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With the course of jazz profoundly influenced by the events of the previous decade, examines the 1970s, a time of new growth and innovation in jazz in the GDR. During these years East German cultural critics viewed American free jazz (as exemplified by Ornette Coleman) as an expression of social revolution in the United States, reading it as music protesting grievances and echoing class warfare. By contrast, however, jazz “made in the GDR” became emblematic of an art form in harmony with socialist society. Yet this harmonization was not perfect. This chapter explores how jazz retained its countercultural aspect, despite its incorporation into state culture and its subsequent flourishing, as well as how STASI surveillance of jazz increased given growing traffic between East and West. At various live jazz events in the 1970s, fans described an oppositional atmosphere, revealing a more ambiguous dynamic between individual and state than official proclamations might indicate. In the era of Ostpolitik, performers and audiences found subtle ways to critique the socialist state, even as East German diplomats recruited jazz to showcase socialist Germany on the global stage.
Light musical theatre first appeared in Greece during the second half of the nineteenth century in the form of French operetta and vaudeville, bringing new morals that scandalized the nouveau-bourgeois society of Athens and divided the public into ‘Europeanists’ and ‘conservatives’. At the dawn of the twentieth century, Viennese operetta introduced light musical theatre, which thrilled Athenian audiences and represented the ‘imperial dream’ of the inhabitants of a small country on the fringes of Europe. Operetta inspired the creation of Greek musical theatre companies from the early twentieth century and became popular for tours of the south-eastern Mediterranean. This phase ended with the production of plays and performances of Greek operetta during the interwar period. This chapter offers a multi-sided approach to the expansion of operetta in Greek-speaking areas, which brought with it a renovation of the Modern Greek theatrical stage and life, invigorating it with a new repertoire and forming a new theatrical tradition. New operettas provided the frame for Greece’s twofold musical identity: Western and Oriental. Operetta served as a social melting pot between ‘high’ and ‘popular’ musical creation and was the source of many well-known songs
This chapter provides the reader with a succinct review surround the issues with uncontrolled pain and provides methods for non-pharmacologic treatment in children. The chapter discusses the sequalae of untreated pain and provides the reader with a detailed explanation of the theory behind distraction techniques. The various distraction techniques are discussed based on age appropriate selection.
The history of operetta in Italy is inextricably entangled with discourses about the status of Italian opera and the formation of an Italian national identity. In the 1860s, it was Offenbach, Hervé and Lecocq that conquered the Italian stages, then, later, the ‘Viennese’ imports of Suppé, Strauss Jr and Lehár. Italian operettas based on parodies of foreign works and combining elements of dialect and couleur locale flourished at this time but struggled to undermine both the foreign monopoly and the time-honoured tradition of opera buffa. The relationship between operetta and Italian opera – not only buffa but also seria – was central also to critical discourses about the rise of the Italian bourgeois, becoming closely intertwined with questions on the position of musical theatre between entertainment and art. Inevitably, discussions of operetta also took strong nationalistic undertones in a country that was struggling to find a unifying national identity and that recognized operetta as a foreign import that could contaminate opera or illegitimately undermine its primacy on Italian stages. The extraordinary success of La vedova allegra in Milan in 1907 and the growing political tensions between Italy and Austria-Hungary in ensuing years sparked new interest in the creation of a national operetta.
This study examined the nature of inclusion for female and black and minority ethnic (BME) young people in elite-level classical music in England. By contrasting the numbers of female and BME students taking part in elite youth orchestras and music schools with the representation of female and BME compositions in the professional classical music repertoire, the study asked whether female and BME inclusion was limited to participation as performers or whether it included adequate representation in terms of the music performed. The survey analysed 4897 pieces from 681 composers drawn from the 2017/18 concert seasons of 10 major English orchestras, 1 week’s play lists from two classical music radio broadcasters and the programmes from the last four London Promenade seasons. The study found that female and BME students were well represented in elite music education, but they were very poorly represented in the professional repertoire, where 99% of performed pieces were by white composers and 98% by male composers. Applying Bourdieu’s concepts of doxa and illusio, the study concluded that inclusion in classical music in England allowed female and BME musicians to play, but structures in the field maintained a repertoire that continues to be white and male and does not recognise the contributions of female and BME composers. This suggests that inclusion for female and BME musicians is limited and the field continues to promote white and male dominance in its cultural values.
Popular music offers a rich source of data that provides insights into long-term cultural evolutionary dynamics. One major trend in popular music, as well as other cultural products such as literary fiction, is an increase over time in negatively valenced emotional content, and a decrease in positively valenced emotional content. Here we use two large datasets containing lyrics from n = 4913 and n = 159,015 pop songs respectively and spanning 1965–2015, to test whether cultural transmission biases derived from the cultural evolution literature can explain this trend towards emotional negativity. We find some evidence of content bias (negative lyrics do better in the charts), prestige bias (best-selling artists are copied) and success bias (best-selling songs are copied) in the proliferation of negative lyrics. However, the effects of prestige and success bias largely disappear when unbiased transmission is included in the models, which assumes that the occurrence of negative lyrics is predicted by their past frequency. We conclude that the proliferation of negative song lyrics may be explained partly by content bias, and partly by undirected, unbiased cultural transmission.
The music-theatrical benefit is an open acknowledgement of the role that audiences play in the economy of the musical and theatrical worlds. Ostensibly put on as a means to provide performers or other playhouse personnel with a direct reward from audiences, the occasions also serve as a means for performers to reward audiences for their attentiveness, fidelity, and participation throughout the season. To conceive of benefits without audiences is as impossible as it is to conceive of them without performers. As part of the panoply of patronal relationships common before and during the long eighteenth century, the benefit is still with us and plays the same role, notwithstanding the variety of ways in which we chose to cloak it these days. By examining the structure of who, when, where, how much, and how often, through examination of original archival materials, published correspondence, commentary in the London Stage volumes, and other sources, including both straightforward and satirical portrayals in poems, novels, plays, and cartoons, I examine the ecology of the benefit to reveal its extent, its boundaries, and its value.
The practice of granting benefit evenings to theatre personnel became established in the late 1690s as a device for making up salaries that the two struggling companies could not afford to pay in full, but by 1720 a benefit evening had regularized into a standard element of a performer’s contract. Before the advent of London’s first daily newspaper, The Daily Courant, in March 1702, information about benefits is frustratingly scrappy. However, by early 1704 both companies were placing regular daily advertisements that increasingly included the entertainments of singing, dancing, and instrumental music that were offered on benefit nights. This chapter will look at the whole range of musical entertainments in benefits for actors and actresses as well as in those for specialist singers and dancers, and will consider to what extent the benefits reflected the personalities and circumstances of the beneficiaries.
Subscription series were a relatively late development in North-east England (in the late 1720s and early 1730s) and the first known concerts in the region were almost all benefits given by visitors to the area. This paper looks at the different types of benefits in the North-east during the eighteenth century, the similarities and differences between benefits in the region and elsewhere in England, and the advantages and disadvantages of holding such concerts.
This chapter considers how professional singers used benefit concerts to facilitate their exposure and to establish their reputations between 1703 and 1729 – years inclusive of the earliest Italian opera performances in England through the Royal Academy of Music. First, it will document the patterns and conventions apparent in benefits given by professional Italian and English singers, emphasizing the different kinds of concerts and opera benefits, the pros and cons of each, and the ways in which these events were tailored to fit the singers. For the bulk of the chapter, I will focus on three clear motivations behind concert benefits for singers of Italian opera. My survey of advertisements shows that singers used these special performances in order (1) to collaborate within a network of professional musicians; (2) to create and promote their individual celebrity; and (3)to construct and respond to particular narratives about contemporary musical taste.
The benefit concert was an offshoot of the Restoration tradition whereby an individual or group of individuals would receive the proceeds from one night’s performance in the playhouse. Musical entertainments were added as bait to increase attendance. Starting in the 1690s, the benefit concert flourished with the proliferation of dedicated concert spaces (York Buildings) as well as repurposed onces (Hickford’s Dancing School and Stationers’ Hall). In this essay, I will show the significant role English composers and their music played in these benefit concerts from the 1690s to 1714. Through an examination of newspaper advertisements and other suriving sources I will reconstruct the repertory for these benefits, demonstrating the continued importance of native music and musicians even as foreign composers and performers flooded the market.
The benefit concert in early eighteenth-century London is traditionally associated with professional singers and vocal music, but it has equal importance for instrumental music and the Italian concerto in particular – a genre whose success in Britain preceded that of opera seria. As with opera seria it was Continental composers and performers working in London who were the driving force behind the performances of concertos at benefit concerts. The new Italian concerto sought to rival the da capo aria in musical, physical, and aural experiences – a situation unique to Britain at the time. The rise in status of the concerto is also reflected in changes to the language of benefit advertisements. By the 1720s, rather than the earlier and more generic mention of ‘instrumental music’, readers now expected to know the composers and soloists of any concertos presented, just as they came to expect to know the names of singers, operas and arias – a distinction not always given to other instrumental genres.
This introduction provides an overview of Music and the Benefit Performance in Eighteenth-Century Britain, first by introducing the mechanics of musical benefits in the eighteenth century, followed by a literature review of prior research into the subject. We then offer a discussion of themes that emerge throughout the book, including networking and repertories, benefits beyond London, benefits and public image, the emergence of charity benefits, and finally, the role of the audience.
Benefits were a way for performers and authors to display their talents and (hopefully) reap the benefits directly. However, the box office receipts were typically collected and counted by theatre management. Presale of tickets through subscription (often at elevated prices) and strong personal networks of fellow-performers, patrons, and supporters were key to a financially successful benefit. This essay will look at the existing practice of actors’ and authors’ benefits at the turn of the eighteenth century, with reference to specific cases where details of financial outcomes are available and illuminate its implementation over time.
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the parent as a supporter of practice during a whole-class beginner violin programme and whether it is considered most beneficial for practice to be undertaken at home, at school or in no formal manner. This mixed-methods research project involved a year-group of 31 pupils aged 6–7 years from a preparatory school in an affluent area of the south of England over a 10-week period. Two parent questionnaires were administered at the start and end of the programme and analysed together with pupil focus groups and teacher assessment. It was discovered that most pupils played at home only once a week, and this was only with parental help. Many challenges to practising at home were identified, and by the end of the programme parents considered that their children could have made as much progress without practising at home. Pupils considered the most desirable ways for their parents to support them were to watch and listen, and to play together. Parents were unsure what to do except for offering encouragement. Pupils were very clear that playing together at school was preferable to playing at home, and it was evident that finding a way to establish school practice sessions between lessons would be the most enjoyable arrangement and support the most progress.
The whole class ensemble tuition (WCET) programme in English schools is a somewhat singular and relatively recent arrival onto the teaching and learning scene. It arose from a remark made by an English politician and has grown from there into becoming a regular feature in the music education landscape in primary schools. It has elements which will be familiar to music educators in many parts of the world, whilst having some aspects which are unique to the English context. In order to place the WCET programme into perspective, this paper outlines the policy context which gave rise to it and explains what it involves and how it is operationalised in schools.