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In Chapter 13, we examine the notion that population is important for national power, an idea widely recognized among scholars but rarely explored empirically. We begin by laying out a theoretical rationale, highlighting the notion that enhanced numbers of people should bring greater returns. Specifically, we emphasize that people provide economic resources, human capital, and innovation. Together, the greater capital, human capital, and innovation that a large population affords allows a society to produce more, which should promote greater self-sufficiency. In the analytical sections, we explore these hypotheses systematically across economic, military, and cultural dimensions of power. We find that size is associated with higher GDP, greater iron and steel production, and lower import and aid dependence. In addition, more populous countries tend to have more military personnel, higher military expenditures, and greater naval tonnage. Finally, larger countries have a greater number of universities, more patent applications, and more tourists. Our empirical analyses, coupled with analyses conducted by other scholars, thus place the thesis that size brings power beyond much doubt.
Covid-19 has presented society with one of the greatest challenges in living memory. Community Mental Health Teams have needed to adapt quickly to a rapidly developing situation which has had a dramatic impact on society. In this piece we describe some of the early challenges for community mental health teams within two mental health services based in Dublin and Wicklow. We also discuss ongoing developments and anticipate the need for further vigilance as the Covid-19 pandemic continues to evolve.
This chapter discusses the causes and consequences of financial innovation. Financial innovation involves creating and popularising new financial instruments, as well as new financial technologies, institutions, and markets. There has been a recent increase in financial technology (FinTech), which combines changes in customer contact, for instance using mobile apps, with big data and new methodologies for handling the data. Competition, regulation and deregulation, and technological advances are important drivers of financial innovation. Competition stimulates financial institutions to develop new products and processes. Since regulation may forbid or otherwise restrain financial innovation, deregulation may spur innovation. Indeed, several innovations have been the result of attempts to circumvent regulation. And technological advances have made new instruments possible. While innovation can help foster growth and economic prosperity, some innovative financial instruments have been blamed for their role in the global financial crisis.
The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), like many rural states, faces clinical and research obstacles to which digital innovation is seen as a promising solution. To implement digital technology, a mobile health interest group was established to lay the foundation for an enterprise-wide digital health innovation platform. To create a foundation, an interprofessional team was established, and a series of formal networking events was conducted. Three online digital health training models were developed, and a full-day regional conference was held featuring nationally recognized speakers and panel discussions with clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates involved in digital health programs at UAMS. Finally, an institution-wide survey exploring the interest in and knowledge of digital health technologies was distributed. The networking events averaged 35–45 attendees. About 100 individuals attended the regional conference with positive feedback from participants. To evaluate mHealth knowledge at the institution, a survey was completed by 257 UAMS clinicians, researchers, and staff. It revealed that there are opportunities to increase training, communication, and collaboration for digital health implementation. The inclusion of the mobile health working group in the newly formed Institute for Digital Health and Innovation provides a nexus for healthcare providers and researches to facilitate translational research.
For nearly 30 years, the business and scientific press has featured a constant stream of stories about the changing nature of work. While some organizations and occupations have changed substantially in recent years, the belief that such changes are relatively recent or relatively widespread is not well founded. First, the nature and organization of work has evolved continuously over time and the current changes are especially large. Second, there are very large sectors of the economy in which the changes in technology and the organization of work have been minimal. The belief that the nature of work is changing is in large part rooted in the tendency to mistake the brief period of economic stability and highly valued employment in the United Stats that followed the Second World War as the normal state rather than an anomaly. The nature of work is changing and will continue to change, but these changes are part of a long-term set of evolutionary changes, not a sudden or recent innovation.
This chapter accomplishes three primary goals. First, we review the history of technologies that have been influential in the world of work, from the abacus to innovations of the present day. We then identify eight characteristics that describe modern technologies: power, portability, usability, networking, encryption, ubiquity, immersion, and predictiveness. Finally, we present a SWOT analysis that identifies the implications of these characteristics for the future of work. In doing so, we demonstrate that although technological change is a constant, so too is humans’ ability to adapt to change.
An effective global AMR response will require diagnostics that are affordable and accessible, can be used at the point-of-care (POC), and can rapidly determine antimicrobial susceptibility or detect resistance. These tests are urgently needed to guide patient management, reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics and improve patient outcomes. POC tests with resistance detection and data transmission capabilities will be useful for AMR surveillance to monitor AMR trends and detect emergence of novel resistance in real time to enable timely optimisation of AMR strategies. Connected diagnostics have the potential to improve the efficiency of health care systems by simplifying patient pathways, guiding appropriate use of drugs and other resources and improving patient outcomes. POC tests are also useful in reducing the cost of R&D for new antibiotics. To ensure innovation in diagnostics development and deployment, a sound business case needs to be made to quantify the risk of not having diagnostics to improve the specificity of syndromic management. Financing mechanisms to incentivize diagnostic innovation, de-risk R&D and to finance the deployment of novel diagnostic solutions for AMR within different health systems are urgently needed.
Teams are an integral part of organizations; however, changes in the nature of work – including increases in globalization, the scale and complexity of problems, and the capabilities of technology – have fundamentally altered the nature of teams. In this chapter, we delineate three important changes to the nature of teams: (1) complex organizational challenges are requiring complex and fluid patterns of teamwork; (2) teams are being assembled and led by members as well as managers; and (3) technology is increasingly interwoven with teamwork. In reference to these changes, we provide recommendations for future research and management of teams.
This paper examines two potential mechanisms – access to credit and reduction in relational risks – through which social trust can affect R&D investments. Social trust can increase R&D investments by expanding firms' access to external finance with which they can use to fund promising R&D projects. It can also increase R&D investments by reducing relational risks that expose firms to ex-ante and ex-post holdups or expropriation risks. Using industry-level data on R&D investment intensities in 20 OECD countries, I test these mechanisms by evaluating whether more external finance dependent and relational risk vulnerable industries exhibit disproportional higher R&D investment intensities in trust intensive countries. The results indicate that external finance dependent industries and relational risks vulnerable industries experience relatively higher R&D investment intensities in trust-intensive countries. Therefore, the results underline access to external finance and reduction in relational risks as causal pathways linking social trust and R&D investments.
This chapter describes how civil society has played a role in catalyzing response to the challenge of antimicrobial resistance, and in so doing, brought early on an intersectoral lens to such efforts as well as lifted up voices from low- and middle-income countries into the global policy dialogue. The Declaration on Antibiotic Resistance penned by the founding members of the Antibiotic Resistance Coalition (ARC) provided a shared set of key principles across innovation, access, stewardship as well as sustainability and systems thinking. Within the chapter are notable examples of how ARC members have harnessed these principles and put them into practice. These efforts include successfully introducing the concept of delinkage into the policy vernacular including the UN Political Declaration on AMR and rallying consumer pressure on major restaurant chains to source food animal products raised without routine use of antibiotics. Monitoring for accountability, putting forward alternative proposals for innovation, and addressing procurement in the food system are some of the policy levers that civil society has successfully advanced. The remarkable richness of the contributions that civil society has made to the discussions and debates over AMR serves as a reminder of the need to encourage and include such voices in future policy-making.
Prior tests of Hicks’ Induced Innovation Hypothesis (IIH) have been greatly hampered because the lack of supply-side data implicitly requires the untenable assumption that the marginal research cost is the same for different inputs. We document that, with appropriate model specification and panel data, a two-way fixed-effects estimator can account for much of the non-neutrality of the innovation function. Using a test procedure that is robust to a time-variant and non-neutral innovation function, we test the IIH in U.S. agriculture for the period 1960–2004. We use only readily available data for innovation demand and total public research expenditures.
This chapter discusses how innovations are reshaping the two major fundamental strategic options that a shipowner typically might have: asset-play, i.e., a typically short-term focus on “in-out/long-short”, vs. industrial shipping, i.e. more tailored ships employed on longer-term charters, and typically with relatively high financial gearing. Key innovations are reshaping the essence of each of these strategic options, above all, regarding what might now be a commercially modern ship. Customer closeness is increasingly seen as key to all of this.
This chapter considers three major global challenges and explains how they interact with gender equality and public policy - demographic, socioeconomic and technological changes. Demographic challenges such as the ageing of the population and migration flows will continue to increase in Europe. The increasing presence of women in the labour market interacts with this global demographic change, because more women at work may influence fertility rates. Similarly, migration flows may mitigate the consequences of the ageing process. At the same time, there is a constant process of socioeconomic changes: the old European continent must face the challenge of modest economic growth and increasing inequality. More women at work may be a way to increase economic output, a crucial outcome in times of slow economic growth. A major challenge is how to promote growth sustainably. Technological changes also have the potential to transform the global employment landscape. A gender divide emerges: by making possible new forms of job organization, such as remote working, the digital revolution can create more work for women and enhance women’s empowerment. On the other hand, it may represent a barrier for women who are less involved in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) educational disciplines and who therefore risk being less involved than men as primary actors in these transformations.
This introductory chapter discusses major changes in the shipping industry, traditionally rather conservative and static, but now increasingly characterized by fundamental innovations and dynamism. Several of the drivers for these key innovations are discussed, such as technological advances, changes in legal requirements, effects from climate change, as well as economic pressures to become even more efficient.
The fourteen papers in this volume take advantage of advances in the study of Ennius’ Annales that have occurred in the generation since Otto Skutsch published his monumental edition and commentary on the poem, while also taking advantage of Jackie Elliott's recent provocation to question the most basic assumptions that underlie Skutsch’s work. The result is a collection of essays as diverse in their individual interests and objectives as we believe Ennius and his Annals also were. The essays are organized under four rubrics, namely (1) Innovation, (2) Authority, (3) Influence, and (4) Interpretation. An afterword reflects on the findings of the volume as a whole, with equal emphasis on new questions that the individual papers raise and on solutions that they propose, while raising additional points that should provoke further research.
In Eastern Europe, the use of light vehicles with spoked wheels and harnessed horse teams is first evidenced in the early second-millennium BC Sintashta-Petrovka Culture in the South-eastern Ural Mountains. Using Bayesian modelling of radiocarbon dates from the kurgan cemetery of Kamennyj Ambar-5, combined with artefactual and stratigraphic analyses, this article demonstrates that these early European chariots date to no later than the first proto-chariots of the ancient Near East. This result suggests the earlier emergence of chariots on the Eurasian Steppe than previously thought and contributes to wider debates on the geography and chronology of technological innovations.
The fast-growing economies of the combined lower- and middle-income countries have propelled them into new strategic and economic alliances, often bypassing the developed world. These changing patterns of global connectivity are rewiring the underlying grid. The West is no longer blindly imitated by others, even among its developing-nation allies. The very quality that sets the Western legal tradition apart – its judicial institutions whose legitimacy resides in binding those who govern to the same laws as other citizens – has rarely transferred effectively to regions where the cultural antecedents are absent. It is no longer possible to deny that China’s spectacular performance in raising its living standards has shown an alternative. Inevitably, this divergence will be projected onto struggles for shaping the policies of global institutions, their governance, and perceptions of their legitimacy. How China or the West handle other threats – forced migration, internal displacement, global radicalization – will have a great bearing on their relative global influence and ability to shape the trajectory of the world economy.
Understanding network formation is essential to building a cohesive theory of network connectivity in the social relations that form historical regimes. Using diagrams of network structure in which nodes represent components and lines represent their interactions, we can recognize essential features of the interactive configurations that lead to patterns (institutions) and behaviors (regimes) and emergent properties. When we capture how agents interact and self-organize, we can infer structure; and knowing structure we can infer patterns of information transmission and thus collective behavior, including why system growth or breakdown follows a critical event. Theoretical network models – random, scale-free, small-world, and hub-and-spoke – capture these regularities and allow us to infer the principles underlying their construction and the trade-offs of stability and resilience. Knowing the patterns of structure and interaction, we gain a deeper grasp of two critically important and strongly correlated phenomena of contemporary political economy: the Great Divergence of East and West, and the global impact of China’s contemporary and unprecedented economic transformation.
Europe’s network structure had evolutionary advantages in its adaptability in innovation and resistance to collapse. While China’s imperial dynasties bequeathed political, social, and ideological foundations for national unity that endured largely intact for two millennia, behind that legacy resides a source of enduring structural weakness. Its system stability comes at a loss of flexibility. Fear of emerging chaos is memorialized in the narrative by which the Chinese Communist Party justifies its grip on power. An awareness of how vulnerability has led to failures predisposes China’s leaders to take insulating measures, e.g., censoring the Internet, constraining academic course content, imposing party oversight on enterprise, and hindering the acquisition of power and prestige that is independent of the regime. But bolstering system stability by strengthening centralized control mechanisms may undermine system resilience, reproducing the very weaknesses its designers seek to avoid and causing a massive disruption in the future. As these two great cultural systems begin to impinge on one another, network analysis has much to reveal about the choice of separation or integration that is before us.
"Theories of niche construction and near-decomposability, which correspond to competition and decentralization in economic parlance, illuminate how respective networks of authority served parochial purposes, with motivations related to specific challenges: in China, to rule a large territory, and in Europe, to enhance the competitive power of small states in a fragmented landscape. A shift toward outward expansion made European elites less parochial and resulted in an explosive wave of innovation. China’s centralized network enabled periods of unmatched stability and prosperity; but the merit-based bureaucracy stifled innovation, preventing the rise of a merchant class, an independent private sector, and outward expansion, all of which were associated with Europe’s industrialization. China’s inward gaze ensured the paramount political power of bureaucratic elites, resulting in systemic corruption that grew extensively over time, impoverishing the peasantry and causing rebellions, chaos, and conflict – a process that repeated itself throughout China’s history.