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It is the aim of this chapter to explore the intertwinement of embodied selfhood and personal identity in dementia. According to the cognitivist picture of personal identity prevalent in the scientific literature and public debate, severe cases of dementia, where there is a loss of declarative memory, linguistic capacities and social orientation, effectively turn the patient from a person into a nonperson. After critically analyzing the arguments and assumptions behind this conclusion, I introduce the concept of “embodied selfhood” as a counterview. I argue that even in severe cases of dementia – such as late-stage Alzheimer's disease – the manifold expressive forms of embodied selfhood justify the continued ascription of embodied personal selfhood.
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC) is a determining factor in building energy simulation (BES) tools for building thermal calculations. The accuracy of CHTC calculation has a direct effect on building energy analysis.This study aims to assess the impact of multiple parameters, namely temperature difference, wind speed, and wind direction on CHTC of building exterior surfaces. Then the overall high accuracy correlation based on these parameters for CHTC is provided. According to the specified values for temperature and velocity, Richardson’s number range from 0.1 to 10, representing a mixed heat transfer. The simulated results are compared with a wind tunnel experiment for validation. The standard k-epsilon model is used for turbulence simulation. Several cases are numerically simulated, considering various velocities, wind directions, and temperature differences. Results indicate that the studied parameters could be ranked as velocity, building orientation, and temperature difference in the order of effectiveness. All of the correlations used in EnergyPlus software for the exterior surface of the building are compared with the presented correlation and simulated data. The comparison shows that the proposed expression could predict CHTC for various angles, velocities, and temperature differences with an error of below 3%.
The aerodynamic performance of a deployable and low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is investigated and improved in present work. The parameters of configuration, such as airfoil and winglet, are determined via an optimising process based on a discrete adjoint method. The optimised target is locked on an increasing lift-to-drag ratio with a limited variation of pitching moments. The separation that will lead to a stall is delayed after optimisation. Up to 128 design variables are used by the optimised solver to give enough flexibility of the geometrical transformation. As much as 20% enhancement of lift-to-drag ratio is gained at the cruise angle-of-attack, that is, a significant improvement in the lift-to-drag ratio adhering to the preferred configuration is obtained with increasing lift and decreasing drag coefficients, essentially entailing an improved aerodynamic performance.
To quantify sales trends for key energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods and beverages over 5 years in Australia.
The Euromonitor Global Market Information Database and linear regression models were used to estimate average annual change in sales per capita of thirteen EDNP food categories and two EDNP beverage categories (defined using Australian Dietary Guidelines) over 5 years (2012–2017 for foods and 2011–2016 for beverages). The average annual change in sales was divided by the observed sales in 2012 (foods) or 2011 (beverages) to estimate the average percentage-change in sales per capita per annum.
All major retail outlets in Australia.
Euromonitor Global Market Information Database sales data.
Between 2012 and 2017, sales per capita per annum of frozen pizza (6 %), pastries (5 %), potato chips (crisps) (5 %), tortilla chips (3 %), chocolate confectionery (2 %), frozen processed potatoes (2 %), ice cream (2 %) and sugar confectionery (0·2 %) increased. There were no changes in sales of sweet biscuits, chocolate spreads and cakes, and sales of savoury biscuits and processed meat decreased (–2 and –1 %, respectively). Between 2011 and 2016, sales per capita per annum of sports and energy drinks increased (4 %), sales of regular (sugar-sweetened) cola (–6 %) and all non-cola soft drinks (–1 %) decreased and sales of diet cola did not change.
Sales of EDNP foods and beverages generally increased or remained stable relative to population growth. Our results demonstrate the need for public health policies to reduce sales of EDNP foods and beverages.
In São Paulo, Brazil, the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (CoViD-19) was confirmed on 26 February, the first death due to CoViD-19 was registered on 16 March, and on 24 March, São Paulo implemented the isolation of persons in non-essential activities. A mathematical model was formulated based on non-linear ordinary differential equations considering young (60 years old or less) and elder (60 years old or more) subpopulations, aiming to describe the introduction and dissemination of the new coronavirus in São Paulo. This deterministic model used the data collected from São Paulo to estimate the model parameters, obtaining R0 = 6.8 for the basic reproduction number. The model also allowed to estimate that 50% of the population of São Paulo was in isolation, which permitted to describe the current epidemiological status. The goal of isolation implemented in São Paulo to control the rapid increase of the new coronavirus epidemic was partially succeeded, concluding that if isolation of at least 80% of the population had been implemented, the collapse in the health care system could be avoided. Nevertheless, the isolated persons must be released one day. Based on this model, we studied the potential epidemiological scenarios of release by varying the proportions of the release of young and elder persons. We also evaluated three different strategies of release: All isolated persons are released simultaneously, two and three releases divided in equal proportions. The better scenarios occurred when young persons are released, but maintaining elder persons isolated for a while. When compared with the epidemic without isolation, all strategies of release did not attain the goal of reducing substantially the number of hospitalisations due to severe CoViD-19. Hence, we concluded that the best decision must be postponing the beginning of the release.
After the long investigations presented in Chapters 8–11, we will be able to collect various lessons and thereby gain a grand picture of how the SM faces the data in 2019. In particular it will be important to collect possible deviations from its predictions, which these days carry the name of anomalies. This will show us that indeed the SM has significant difficulties in describing all the flavor data simultaneously. Not all of these anomalies are still fully convincing because of theoretical and experimental uncertainties, but they give us strong motivations for making an important step toward the identification of N,P which could be responsible for them.
We obtain several norm and eigenvalue inequalities for positive matrices partitioned into four blocks. The results involve the numerical range
of the off-diagonal block
, especially the distance
. A special consequence is an estimate,
In the domain of optical engineering, optomechatronic systems are predominantly developed using conventional ray tracing methods such as sequential and non-sequential ray tracing. However, the increasing complexity of these systems in combination with the demand for high efficiency and high image quality leads to the fact that conventional methods to develop these systems reach their limits. In order to be able to develop highly efficient systems with high image quality, this contribution introduces a hybrid ray tracing method using an advanced optimization function.
Electromagnetic scattering from the sea surface is of great significance in radar detection, target recognition, ocean remote sensing, etc. By introducing the action spectrum, the modified spatio-temporal variation wave spectrum is used to establish a nonlinear sea surface with currents in this paper. Traditional capillary wave modification facet scattering model (CWMFSM) can only calculate the backscattering from the wind-driven sea surface. By using the new spatio-temporal variation wave spectrum to modify the scattering amplitude of every facet, the new CWMFSM can be used to calculate the nonlinear sea surface scattering with surface currents. Therefore, the model simultaneously considers the modulation of sea surface wind and currents to the radar back echo. The dependence of backscattering coefficient from nonlinear sea surface on the incident angle and the polarization are discussed. The results verify that the nonlinear model is more consistent with the measurement data. This paper also investigates the Doppler spectrum characteristics of the sea with currents. It is found that the effect of wave–current interaction on Doppler spectra is weaker than that of wave–wave interaction. The SAR images of nonlinear sea surfaces are also simulated and different bands, polarizations, and baseline length effects on sea current detection performance of along-track interference SAR are analyzed.
We present SimSpin, a new, public, software framework for generating integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data cubes from N-body/hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies, which can be compared directly with observational datasets. SimSpin provides a consistent method for studying a galaxy’s stellar component. It can be used to explore how observationally inferred measurements of kinematics, such as the spin parameter
, are impacted by the effects of, for example, inclination, seeing conditions, distance. SimSpin is written in R and has been designed to be highly modular, flexible, and extensible. It is already being used by the astrophysics community to generate IFS-like cubes and FITS files for direct comparison of simulations to observations. In this paper, we explain the conceptual framework of SimSpin; how it is implemented in R; and we demonstrate SimSpin’s current capabilities, providing as an example a brief investigation of how numerical resolution affects how reliably we can recover the intrinsic stellar kinematics of a simulated galaxy.
This study investigated the comprehension of plural morphosyntactic markers and its relationship with numerical comparison abilities in children with Down syndrome (DS). It evaluated 16 Spanish-speaking children with DS (mean verbal mental age = 3;6) and 16 typically developing children with similar receptive vocabulary (mean chronological age = 3;5). Children participated in two preferential looking tasks assessing their abilities to map singular and plural markers to their visual referents and to distinguish one object from more than one. Results showed that both groups of children correctly mapped plural markers to their referents but failed to map singular ones. Furthermore, results also indicated that both groups also looked at collections of more than one object with four objects but not at those with two. The eye movement patterns of children who looked at collections of more than one object suggest a counting-like strategy. These results indicate that comprehension of plural markers of children with DS is similar to that of their typically developing peers; however, it is not related to their numerical abilities.
The majority of physics problems are impossible to solve by analytic means. Various strategies have been developed to cope with the highly non-linear nature of many of these problems. Dimensional analysis provides a powerful tool for addressing many complex problems, suggesting the form the solutions must have. Examples include the non-linear pendulum, explosions, flow at high Reynolds number and the law of corresponding states. The study of chaotic phenomena became feasible with the development of high speed computers and revealed regularities despite the apparent unpredictability of the systems. Scaling laws for extremely complex and non-linear problems lead to the concept of self-organised criticality, illustrated by the model computations for rice and sand piles.
Upcoming VLBI observations will resolve nearby supermassive black holes, most notably Sagittarius A* and M87, on event horizon-scales. Recent observations of Sagittarius A* with the Event Horizon Telescope have revealed horizon-scale structure. Accordingly, the detection and measurement of the back hole “shadow” is expected to enable the existence of astrophysical black holes to be verified directly. Although the theoretical description of the shadow is straightforward, its observational appearance is largely determined by the properties of the surrounding accretion flow, which is highly turbulent. We introduce a new polarised general-relativistic radiative transfer code, BHOSS, which accurately solves the equations of polarised radiative transfer in arbitrary strong-gravity environments, providing physically-realistic images of astrophysical black holes on event horizon-scales, as well as also providing insight into the fundamental properties and nature of the surrounding accretion flow environment.
To get predictions from theoretical models of complex mechanical systems, the numerical tools are essential, as very few results can be obtained using analytical methods, especially when large deformations are involved. Variational methods are the preferred (or probably the most powerful) tool to formulate the numerical codes to be used, also in the study of metamaterials. A presentation focused on some aspects of numerical techniques, relevant to the considered class of problems, is presented.
This chapter can be used as a six week “lab" component to a mathematical methods course, one section each week. The chapter is relatively self-contained, and consists of numerical methods that complement the analytic solutions found in the rest of the book. There are methods for solving ODE problems (both in initial and boundary value form) approximating integrals, and finding roots. There is also a discussion of the eigenvalue problem in the context of approximate solutions in quantum mechanics and a section on the discrete Fourier transform.
In this study, a peridynamic material model for a polycrystalline ice is utilised to investigate its fracture behaviour under dynamic loading condition. First, the material model was validated by considering a single grain, double grains and polycrystalline structure under tension loading condition. Peridynamic results are compared against finite element analysis results without allowing failure. After validating the material model, dynamic analysis of a polycrystalline ice material with two pre-existing cracks under tension loading is performed by considering weak and strong grain boundaries with respect to grain interiors. Numerical results show that the effect of microstructure is significant for weak grain boundaries. On the other hand, for strong grain boundaries, the effect of microstructure is insignificant. The evaluated results have demonstrated that peridynamics can be a very good alternative numerical tool for fracture analysis of polycrystalline ice material.
The airborne radomes have to cater superior electromagnetic (EM) performance with bandpass characteristics of stealth application. In this regard, a hybrid A-sandwich radome is proposed in this paper. The proposed radome consists of a novel strongly coupled frequency selective surface (FSS) core sandwiched between two dielectric layers (acts as skin) to form an A-sandwich structure. The dielectric layers are cascaded in such a way that the middle layer has less dielectric parameters than the skin dielectric. The core layer comprises a modified FSS array using strongly coupled FSS layers through a series of metallic vias. This strongly-coupled FSS element will have the advantage of eliminating inter-element interference and improves the EM performance characteristics of the structure. The structure exhibits very good band-pass characteristics (>90%) at a normal impinging angle with sharp roll-off characteristics. To show the efficacy of the proposed structure, the transmission loss has been compared with that of conventional A-sandwich radomes at 0°, 50° incidence angle for both TE and TM polarization. Conformal analysis of the unit cell has been carried out, and sector-wise thickness optimization was performed to analyze the structure for the conformal shaped radome application. Finally, a physical prototype has been fabricated and measured its scattering parameters, radiation characteristics in a fully shielded anechoic chamber. The results are encouraging and prove its suitability for radome application.
In many cases, the quantitative spectroscopy of early-type stars requires to account for their line-driven winds, and theoretical models of such winds are based on a consistent calculation of the radiative line acceleration. Both topics ask for a thorough understanding of radiative transfer in expanding atmospheres. In this chapter, we concentrate on three issues, and compare, when possible, with corresponding results forplane-parallel, hydrostatic conditions: First, we investigate how sphericity alone affects the radiation field in those cases where Doppler shifts can be neglected (continua). Subsequently, we consider the impact of velocity fields on the line transfer, both by applying the so-called Sobolev approximation,and by presenting the more exact comoving-frame approach. Restrictions and extensions of both methods are discussed. Finally, we concentrate on the coupling between radiation field and occupation numbers via the NLTE rate equations. We illustrate the basic problem within the conventional Lambda Iteration, which is then solved by means of the so-called Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI), and by a "preconditioning" of the rate equations.
This chapter considers a selection of numerical methods developed since 1960s for solving radiative transfer (RT) problems in stellar atmospheres and in all other diluted media where non-LTE effects are important. Special emphasis is put on the solution of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) when the source function is given, because its so-called formal solution constitutes a necessary step in any iterative procedure for the solution of more general RT problems. The application of different methods to the spectral line formation the line(s) radiation field and the statistical equilibrium (SE) equation(s) for the atomic-level populations involved is discussed for both linear and nonlinear problems.
A description is given of stellar atmosphere codes – both codes for calculating the structure of the stellar atmosphere (i.e., including an energy equation) and codes for calculating the emergent spectrum from a given atmospheric structure. Emphasis has been given to codes that are either publicly available or in wide use by a large community. References are given for detailed code descriptions and for typical applications of the codes.