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The UN system has evolved over three-quarters of a century to take on many new problems since 1945 and to address many of the critical risks that have emerged. Conventions have been negotiated and signed, specialized agencies created, and programs and structures established within the UN Secretariat. With globalization, these multiple problems have become increasingly interrelated, leading to new vulnerabilities at the global level, with threats of systemic collapse. Specialization needs to be balanced by increased integration. A strengthened UN system with legislative capacity would be able to build on this important capacity to coordinate, combine and help these many entities to evolve into a more efficient and coherent system. The Sustainable Development Goals provide the latest globally accepted definition of sustainable development and a useful framework for the scope of the required international governance. The goal to leave no one behind helps to focus on the needs of the poor, the marginalized, disabled, migrants and women, too often excluded from governmental responsibility. Their situation needs to be monitored with disaggregated data and addressed through shared responsibility at the multiple levels of governance. UN reform needs to build in mechanisms for flexibility and adaptability to new and emerging global risks.
The EU is an example of an orderly confidence-building process enabling governments to gradually yield elements of national prerogative to supranational institutions. Seeking to establish a foundation for greater integration to make future wars in Europe impossible, a gradual approach was adopted, starting with the European Coal and Steel Community as an area where the benefits of cooperation after the war were most obvious. Building on this, the Treaties of Rome were signed in 1957 establishing the European Economic Community. A 1978 decision of the European Court of Justice established the principle of mutual recognition of decisions in any one state among all other European states. The Single European Act of 1987 removed the requirement for unanimity in decisions, followed by the Europe 1992 program, which streamlined and then eliminated border controls. The European Parliament evolved from an advisory group of national parliamentarians to a directly elected body. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty called for a common currency and gave legal meaning to the concept of union citizenship. The 2009 Treaty of Lisbon expanded European competences, strengthening the European Parliament. There have been ups and downs, and countries advancing at different paces, yet the Union has expanded to 28 members.
In this chapter, we discuss evidence about the evolutionary forces that have shaped the evolution of the human pelvis, both in its entirety as well as portions of the pelvis, focusing on studies that have investigated pelvic evolution using experimental and quantitative genetic methods. These methods are tied to information from Chapter 4 about pelvis development, with emphasis placed on the importance of understanding the difficulty of tying development and growth with evolutionary processes. Special attention is placed on the concept of the palimpsest. Further, we review these findings in light of three principal hypotheses broadly offered about the processes that selected for pelvic shape (as reviewed in Chapters 2 and 3): locomotion, obstetric sufficiency and thermoregulation. We show from multiple studies that the human pelvis evolved in response to natural selection as well as through neutral evolutionary processes (e.g. genetic drift). A key conclusion from these studies is that parts of the pelvis evolved in different manners in response to these (and other) selection factors; thus, the shape of the human pelvis reflects a modular response to various sources of selection.
The chapter analyses how Mujuru became the first black commander of the army in independent Zimbabwe. With assistance from the British army, Mujuru oversaw the integration of a new national army comprising three undefeated forces: ZANLA, ZIPRA and the Rhodesians. While the chapter is about Mujuru’s hand in the creation of a new army, it underscores Britain’s lasting influence on part of its former empire through active assistance in processes of post-colonial state-making such as military integration. The chapter argues that regard for expertise and professionalism, however imperfect, were a hallmark of the army Mujuru attempted to create. Mujuru understood professionalism in a particular way, which is that the independence army was to be an equipped and technically competent one, with a high degree of discipline, education, military training and operational readiness. The chapter explicates the sources of Mujuru’s regard for expertise and professionalism.
This chapter presents examples from followers of these scholars within the West, but also from within Muslim majority countries, who are initiating new platforms to provide solutions to modern day challenges adopting an Islamic framework. These initiatives range from Islamic clothing chains that preserve Muslim modesty while allowing one to blend with the local tastes; protecting the environment and promoting organic farming; the launch of social spaces that connect Muslims among themselves but also with other communities; and the promotion of Islamic art and culture. The chapter ends by noting some of the challenges this movement would have to address to sustain its rapid pace of expansion.
The chapter expounds Mujuru’s legacy in the independence army. Mujuru had enormous impact on the value system of the independence army, particularly in his efforts to foster a particular kind of professionalism. However, Mujuru’s time as head of the military coincided with mutinies by and persecution of ZIPRA elements in the army, as well as ZANU PF political violence against ZAPU supporters, in which thousands of civilian lives were lost. The chapter implicates Mujuru in some of these human rights abuses. Nonetheless, the chapter argues that Mujuru’s stances during the Gukurahundi violence were far from straightforward. He protected some ZIPRAs for their expertise and professionalism and because of personal and ethnic considerations. Mujuru did not subscribe to the fanatical politics of the time. Lastly, the chapter maintains that Mujuru supported Zimbabwe’s 1980s military intervention in Mozambique, in support of the FRELIMO government’s war against a domestic rebel movement, because of solidarity ties forged in the 1970s.
This chapter focuses on the followers and students of these scholars and shows how the majority of them come from affluent and educated backgrounds. It shows why, to these Muslims, Islamic rationalism has a particular appeal. It also shows that many of them are now themselves training to become teachers, which is helping ensure that the Muslim elites once again reengage with the study of Islamic texts.
Barnett uses the 'Jewish Problem' to compare how different kinds of nationalism have offered different ways of dealing with minorities and, in turn, the strategies available to minorities who want to both retain their community and maintain their physical survival. Nineteenth-century Europe developed two different kinds of nationalism that had different responses to the minorities in their midst. Western ‘civic’ conceptions of the nation offered minorities the ability to integrate if they accepted that they were part of the civic nation. Eastern 'ethnic' nationalism could not imagine minorities such as the Jews as being a candidate for membership in the nation. In response to the opportunities offered by countries with civic nationalism, Jews 'reformed' Judaism and their Jewish identities so that it could fit into a broader Christian, liberal society. For Eastern Jews, there was no possibility of integration, forcing then to flee, turn to broader transnational movements such as socialism, or develop their own brand of Jewish nationalism, best known as Zionism.
This paper investigates the role of gender in shaping attitudes towards the European Union (EU) among young people living in Polish cities – the so-called ‘winners of European integration’. Previously, little attention has been given to gender as an influence on views on the EU. Most studies apply the gender-based perspective on Western Europe, while Central and Eastern European countries remain understudied. Based on theories on public opinion, I employ a mixed-methods approach, conducting a survey among 815 MA students living in Polish cities, followed by 27 semi-structured interviews. This analysis of gender-related attitudes towards the EU offers nuanced insights into transitions within post-communist societies. My findings posit that the sampled well-educated women are more likely to support EU integration than men. Education, gender-based individual cost-benefit analyses, and the perceptions of national politics are possible explanations for the positive attitudes towards the EU among the sampled women.
Pre-industrial money supply typically consisted of multiple, often foreign currencies. Standard economic theory implies that this entails welfare loss due to transaction costs imposed by currency exchange. Through a study of novel data on Finnish nineteenth-century parish-level currency conditions, we show that individual currencies had principal areas of circulation, with extensive co-circulation restricted to the boundary regions in between. We show that trade networks, defined here through the regional co-movement of grain prices, proved crucial in determining the currency used. Market institutions and standard price mechanisms had an apparent role in the spread of different currencies and in determining the dominant currency in a given region. Our findings provide a caveat for the widely held assumption that associates multi-currency systems with negative trade externalities.
SDG 15 requires the maintenance of life on land and endorses priorities already established through international conventions and agreements. The scale, and complexity, of tropical forest loss and biodiversity decline versus the limited resources for conservation and forestry pose many challenges. The main innovation of SDG 15 is that decision makers will see this goal as one to integrate with other SDGs; the risk is that short-term priorities and a ‘business as usual’ approach will undermine this. We examine these opportunities and challenges, the factors that impinge upon them and how they may play out over the next decade. There will be trade-offs between SDG 15 and other SDGs resulting from competition for land, but there are also synergies and opportunities that require recognition. We encourage conservation and development professionals to engage with those responsible for all the Agenda 2030 targets to ensure that SDG 15 is a priority in all SDG related processes.
The chapter explains the historic background of preferential trade, both in the area of goods and services. It also explains the key rules in different WTO agreements as well as their monitoring mechanisms.
Numerical modeling is a way of solving complex sets of equations that cannot be solved analytically. In finite difference modeling the infinitesimal step (e.g. dx) in the governing differential equation is replaced by a finite step (e.g. "∆x" ), and the variation over this step is assumed to be linear. Integration starts at a boundary and continues stepwise across the domain. In finite element and finite volume models, the domain is discretized into elements of unequal size and equations are written relating parameters on the boundaries of these elements. This results in a system of equations that must be solved simultaneously. Because the deformation rate in a glacier is a function of temperature, and conversely, full solutions require coupling of energy balance and momentum balance equations. Examples are given involving the role of subglacial permafrost in ice sheet behavior, estimation of prior ice sheet behavior from characteristics measured in ice cores and boreholes, and use of non-deterministic models to estimate sea level rise.
The chapter goes deeper into the key issue in services liberalization, which is the elimination of discrimination. It explains the challenges relating to the interpretation of services commitments and to understanding what entails discrimination in services trade.
The chapter opens Part II of the book, which focuses on services trade liberalization in federal states. It explains some of the central issues and problems that relate to services liberalization by federal states. Special attention is paid to the EU, Canada and the United States.
The chapter puts forward a new methodology to study services commitments of preferential trade agreements. The method is suitable for all services agreements but is particularly applicable for the analysis and coding of services commitments by federal states and entities. The method is based on the legal criteria of Art. V GATS, as explained in previous Chapter 2 of Part I of the book.
The chapter gives a detailed account of the GATS rules on economic integration agreements, which refers to preferential trade agreements in the area of services. It goes through all the criteria of Art. V GATS but focuses on the first criterion, which is the elimination of discrimination.
The last chapter applies Art. V GATS to the four EU's services agreements that were analyzed in accordance with the methodology proposed in Chapter 2 of Part III. It puts forward some suggestions on the agreements' compatibility with Art. V GATS. The suggestions are extended outside the specific context of the EU to all federal entities. The key conclusion is that the criteria of Art. V GATS should be attained by all constituent parts of a federal entity.
Europeanization is a specific type of external intervention in the governance of a nation, and Chapter 4 deciphers the many meanings of “Europeanization,” applied in particular to the “modernization” of government and promotion of good governance. Specific theories of change related to Europeanization are then empirically checked against evidence from over 120 countries where EU offers aid, producing little evidence of any impact of EU aid on governance improvement.