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We examined the impact of stroke severity and timing to inpatient rehabilitation admission on length of stay (LOS), functional gains, and discharge destination.
Alberta inpatient stroke rehabilitation data between April 2013 and March 2017 were analyzed. We evaluated the impact of stroke severity, as measured by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), on timing to inpatient rehabilitation, functional gains, LOS, and discharge destination. Further, we examined whether timing to inpatient rehabilitation impacted the latter three factors.
The 2404 adults were subcategorized as mild (1237), moderate (1031), or severe (136) based on FIM at inpatient rehabilitation admission. Length of time to rehabilitation admission was not significantly (p = 0.232) different between stroke severities. Mean length of time (days) to rehabilitation admission was 19.79 (20.3 SD) for mild, 27.7 (35.7 SD) for moderate, and 37.70 (56.8 SD) for severe stroke. Mean FIM change for mild (M = 16.3, 9.9 SD) differed significantly (p = 5.1 × 10–9) from moderate (M = 30.4, 16.4 SD) and severe (M = 31.0, 25.7 SD) stroke. The mean LOS for mild stroke (M = 41.3, 31.9 SD) was significantly (p = 5.1 × 10–9) different from moderate stroke (M = 86.8, 76.4 SD) and severe stroke (M = 126.1, 104.2 SD). Time to inpatient rehabilitation admission showed a small, significant impact on FIM change (p = 1.4 × 10–9, partial η2 0.022) and LOS (p = 1.1 × 10–19, partial η2 0.042). Shorter times to rehabilitation admission and mild stroke were associated with discharging home without needing homecare.
Stroke severity has a significant impact on the conduct of inpatient rehabilitation. Yet, despite suggestions shortening timing to rehabilitation should improve outcomes, the impact on functional gains and rehabilitation LOS was small.
In recent years mental health officials have reported a rise in the number of forensic patients present within their state psychiatric hospitals and the adverse impacts that these trends had on their hospitals. To date there have been no large-scale national studies conducted to determine if these trends are specific only to a few states or representative of a more global trend. The purpose of this study was to investigate these reported trends and their national prevalence.
The forensic directors of each state behavioral health agency (including the District of Columbia) were sent an Excel spreadsheet that had two components: a questionnaire and data tables with information collected between 1996 and 2014 from the State Profiling System maintained by the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Research Institute. They were asked to verify and update these data and respond to the questionnaire.
Responses showed a 76% increase nationally in the number of forensic patients in state psychiatric hospitals between 1999 and 2014. The largest increase was for individuals who were court-committed after being found incompetent to stand trial and in need of inpatient restoration services.
The data reviewed here indicate that increases in forensic referrals to state psychiatric hospitals, while not uniform across all states, are nonetheless substantial.
More research is needed to determine whether this multi-state trend is merely a coincidence of differing local factors occurring in many states, or a product of larger systemic factors affecting mental health agencies and the courts.
Mental health services lack a strong evidence base on the most effective interventions to reduce compulsory admissions. However, some research suggests a positive impact of crisis-planning interventions in which patients are involved in planning for their future care during a mental health crisis.
This review aimed to synthesise randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence on the effectiveness of crisis-planning interventions (for example advance statements and joint crisis plans) in reducing rates of compulsory hospital admissions for people with psychotic illness or bipolar disorder, compared with usual care (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018084808).
Six online databases were searched in October 2018. The primary outcome was compulsory psychiatric admissions and secondary outcomes included other psychiatric admissions, therapeutic alliance, perceived coercion and cost-effectiveness. Bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration tool.
The search identified 1428 studies and 5 RCTs were eligible. One study had high risk of bias because of incomplete primary outcome data. Random-effects meta-analysis showed a 25% reduction in compulsory admissions for those receiving crisis-planning interventions compared with usual care (risk ratio 0.75, 95% CI 0.61–0.93, P = 0.008; from five studies). There was no statistical evidence that the intervention reduced the risk of voluntary or combined voluntary and compulsory psychiatric admissions. Few studies assessed other secondary outcomes.
Our meta-analysis suggests that crisis-planning interventions substantially reduce the risk of compulsory admissions among individuals with psychotic illness or bipolar disorder. Despite common components, interventions varied in their content and intensity across the trials. The optimal models and implementation of these interventions require further investigation.
Declaration of interest
E.M., S.L., S.J. and B.L.-E. received funding from the National Institute for Health Research during the conduct of the study.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective for unipolar depression but relapse and suicide are significant challenges. Lithium could potentially lower these risks, but is used only in a minority of patients.
This study quantifies the effect of lithium on risk of suicide and readmission and identifies factors that are associate with readmission and suicide.
This population-based register study used data from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT and other Swedish national registers. Patients who have received ECT for unipolar depression as in-patients between 2011 and 2016 were followed until death, readmission to hospital or the termination of the study at the end of 2016. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of readmission and suicide in adjusted models.
Out of 7350 patients, 56 died by suicide and 4203 were readmitted. Lithium was prescribed to 638 (9%) patients. Mean follow-up was 1.4 years. Lithium was significantly associated with lower risk of suicide (P = 0.014) and readmission (HR 0.84 95% CI 0.75–0.93). The number needed to be treated with lithium to prevent one readmission was 16. In addition, the following factors were statistically associated with suicide: male gender, being a widow, substance use disorder and a history of suicide attempts. Readmission was associated with young age, being divorced or unemployed, comorbid anxiety disorder, nonpsychotic depression, more severe symptoms before ECT, no improvement with ECT, not receiving continuation ECT or antidepressants, usage of antipsychotics, anxiolytics or benzodiazepines, severity of medication resistance and number of previous admissions.
More patients could benefit from lithium treatment.
Reducing hospitalisation and length of stay (LOS) in hospital following first episode psychosis (FEP) is important, yet reliable measures of these outcomes and their moderators are lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the proportion of FEP cases who were hospitalised after their first contact with services and the LOS in a hospital during follow-up.
Studies were identified from a systematic search across major electronic databases from inception to October 2017. Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted.
81 longitudinal studies encompassing data for 23 280 FEP patients with an average follow-up length of 7 years were included. 55% (95% CI 50.3–60.5%) of FEP cases were hospitalised at least once during follow-up with the pooled average LOS of 116.7 days (95% CI 95.1–138.3). Older age of illness onset and being in a stable relationship were associated with a lower proportion of people who were hospitalised. While the proportion of hospitalised patients has not decreased over time, LOS has, with the sharpest reduction in the latest time period. The proportion of patients hospitalised during follow-up was highest in Australia and New Zealand (78.4%) compared to Europe (58.1%) and North America (48.0%); and lowest in Asia (32.5%). Black ethnicity and longer duration of untreated psychosis were associated with longer LOS; while less severe psychotic symptoms at baseline were associated with shorter LOS.
One in two FEP cases required hospitalisation at least once during a 7-year follow-up with an average length of hospitalisation of 4 months during this period. LOS has declined over time, particularly in those countries in which it was previously longest.
Suicidal behaviour is common in acute psychiatric wards resulting in distress, and burden for patients, carers and society. Although psychological therapies for suicidal behaviour are effective in out-patient settings, there is little research on their effectiveness for in-patients who are suicidal.
Our primary objective was to determine whether cognitive–behavioural suicide prevention therapy (CBSP) was feasible and acceptable, compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for in-patients who are suicidal. Secondary aims were to assess the impact of CBSP on suicidal thinking, behaviours, functioning, quality of life, service use, cost-effectiveness and psychological factors associated with suicide.
A single-blind pilot randomised controlled trial comparing TAU to TAU plus CBSP in in-patients in acute psychiatric wards who are suicidal (the Inpatient Suicide Intervention and Therapy Evaluation (INSITE) trial, trial registration: ISRCTN17890126). The intervention consisted of TAU plus up to 20 CBSP sessions, over 6 months continuing in the community following discharge. Participants were assessed at baseline and at 6 weeks and 6 months post-baseline.
A total of 51 individuals were randomised (27 to TAU, 24 to TAU plus CBSP) of whom 37 were followed up at 6 months (19 in TAU, 18 in TAU plus CBSP). Engagement, attendance, safety and user feedback indicated that the addition of CBSP to TAU for in-patients who are acutely suicidal was feasible and acceptable while on in-patient wards and following discharge. Economic analysis suggests the intervention could be cost-effective.
Psychological therapy can be delivered safely to patients who are suicidal although modifications are required for this setting. Findings indicate a larger, definitive trial should be conducted.
Declaration of interest
The trial was hosted by Greater Manchester Mental health NHS Trust (formerly, Manchester Mental Health and Social Care NHS Trust). The authors are affiliated to the University of Manchester, Greater Manchester Mental Health Foundation Trust, Lancashire Care NHS Foundation trust and the Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre. Y.A. is a trustee for a North-West England branch of the charity Mind.
The relative burden and risk of readmission for people with personality disorders in hospital settings is unknown.
To compare hospital use of people with personality disorder with that of people with other mental health diagnoses, such as psychoses and affective disorders.
Naturalistic study of hospital presentations for mental health in a large community catchment. Mixed-effects Cox regression and survival curves were generated to examine risk of readmission for each group.
Of 2894 people presenting to hospital, patients with personality disorder represented 20.5% of emergency and 26.6% of in-patients. Patients with personality disorder or psychoses were 2.3 times (95% CI 1.79–2.99) more likely than others to re-present within 28 days. Personality disorder diagnosis increases rate of readmission by a factor of 8.7 (s.e. = 0.31), marginally lower than psychotic disorders (10.02, s.e. = 0.31).
Personality disorders place significant demands on in-patient and emergency departments, similar to that of psychoses in terms of presentation and risk of readmission.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the treatment of choice for severe mental illness including treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Increases in volume of the hippocampus and amygdala following ECT have consistently been reported.
To investigate neuroplastic changes after ECT in specific hippocampal subfields and amygdala nuclei using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov – NCT02379767).
MRI scans were carried out in 14 patients (11 women, 46.9 years (s.d. = 8.1)) with unipolar TRD twice before and once after a series of right unilateral ECT in a pre–post study design. Volumes of subcortical structures, including subfields of the hippocampus and amygdala, and cortical thickness were extracted using FreeSurfer. The effect of ECT was tested using repeated-measures ANOVA. Correlations of imaging and clinical parameters were explored.
Increases in volume of the right hippocampus by 139.4 mm3 (s.d. = 34.9), right amygdala by 82.3 mm3 (s.d. = 43.9) and right putamen by 73.9 mm3 (s.d. = 77.0) were observed. These changes were localised in the basal and lateral nuclei, and the corticoamygdaloid transition area of the amygdala, the hippocampal–amygdaloid transition area and the granule cell and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Cortical thickness increased in the temporal, parietal and insular cortices of the right hemisphere.
Following ECT structural changes were observed in hippocampal subfields and amygdala nuclei that are specifically implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and stress-related disorders and retain a high potential for neuroplasticity in adulthood.
Declaration of interest
S.K. has received grants/research support, consulting fees and/or honoraria within the past 3 years from Angelini, AOP Orphan Pharmaceuticals AG, AstraZeneca, Celegne GmbH, Eli Lilly, Janssen-Cilag Pharma GmbH, KRKA-Pharma, Lundbeck A/S, Neuraxpharm, Pfizer, Pierre Fabre, Schwabe and Servier. R.L. received travel grants and/or conference speaker honoraria from Shire, AstraZeneca, Lundbeck A/S, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH, Orphan Pharmaceuticals AG, Janssen-Cilag Pharma GmbH, and Roche Austria GmbH.
Evaluate the clinical outcomes for patients with dementia, delirium, or at risk for delirium supported by the person-centered volunteer program in rural acute hospitals.
A non-randomized, controlled trial.
Older adults admitted to seven acute hospitals in rural Australia. Intervention (n = 270) patients were >65 years with a diagnosis of dementia or delirium or had risk factors for delirium and received volunteer services. Control (n = 188) patients were admitted to the same hospital 12 months prior to the volunteer program and would have met eligibility criteria for the volunteer program, had it existed.
Trained volunteers provided 1:1 person-centered care with a focus on nutrition and hydration support, hearing and visual aids, activities, and orientation.
Medical record audits provided data on volunteer visits, diagnoses, length of stay (LOS), behavioral incidents, readmission, specialling, mortality, admission to residential care, falls, pressure ulcers, and medication use.
Across all sites, there was a significant reduction in rates of 1:1 specialling and 28 day readmission for patients receiving the volunteer intervention. LOS was significantly shorter for the control group. There were no differences in other patient outcomes for the intervention and control groups.
The volunteer intervention is a safe, effective, and replicable way to support older acute patients with dementia, delirium, or risk factors for delirium in rural hospitals. Further papers will report on cost effectiveness, family carer, volunteer, and staff experiences of the program.
Hospitalized older adults are at high risk of falling. The HELPER system is a ceiling-mounted fall detection system that sends an alert to a smartphone when a fall is detected. This article describes the performance of the HELPER system, which was pilot tested in a geriatric mental health hospital. The system’s accuracy in detecting falls was measured against the hospital records documenting falls. Following the pilot test, nurses were interviewed regarding their perceptions of this technology. In this study, the HELPER system missed one documented fall but detected four falls that were not documented. Although sensitivity (.80) of the system was high, numerous false alarms brought down positive predictive value (.01). Interviews with nurses provided valuable insights based on the operation of the technology in a real environment; these and other lessons learned will be particularly valuable to engineers developing this and other health and social care technologies.
People with psychotic disorders account for most acute admissions to psychiatric wards. Psychological therapies are a treatment adjunct to standard medication and nursing care, but the evidence base for such therapies within in-patient settings is unclear.
To conduct a systematic scoping review of the current evidence base for psychological therapies for psychosis delivered within acute in-patient settings (PROSPERO: CRD42015025623).
All study designs, and therapy models, were eligible for inclusion in the review. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, EThOS, ProQuest, conference abstracts and trial registries.
We found 65 studies that met criteria for inclusion in the review, 21 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The majority of studies evaluated cognitive–behavioural interventions. Quality was variable across all study types. The RCTs were mostly small (n<25 in the treatment arm), and many had methodological limitations including poorly described randomisation methods, inadequate allocation concealment and non-masked outcome assessments. We found studies used a wide range of different outcome measures, and relatively few studies reported affective symptoms or recovery-based outcomes. Many studies described adaptations to treatment delivery within in-patient settings, including increased frequency of sessions, briefer interventions and use of single-session formats.
Based on these findings, there is a clear need to improve methodological rigour within in-patient research. Interpretation of the current evidence base is challenging given the wide range of different therapies, outcome measures and models of delivery described in the literature.
Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have frequent exposure to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) risk factors but the incidence and aetiology of CDI on this population is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, disease presentation and outcomes of CDI in patients with underlying CLD. The Health Care and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) 2009 dataset was used to identify patients with CLD who developed CDI along with matched non-CLD patients with CDI. Using the NIS dataset, the incidence rate of CDI was 189.4/10 000 discharges in CLD patients vs. 83.7/10 000 discharges in the non-CLD matched cohort (P < 0.001). Compared with non-CLD, comorbidity-matched controls with CDI, CLD patients with CDI had higher likelihood of in-hospital mortality (8.8% vs. 18.6%, P < 0.001), increased length of stay by 1.19 days (P < 0.001) and increased total costs by $8632 (P < 0.001). In separate analyses using a tertiary case database of hospitalised patients in Houston, Texas (2006–2016) with CLD and CDI (n = 41) compared with patients with CDI but not CLD (n = 111), CLD patients had significantly higher Charlson comorbidity index (P < 0.0001) but similar risk factors for CDI and CDI-related disease presentation compared with non-CLD patients. In conclusion, CDI-related risk factors were almost universally present in the CLD population. CDI resulted in worse outcomes in this population.
A cognitive–behavioural therapy in-patient treatment model for adults with severe anorexia nervosa was developed and evaluated, and outcomes were compared with the previous treatment model and other published outcomes from similar settings.
This study showed the Pathways to Recovery outcomes were positive in terms of improvements in body mass index and psychopathology.
Adults with anorexia nervosa can achieve good outcomes despite longer illness duration and comorbidities.
Declaration of interest
A.B., A.C. and L.H. work at The Retreat where the Pathways to Recovery were developed.
Last year, there were more than 63 622 involuntary admissions to psychiatric hospitals in England. One of the core principles stipulated in the code of practice for care under the Mental Health Act is involving involuntary patients in care decisions.
Identifying barriers and facilitators to shared decision-making with involuntary patients.
Focus groups and individual interviews with patients and clinicians who have experience with involuntary hospital treatment were carried out. Data were subjected to thematic analysis.
Twenty-two patients and 16 clinicians participated. Barriers identified included challenges in communication, and noisy and busy wards making one-to-one meetings difficult. Patient involvement was identified as easier if initiated early after admission and if the whole clinical team was on board. Carers' presence helped decision-making through providing additional information and comfort.
The barriers and facilitators identified can inform changes in the practice of involuntary care to increase patient involvement.
Children of parents with psychiatric disorders are at risk of poor outcomes. However, there is limited evidence regarding the relationship between parental psychiatric disorders and child school readiness, which is linked to later academic achievement. This study aims to investigate these relationships and broaden the evidence underlying the rationale for family-focused interventions for parental psychiatric disorders.
This study used linked administrative data. Children's school readiness in multiple developmental domains (physical, social, emotional, communicative, cognitive) was measured by the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) for 19 071 Western Australian children (mean age 5.5 years). Children scoring in the bottom 25% on any AEDC domain were considered developmentally vulnerable, or at risk of vulnerability, on that domain. Biological child–parent pairs were identified using birth records. Parents with psychiatric disorders were identified from hospital records, which included information on diagnosis and frequency/duration of psychiatric admissions. Logistic regressions, adjusted for parent age, mother's marital status, child Aboriginality, child English language status, local community remoteness and socioeconomic index, estimated the odds of children being vulnerable/at-risk on each of the AEDC domains.
A total of 719 mothers and 417 fathers had a psychiatric hospitalisation during the study period (12 months prior to the child's birth, up to the end of 2009). Children whose parents had psychiatric disorders had increased odds of being classified as vulnerable/at-risk for school readiness. This increase in odds was evident for both maternal (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.37– 1.51) and paternal psychiatric disorders (aOR 1.38–1.50); and for a single admission of one day (aOR 1.32–1.59), a single admission of multiple days (aOR 1.30–1.47), and multiple admissions (aOR 1.35–1.63). Some variability in child outcome was found depending on the parents’ psychiatric diagnosis (mood, anxiety, substance abuse or comorbid disorder).
Children of parents who have been hospitalised with psychiatric disorders are at risk for poor school readiness. These findings add support to recommendations that mental health professionals consider dependent children in discharge and treatment planning for adult psychiatric inpatients. It is also important to ensure that the impact of psychiatric illness in fathers is not overlooked in assessment and intervention. Family-based approaches to adult psychiatric care could meet the dual needs of intervention for parents and preventative measures for children. These findings can inform policy regarding the importance of integrating and coordinating services to meet the needs of families.
Background: Almost all patients admitted at acute crisis to a psychiatric ward experience clinically significant symptoms of insomnia. Ward environments pose challenges to both sleep and the delivery of therapy. Despite this, there is no description of how to adapt cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia to overcome these challenges. Aims: (i) To describe the key insomnia presentations observed in the Oxford Ward Sleep Solution (OWLS) trial and (ii) outline key adaptations aimed to increase accessibility and hence effectiveness of CBT for insomnia for a ward setting. Methods: Trial therapists collaboratively agreed the key insomnia presentations and therapy adaptations based on their individual reflective logs used during the trial. Results: Three key insomnia presentations are outlined. These are used to illustrate the application of 10 CBT for insomnia therapy adaptations. These include use of sleep monitoring watches to engage patients in treatment, stabilizing circadian rhythms, reducing the impact of night-time observations and managing discharge as a sleep challenge. Conclusions: Whilst inpatient wards bring challenges for sleep and therapy delivery, creative adaptations can increase the accessibility of evidence based CBT for insomnia techniques. This therapy has proven popular with patients.
The objective of the paper was to survey patients’ preference in relation to a continuity, or split, model of inpatient consultant care in the Louth Mental Health Service.
A written survey was administered to all patients attending the Louth Mental Health Service over a 2-week period. Participants were asked for their preferred model of care and clinical information was obtained from their clinical notes.
In total, 149 patients completed the survey questionnaire and 103 respondents (69%) indicated a preference for a continuity model of inpatient consultant psychiatric care. There was a trend for those who reported a past experience of inpatient hospitalisation to indicate a preference for the continuity model (76% v. 61%, respectively, χ2 3.67, p=0.056).
Patients indicate a preference for a continuity model of inpatient psychiatric care and this is important to consider in service planning. More research is needed to evaluate if any model of consultant care is associated with better patient outcomes.
Home-based crisis team (HBCT) in North Cork was established in 2013 to provide short term, intensive home treatment to people who are experiencing acute mental health problems, with the aim of averting hospital admission wherever possible or supporting patients discharged from hospital.
A retrospective descriptive study design was adopted to describe the activities of the North Cork HBCT over a 1 year period. Data were analysed using R version 3.4.0 for Windows.
A total of 388 patients were referred to the HBCT in 2015, of which 328 required assessments. General practitioners (GPs) made 56% of all referrals. The most common referral reason was low mood (40%). Stepped-up care to the psychiatric inpatient unit was required for 12.4% of patients, 62% were discharged to the outpatient clinic for routine follow-up.
Many common psychiatric presentations can be managed at home with the support of the HBCT although hospital admission is required for significant numbers.
When patients are admitted onto psychiatric wards, sleep problems are highly prevalent. We carried out the first trial testing a psychological sleep treatment at acute admission (Oxford Ward sLeep Solution, OWLS).
This assessor-blind parallel-group pilot trial randomised patients to receive sleep treatment at acute crisis [STAC, plus standard care (SC)], or SC alone (1 : 1). STAC included cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia, sleep monitoring and light/dark exposure for circadian entrainment, delivered over 2 weeks. Assessments took place at 0, 2, 4 and 12 weeks. Feasibility outcomes assessed recruitment, retention of participants and uptake of the therapy. Primary efficacy outcomes were the Insomnia Severity Index and Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale at week 2. Analyses were intention-to-treat, estimating treatment effect with 95% confidence intervals.
Between October 2015 and July 2016, 40 participants were recruited (from 43 assessed eligible). All participants offered STAC completed treatment (mean sessions received = 8.6, s.d. = 1.5). All participants completed the primary end point. Compared with SC, STAC led to large effect size (ES) reductions in insomnia at week 2 (adjusted mean difference −4.6, 95% CI −7.7 to −1.4, ES −0.9), a small improvement in psychological wellbeing (adjusted mean difference 3.7, 95% CI −2.8 to 10.1, ES 0.3) and patients were discharged 8.5 days earlier. One patient in the STAC group had an adverse event, unrelated to participation.
In this challenging environment for research, the trial was feasible. Therapy uptake was high. STAC may be a highly effective treatment for sleep disturbance on wards with potential wider benefits on wellbeing and admission length.
Mental health problems have been reported as one of the principal causes of incapacity and morbidity. According to the World Health Organization approximately 15% of adults aged 60+ and over suffer from a mental disorder. In the oldest old population, a higher deterioration in the mental state is expected, which is ought to increase the risk of incidence of mental problems and use of healthcare services. The aim of this study is to examine inpatient episodes with a mental disorder coded as primary discharge diagnosis between 2000 and 2014 by patients aged 80+ in Portugal mainland.
Exploratory descriptive analyses of data regarding the number of episodes and coded diagnosis on admission were performed.
From a total of 1,837,613 inpatient episodes, 16,430 (0.9%) correspond to episodes having a psychiatric disorder as a primary discharge diagnosis. Delirium, dementia and amnestic and other cognitive disorders (60.1%), alcohol-related disorders (17.7%) and mood disorders (8.6%) were the most common diagnosis. An analysis by age group revealed that among octogenarians and nonagenarians delirium, dementia, and amnestic and other cognitive disorders were the most common diagnosis; in the centenarian group; however, these were outweighed by alcohol-related disorders.
Findings from this study document the importance of neurocognitive disorders as a primary reason for hospitalization in the oldest old, but also highlights the need of paying attention to other mental disorders among this age group. Further studies should examine the prevalence of medical comorbidities in patients with mental disorders.