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This chapter offers a succinct overview of the successive stages in the development of the architectural memorial, starting in the period of the two world wars and concluding with a discussion of the practices and debates of the early twenty-first century. In addition to sketching broad trends and important points of dispute and discussion, it will zoom in on a few influential projects that shaped subsequent practice, such as Jochen and Esther Shalev-Gerz’s Monument Against Fascism (1986) and Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1982).
To promote good governance, citizens can inform governments directly and routinely about the implementation of policies and the delivery of public services. Yet citizens lack incentives to provide information when they do not expect governments to be responsive, and citizen disengagement in turn often prevents governments from providing public goods effectively. In two field experiments, we studied potential remedies to this dilemma related to solid waste services in Uganda. We randomly assigned reporters to be recruited by community nomination and to be recognized by community leaders in an attempt to select for and motivate information sharing. We also randomly assigned reporters to hear from the government about how their reports were used to make real improvements to waste services. Community nominations and public announcements did not increase reporting. However, responsiveness boosted participation over several months for reporters who had been recruited earliest and had been reporting longest, highlighting the critical role of timely government responsiveness in sustaining information flows from citizens.
The chapter argues that the main character in US and European ‘democracy promotion’ in Jordan is neither Jordan nor democracy, nor an imagined Jordanian democracy, but instead desired self-understandings among ‘democracy promoters’ as ‘modern’, ‘liberal’ and ‘democratic’, which are juxtaposed in opposition to the imagined ‘Jordanian non-democratic other’. Through the examples of external civil society support and youth education initiatives, the chapter demonstrates that the continuous functioning of civil society support (understood as its perpetuation rather than the achievement of its desired objectives) depends on a disregard for the specific context in which it operates and the associated ability to maintain the dominance of an often idealised narrative of supposedly universally valid processes of democratisation over everything considered Jordanian. In contrast to what a common understanding of ‘democracy promotion’ would suggest, it is therefore not the overcoming of differences that is central to its functioning, but largely the exact opposite: that is, their maintenance. In particular, the chapter looks at a USAID-funded and NDI-implemented youth education and participation programme, which the NDI itself considers to be one of its largest and most successful programmes in the region.
The article suggests that self-reflexive participation should be considered a distinct form of client participation. Self-reflexive participation is an individualized form of participation that occurs through a development-oriented dialogue between the client and a practitioner. In this dialogue, clients reflect on themselves, set goals for the future and devise strategies, thereby improving their self-regulatory potentials. The article discusses important differences between self-reflexive participation and democratic, consumerist and co-productive participation in terms of the form participation takes, the aim of participation, the client role, the resources required from clients to participate, the assumed relationship between the agency and the client and organizational responsiveness. Self-reflexive participation is based on a view of the client as capable and reflexive and it may foster a tailoring of social services to the wishes and life-projects of clients. However, self-reflexive participation is based on the assumption that clients can be empowered through improved skills of self-observation and life-planning. When focus is on these skills, it may gloss over important conflicts between clients and agency and detach questions of client participation from organizational responsiveness and struggles over user control.
Life patents are a form of intellectual property protection being enshrined and strengthened in bi-lateral and multi–lateral trade agreements. The Church’s teaching and societal engagement to protect human rights has grown in response to the expanded use of patents on living matter, including human genes, DNA and stem cells, as well as microorganisms, plants and animals. This analysis is based on three assets of the work of the Church in the United States: 1) the teaching of the Church; 2) relationships with the Church in other nations; and 3) on–the–ground experience in developing nations, especially through the Conference’s relief and development agency, Catholic Relief Services (CRS). The paper explores two questions: What lessons can be learned from the Church’s engagement with life patents as they touch the rights of persons who are poor, indigenous or marginalized? How can the Church appropriately defend the rights of persons at the margins of the global economy, insuring their just and fair treatment, and their access to the life–saving benefits of life patents?
Since then-Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman unveiled Saudi Vision 2030 and the National Transformation Programme on 25 April 2016, a great deal of analysis has focused on the potential impact of the Vision at the national level. Prince Mohammed wanted to establish a more direct connection with the young populace, but despite the prince’s strong youth appeal, in reality he is asking more of them: more contributions to the economy, more personal sacrifice for the country. Vision 2030 is a wide-ranging plan to diversify the Kingdom’s economy and reduce oil-dependency, thereby transforming Saudi Arabia’s economic model by making the private sector the engine for growth and jobs. In light of oil price fluctuations since 2014, the Saudi government has attempted to respond to socio-economic pressures. This chapter examines young men’s attitudes to Saudi Vision 2030 and their related hopes and aspirations. It also discusses attitudes to corruption and the introduction of taxation, as well as the desire to participate in national development.
The practice of sharing products, services, and other activities among people living in the same city has emerged as one of the most important waves of social innovation in recent years. However, the public and scientific debate have, to date, been mostly rhetoric and rarely relied on empirical evidence. A study of the role played by local institutions in governing the phenomenon is still lacking. This paper addresses the issue of the relationship between local governments and private actors in the sharing economy sector, exploiting the ‘political exchange’ approach. Departing from this governance perspective, it appraises the political exchange – and its outputs in terms of co-operation – underlying the governing structures in two Italian cases between 2014 and 2018. We thus bridge the gap between a theoretical understanding of the sharing economy and empirical cases, providing scholars with a framework to study this phenomenon which highlights the crucial impact of the political investment of public institutions.
This paper presents a scoping review of the literature on child participatory research in Australia published in academic journals between 2000 and 2018. The review focused on research designed to engage with children and young people in the development, implementation and evaluation of services. A total of 207 papers were identified and distributed across eight service sectors: child protection and family law, community, disability, education, health, housing and homelessness, juvenile justice and mental health. The papers were reviewed against Shier’s participation matrix, demonstrating that almost all of the identified papers included children only as participants who contributed data to adult researchers. Only a small number of papers involved children and young people in the other phases of research, such as designing research questions, analysis and dissemination. There is a clear interest in the engagement of children and young people in service design and decision-making in Australia. This paper is intended to serve as a catalyst for discussion on where there are gaps and where further Australian research is needed.
The Conclusion explores the theme of relation as integral to any participatory vision, on the basis that if all things come forth from God, then they come forth intrinsically related. Relation, and the joys and duties that accompany it, is not some secondary overlay. Here we pick up the theme of 'intra-finite participation' (the participation in, or reception from, one creature in relation to another) explored in the chapter on truth and epistemology. Central test cases here come up in the notion of the common good, and its place in a theological vision of just economics. The chapter, and the book, end where the book began, with the theme of gift: that every good and perfect gift is 'from above, coming down from the Father of lights', as the Letter of James has it.
This chapter on participation in goodness, and on ethics or a good life, has been prepared for by the previous chapter, on beauty and desire. Like the chapter on truth and epistemology before that, this chapter on goodness is robustly realist: it sees what would be morally good for a person, community, or situation to align with the reality and good of the thing considered, which it has by participation in God. The twin focuses here are virtue ethics (which is explored in terms of the alignment of the good-as-moral with the good-as-excellent) and natural law (which is explored in terms of the alignment of the good-as-moral with the good-as-beneficial). No firm wedge, however, is driven between those two approaches, which are both related to God as source and goal in participatory terms. The chapter moves to a discussion of the expectation of the coherence of the good in a participatory framework, such that the goodness that creatures have (and, here, especially human beings) is expected naturally to align with the nature of the good as communicated, for instance, in revelation. This is explored in contrast with the thought of John Duns Scotus. The chapter ends with a participatory discussion of the nature of law in its various forms, including the participatory and theological backdrop to notions of international law.
In the writing of Thomas Aquinas, and more widely, the metaphysics of participation goes hand in hand with an account of language set out in terms of analogy (and particularly in relation to religious language). The question of how human words can have the capacity to bear witness to God is acknowledged as a real and considerable problem. The response provided here comes from Aquinas: words that we have learned, in by use in relation to creatures, can have bearing for discussion of God (not least as given in revelation) because the perfections that we name in creatures are first, foundationally, and causally, in God. The approach summed up as 'analogy' is contrasted with two others: equivocity and univocity. An analogical approach to language is seen to be present in the scriptures. The chapter closes with a survey of some of the forms of analogy that were put forth in the High Middle Ages.
In the first of five opening chapters on participation and divine causation, we look at 'efficient' or 'agent' causation: what it means, from a participatory perspective, for God to be the cause and agent of creation. The chapter situates the idea of participation within the foundational doctrine, common to the Abrahamic faiths, of creation as being ex nihilo. Nothing is coaeval with God; nor did God rely upon anything else for creation: on eternally existent matter, for instance. Creation is not some past event, now over, but should rather be seen as a relation of dependence upon the creator. This is explored in terms of gift and of the relation of the doctrine of creation to the doctrine of God. This leads on to a discussion of theological apologetics.
Within a participatory framework of metaphysics, evil is characteristically seen as a matter of privation. If all being, characterfulness, and action are had by creatures as a participation in, or from, God, then evil is a failure or occlusion of that participation. In this chapter, evil-as-privation is explored in terms of evil as washed-out, senseless, and always taking a form that is strictly relative to the particular good of the particular creature. The chapter ends with a discussion of the non-concurrence of God in evil, and how it might be that evil is possible. Evil is seen to have the character of non-relation between creatures.
Under the title of 'participation', theologians and philosophers have explored what it means for the reality that we observe, and in which we dwell, to have its origin in a divine or transcendent source. This introductory chapter surveys what is to come in this book on the theme of participation. It considers the principal sources that are to be used, especially the Christian Bible and the writings of Thomas Aquinas. It also considers the relation between philosophy and theology, and between conceptual studies and their application within the practical details of a life lived with an eye to participation.
The final chapters of this book look at how a participatory outlook can inform and has informed a vision of the world and what it means to live, act, pray, and seek God in it. This, the first of these chapters, considers knowledge and knowing in participatory terms. Knowledge is seen as a participation of the knower in the known, or a sharing from the known to the knower. This undergirds a 'realist' epistemology, in that knowing rests on the reality of the thing that is known. That said, it also stresses the creaturehood and particularity of the knower and the manner of knowing: that which is known comes to be in the knower in the manner of the knower, whether we are talking about our knowledge of an animal, of a plant, or of God. In the case of God, most of all, the knower never exhausts the depths of what is known. That also applies, however, although to a different degree, in the knowledge of even mundane things, since their deepest reality is a participation in God, which confers a creaturely form of inexhaustibility. In these ways, much of this chapter is an exploration of 'intra-finite participation': about how one creature participates in, or donates to, another. It closes with a discussion of the relation between reason and revelation.
The first five chapters of the book examine the relation of creation to creator in terms of Aristotle's 'four causes' (or four aspects of causation): that God is the efficient, formal (or exemplar), and final cause of creation, but not the material cause. In this chapter, we consider further what it would mean to describe God as a cause, and relate the three of Aristotle's aspects of causation that can be applied analogically to God to the three Persons of the Trinity. The history of speaking in this way – of 'appropriating' divine acts or aspects of divine acts to Persons of the Trinity – is considered. Also discussed here are ways in which the language of participation has been used to talk about inter-Trinitarian relations.