaviors and national contexts. In this study, we test this expectation using a two-wave panel survey of national samples in 19 countries. We employ autoregressive models that address some of the endogeneity challenges associated with attempts to measure social influence with survey designs. Our measure of social influence is predictive of diverse political behaviors in many countries with average effects comparable in size to important standard predictors of behavior.
This chapter considers two strands of research that emerged from the literature on power: first, a renewed theoretical and empirical interest in the role of state institutions in political life; second, a normative preference for, and theorizing of, participation. Both, the chapter shows, ended up restating the problem of social order.
Public opinion research has shown that voters accept many falsehoods about politics. This observation is widely considered troubling for democracy – and especially participatory ideals of democracy. I argue that this influential narrative is nevertheless flawed because it misunderstands the nature of political understanding. Drawing on philosophical examinations of scientific modelling, I demonstrate that accepting falsehoods within one's model of political reality is compatible with – and indeed can positively enhance – one's understanding of that reality. Thus, the observation that voters accept many political falsehoods does not necessarily establish that they lack political understanding. I then address three worries: that voters cannot generally engage in such political modelling; that political modelling obscures facts that are crucial to political understanding; and that successful political modelling would require knowing that one's model contains falsehoods. My responses reveal how, going forward, we should measure political ignorance, and they highlight the standing importance of participatory democracy.