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Self-reported measures for body mass index (BMI) are considered a limitation in research design, especially when they are a primary outcome. Studies have found some populations to be quite accurate when self-reporting BMI; however, there is mixed research on the accuracy of self-reported measurements in adolescents. The aim of this study is to examine the accuracy of self-reported BMI by comparing it with measured BMI in a sample of U.S. adolescents and to understand gender differences. This cross-sectional study collected self-reported height and weight measurements of students from five high schools in four states (Tennessee, South Dakota, Kansas and Florida). Trained researchers took height and weight of students for an objective measurement. BMI was calculated from both sources and categorized (underweight, normal, overweight and obese) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI-for-age percentiles. Participants (n 425; 51⋅0 % female) had a mean age of 16⋅3 years old, and the majority were White (47⋅5 %). Limits of agreement (LOA) analysis revealed that BMI and weight were underreported, and height was overreported in the overall sample, in females, and in males. LOA analysis was fair for BMI in all three groups. Overall agreement in BMI categorisation was considered substantial (Κ 0⋅71, P < 0⋅001). As BMI increased, more height and weight inaccuracies led to decreased accuracy in BMI categorisation, and the specificity of obese participants was low (50⋅0 %). This study's findings suggest that using self-reported values to categorize BMI is more accurate than using continuous BMI values when self-reported measures are used in health-related interventions.
Sexual assault, including unwanted sexual contact, coercion, and rape, is a social phenomenon that has been approached in a variety of ways in different global contexts. Attempts to address risk and protective factors for perpetrators and victims are limited by the difficulty of collecting empirical data on experiences that can be traumatic, stigmatizing, complicated, and private. This chapter explores current and historic definitions of sexual assault as well as how these definitions influence estimates of sexual assault prevalence and subsequent psychological and public health responses. We describe best practices in sexual assault measurement, explore the need for culturally acceptable interventions that acknowledge intersections of identity, critique current victim response services, and finally provide recommendations for future directions in sexual assault prevention and response.
Sexual assault, including unwanted sexual contact, coercion, and rape, are both criminal and traumatic. They are approached in a variety of ways in different global contexts. Attempts to address risk and protective factors for perpetrators and victims are limited by the difficulty of collecting empirical data on experiences that can be stigmatizing, complicated, shocking, and private. This chapter takes a global intersectional focus and explores current and historic definitions of sexual assault as well as how they influence estimates of sexual assault prevalence and subsequent psychological and public health responses. Empirical research is selectively reviewed to identify best practices in sexual assault measurement, prevalence, risk factors, and impact. Then interventions and prevention are addressed with emphasis on culturally acceptable and empirically validated approaches that acknowledge intersections of identity viewed from individual through societal levels. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future directions in sexual assault surveillance, prevention, and response.
This paper proposes a novel measure of civic norm compliance. We combine the literature on norm compliance from institutional economics and social philosophy. Institutional economics draws on survey data to measure civic norms, whereas social philosophy offers a theoretical framework that proves fruitful when used to operationalize civic norms. This paper shows that significantly different results emerge when the operationalization of civic norms in institutional economics draws on the theoretical framework that social philosophy offers. Furthermore, this study is relevant for social philosophy too, as it shows the potential of survey data as a test-bed for philosophical theories of norm compliance.
Taves examines some approaches from the psychology of religion to religious experience, focusing on the psychology of religion as represented by researchers associated with the International Association for the Psychology of Religion and the American Psychological Association’s Division 36. She suggests that psychology of religion can treat its subject matter of religious experience as an object in its own right or as something related to another important state, such as depression.
The development of the fetal movement acceleration measurement (FMAM) recorder has enabled the accurate counting of gross fetal movements. The aim of the study was to investigate whether gross fetal movement is related to a newborn’s size. A total of 90 pregnant women who delivered singleton infant at term were recruited. Gross fetal movements were counted using an FMAM recorder during maternal sleep. The ratio of movement positive 10-s epochs to all epochs during one night was calculated as an index of fetal movement. Independent explanatory variables for the fetal movement index were selected from eight possibilities, that is, maternal age, gestational week, and the six physical measures of the newborn (height, weight, head circumference, chest circumference, Kaup index, and the ratio of head to chest circumference) with the stepwise regression procedure. The selected physical variables and the fetal movement index were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. A total of 2812.95 h from 423 night records were available. Gestational weeks and weight of the newborn were selected as the significant independent variables. Multiple regression analysis revealed that newborn weight had a positive correlation with the fetal movement index (p < 0.0001). The multiple regression equation was “The fetal movement index (%) = 34.9989−0.9088 × gestational weeks + 0.0033 × newborn weight (g).” A person’s physical ability and lifetime activity level may originate from fetal health. This study may provide a new way of looking at the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease theory.
The extent to which citizens comply with newly-enacted public health measures such as social distancing or lockdowns strongly affects the propagation of the virus and the number of deaths from COVID-19. It is however very difficult to identify non-compliance through survey research because claiming to follow the rules is socially desirable. Using three survey experiments, we examine the efficacy of different “face-saving” questions that aim to reduce social desirability in the measurement of compliance with public health measures. Our treatments soften the social norm of compliance by way of a short preamble in combination with a guilty-free answer choice making it easier for respondents to admit non-compliance. We find that self-reported non-compliance increases by up to +11 percentage points when making use of a face-saving question. Considering the current context and the importance of measuring non-compliance, we argue that researchers around the world should adopt our most efficient face-saving question.
This report describes the evaluation of the psychometric and clinimetric properties of nine self-report measures completed by informal care partners of individuals with mild cognitive impairment or dementia in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. One hundred thirty-six care partners completed measures on relationship satisfaction, burden, stress, mood, resilience, health, quality of life, and feelings related to care provision. Psychometric properties, such as internal consistency, convergent validity, floor and ceiling effects, completion rate and data missingness, as well as clinimetric properties, such as time to administer, ease of scoring, readability and availability of the scales, were examined. Additionally, the design of the measure development studies was assessed with the 2018 COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) Risk of Bias checklist. Participants were mostly married women (>85%) with a mean age of 69.4 years. The methodological quality of the design of all measure development studies was “inadequate.” Five widely applied measures (Zarit Burden Interview, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short Form 12 Health Survey, Relatives’ Stress Scale, and EuroQoL-5D) and two less researched instruments (Brief Resilience Scale and Relationship Satisfaction Scale) had high internal consistency and completion rates, moderate to strong convergent validity, low missingness and floor effects, and excellent clinical utility ratings. Two scales (Dyadic Relationship Scale and Family Caregiving Role) received poor psychometric ratings, and their usage among informal care partners is not recommended. In conclusion, well-validated and widely used measures received strong psychometric and clinimetric ratings. Future studies are required to determine the most reliable, valid and robust caregiver-reported measures.
Measuring racial animus is quite difficult in an era where explicit racism is still deemed socially unacceptable. This chapter shows that existing measures of racism toward Latinos fail to capture the full extent of animosity toward the group and limits our understanding of how White animus toward Latinos shapes American politics. It provides a wide range of both focus group and survey data to document how White’s commonly express animus about Latinos in everyday discourse. Evidence is provided that shows that this form of animus represents a coherent belief system that is distinct from other beliefs such as political ideology, a preference for Anglo-American culture, ethnocentrism, and old-fashioned racial stereotypes. The connection between this belief system and concerns about race is then established.
The media's ability to freely gather and disseminate information remains a critical aspect of democracy. Studies link media freedom to other concepts including human rights, corruption, democratic peace and conflict, natural resource wealth, political knowledge and foreign aid. However, media freedom's many facets make it difficult for any single index to fully capture. To develop a more robust measure, this article treats media freedom as a latent variable and analyzes ten extant indicators by fitting an item response theory model. Utilizing a Bayesian approach, the model generates time-series, cross-sectional data on a bounded, unidimensional scale from 0 to 1 that measures media freedom in 197 countries from 1948 to 2017. After numerous validity checks, the authors utilize their new Media System Freedom data to replicate Egorov, Guriev and Sonin's (2009) analysis of media freedom and natural resource wealth. The findings indicate that the published results do not hold once the more robust measure is included.
Visual imagery can be advantageous in much of cognition, unnecessary (aphantasia), to clinically disruptive (PTSD). It allows us to disconnect our senses from reality and test out virtual combinations of sensory experience. With many methodological constraints now overcome, research has shown that visual imagery involves a network of brain areas from frontal cortex to sensory areas and it can function much like a weak version of afferent perception. Imagery vividness and strength range from completely absent (aphantasia) to photo-like (hyperphantasia). Both the anatomy and function of the primary visual cortex are related to visual imagery. The use of imagery as a tool has been linked to a many superordinate compound cognitive processes. Imagery plays both symptomatic and mechanistic roles in neurological and mental disorders, and some of their treatments. Although many unanswered questions remain, we now have multiple objective methods to investigate imagery, and hence shed light not just on imagery, but on the many reliant cognitive processes
The aim of this study is to develop an integrated definition and a conceptual model covering the dimensions of disaster literacy.
A systematic literature review was conducted to identify the definitions and conceptual frameworks of disaster literacy. The content analysis of definitions and conceptual frameworks were conducted to identify the central dimensions of disaster literacy and to develop an integrated model.
In this study, 8 disaster literacy definitions and 4 conceptual model studies related to disasters were found. In line with these studies, a comprehensive definition of disaster literacy was presented. In addition, based on content analysis, a 16-matrix integrative conceptual model of the mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery dimensions of disaster literacy, and the access, understanding, appraisal, and application areas of disaster information processing were developed.
In this study, a comprehensive definition and conceptual framework of disaster literacy were presented in an integrated model. By using this model, practices that are special to the phases of a disaster can be identified and supported in society. In addition, the model can contribute to empirical studies by providing the basis for the development of tools to measure disaster literacy.
Accurate near-field measurements for either deterministic or stochastic electromagnetic fields characterization require a relevant process that removes the influence of the probes, transmission lines, and measurement circuits. The main part of the experimental work presented here is related to a calibration procedure of a test setup consisting of a microstrip test structure and a scanning loop probe. The calibration characteristic, obtained by comparing measured and simulated results, is then used to convert the measured voltage into the magnetic field across and along the microstrip line at the specific height above it. By performing the measurements and simulations of the same test structure with the loop probe in the presence of an additional scanning probe, the influence of the additional probe to the measured output is thoroughly investigated and relevant corrections are given. These corrections can be important when two-point correlation measurement is required, especially in scanning points when two probes are mutually close.
In Chapter 2, we review prior work on scale, discuss obstacles to reaching inferences about the causal role of scale, and lay out our own approach to this difficult question. After surveying extent work on community size and related subjects, we discuss the concept of a political community, which may be of several sorts and of any size. In the third section, we lay out the measurement of community scale, explaining that we transform population from a linear measure into a logarithmic measure. In the fourth section, we consider the difficulty of treating scale as a causal factor. This is a complicated issue, given that the population of political communities is a slow-moving cause, not directly manipulable, and rarely subject to as-if random perturbations. As such, it falls far from the gold standard of experimental research designs. The fifth section lays out the modeling strategies employed in quantitative analyses to follow. The sixth section discusses various outcomes of theoretical interest, and the final section introduces the data sources that we rely on to measure right- and left-side variables.
My journey in the field of stress and coping began in the mid 1980s when I was researching the rather new field of childhood depression. It was a relatively under-explored field, and as a clinical and educational psychologist it was becoming increasingly apparent that there were concerns of young people, with some of these reflected in their experiences of sadness and despair. However, as I researched and measured the depression construct, I became aware of despair as a growing phenomenon, with an increased focus and emphasis on stress, anxiety and depression. In time, the statistics would bear out the concerns, as one in four young people have identified as being or are likely to be depressed in their lifetime in some Western communities like Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom (WHO, 2018). Given the growing ‘ill health’ of our Western communities, something had to change. In the 1980s, young people were concerned about their future with the fear of nuclear war. As I was writing this invited retrospective in late 2019, there were widespread concerns about global warming, and in the first half of 2020 concerns arising from the pandemic of COVID-19 are dominating. Coping theory research and practice can make a significant contribution to how we cope with our world in general and the specifics of our lives in particular. This article reports a body of work in the field of coping to illustrate the value of the core constructs and their applications in diverse settings providing opportunities for helpful adaptation and development in the face of whatever circumstances arise.
Immobilization of the cervical spine by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel is a standard procedure. In most EMS, multiple immobilization tools are available.
The aim of this study is the analysis of residual spine motion under different types of cervical spine immobilization.
In this explorative biomechanical study, different immobilization techniques were performed on three healthy subjects. The test subjects’ heads were then passively moved to cause standardized spinal motion. The primary endpoints were the remaining range of motion for flexion, extension, bending, and rotation measured with a wireless human motion detector.
In the case of immobilization of the test person (TP) on a straight (0°) vacuum mattress, the remaining rotation of the cervical spine could be reduced from 7° to 3° by additional headblocks. Also, the remaining flexion and extension were reduced from 14° to 3° and from 15° to 6°, respectively. The subjects’ immobilization was best on a spine board using a headlock system and the Spider Strap belt system (MIH-Medical; Georgsmarienhütte, Germany). However, the remaining cervical spine extension increased from 1° to 9° if a Speedclip belt system was used (Laerdal; Stavanger, Norway). The additional use of a cervical collar was not advantageous in reducing cervical spine movement with a spine board or vacuum mattress.
The remaining movement of the cervical spine is minimal when the patient is immobilized on a spine board with a headlock system and a Spider Strap harness system or on a vacuum mattress with additional headblocks. The remaining movement of the cervical spine could not be reduced by the additional use of a cervical collar.
Across disciplines, scholars strive to better understand individuals’ milieus—the people, places, and institutions individuals encounter in their daily lives. In particular, political scientists argue that racial and ethnic context shapes attitudes about candidates, policies, and fellow citizens. Yet, the current standard of measuring milieus is to place survey respondents in a geographic container and then to ascribe all that container's characteristics to the individual's milieu. Using a new dataset of over 2.6 million GPS records from over 400 individuals, we compare conventional static measures of racial and ethnic context to dynamic, precise measures of milieus. We demonstrate how low-level static measures tend to overstate how extreme individuals’ racial and ethnic contexts are and offer suggestions for future researchers.
Psychological resilience – positive psychological adaptation in the context of adversity – is defined and measured in multiple ways across disciplines. However, little is known about whether definitions capture the same underlying construct and/or share similar correlates. This study examined the congruence of different resilience measures and associations with sociodemographic factors and body mass index (BMI), a key health indicator.
In a cross-sectional sample of 1429 African American adults exposed to child maltreatment, we derived four resilience measures: a self-report scale assessing resiliency (perceived trait resilience); a binary variable defining resilience as low depression and posttraumatic stress (absence of distress); a binary variable defining resilience as low distress and high positive affect (absence of distress plus positive functioning); and a continuous variable reflecting individuals' deviation from distress levels predicted by maltreatment severity (relative resilience). Associations between resilience measures, sociodemographic factors, and BMI were assessed using correlations and regressions.
Resilience measures were weakly-to-moderately correlated (0.27–0.69), though similarly patterned across sociodemographic factors. Women showed higher relative resilience, but lower perceived trait resilience than men. Only measures incorporating positive affect or resiliency perceptions were associated with BMI: individuals classified as resilient by absence of distress plus positive functioning had lower BMI than non-resilient (β = −2.10, p = 0.026), as did those with higher perceived trait resilience (β = −0.63, p = 0.046).
Relatively low congruence between resilience measures suggests studies will yield divergent findings about predictors, prevalence, and consequences of resilience. Efforts to clearly define resilience are needed to better understand resilience and inform intervention and prevention efforts.
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is an imaging modality that has been used to predict the computed tomography (CT)-determined carcass composition of multiple species, including sheep and pigs, with minimal inaccuracies, using medical grade DEXA scanners. An online DEXA scanner in an Australian abattoir has shown that a high level of precision can be achieved when predicting lamb carcass composition in real time. This study investigated the accuracy of that same online DEXA when predicting fat and lean percentages as determined by CT over a wide range of phenotypic and genotypic variables across 454 lambs over 6 kill groups and contrasted these results against the current Australian industry standard of grade-rule (GR) measurements to grade carcasses. Lamb carcasses were DEXA scanned and then CT scanned to determine CT Fat % and CT Lean %. All phenotypic traits and genotypic information, including Australian Sheep Breeding Values, were recorded for each carcass. Residuals of the DEXA predicted CT Fat % and Lean %, and the actual CT Fat % and Lean % were calculated and tested against all phenotypic and genotypic variables. Excellent overall precision was recorded when predicting CT Fat % (R2 = 0.91, RMSE = 1.19%). Small biases present for sire breed, sire type, dam breed, hot carcass weight and c-site eye muscle area could be explained by a regression paradox; however, biases among kill group (−0.73% to 1.01% for CT Fat %, −1.48% to 0.76% for CT Lean %) and the Merino sire type (0.36% for CT Fat %, −0.73% for CT Lean %) could not be explained by this effect. Over the large range of phenotypic and genotypic variation, there was excellent precision when predicting CT Fat % and CT Lean % by an online DEXA, with only minor biases, showing superiority to the existing Australian standard of GR measurements.
Although Dawood, Wu, Bliton, and Pincus (this volume) generally describe narcissistic personality pathology, and NPD in particular, in a reasonable and thoughtful way that aligns with our own perspective, the authors’ treatment of narcissism as a largely monolithic and unified construct contributes towards obscuring three important and longstanding methodological issues in the literature. First, variability in the measurement of NPD makes conclusions about the functioning of NPD, broadly defined, vulnerable to error. Second, variability in vulnerable content contained in measures of NPD is likely to be exerting a biasing effect on the strength of internalizing correlates of NPD (e.g., suicidality). Third, the prevalence of small samples containing high levels of vulnerable features may bias researchers toward stronger relations between NPD and internalizing correlates. Overall, the authors urge researchers to empirically resolve disagreements about the structure and process of narcissistic personality pathology in order to move the field towards more precise definition and measurement, and greater scientific confidence in conclusions related to narcissism’s nomological network.