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The brain’s subcortical dopamine circuitry promotes approach and engagement (“go”) but is often opposed by the inhibitory control (“stop”) exerted by the prefrontal cerebral cortex. Addictive drugs effectively engage the “go” system, and the inhibitory control is often deficient in addicted individuals, a result of either heavy drug use or a pre-existing condition.
Repeated activation of the “go” circuits causes neuroadaptation that lessens the euphoric drug effects, resulting in withdrawal syndrome and lingering dysphoria when drug use stops. Persistent and compulsive drug-seeking then emerges as reinforcement shifts from predominantly positive and pleasurable, to the negative reinforcement of relief from dysphoria.
Drug-seeking behavior is also strengthened as dopamine activation results in conditioning of stimuli predicting drug effects. Increased glutamate activity promotes development of incentive sensitization, thought to underlie the strong response to drug-related stimuli that drive the compulsion for drug use even after the initial rewarding effect is greatly reduced – producing the “wanting, but not liking” dissociation often seen in addiction.
Mobile produce markets (MPM) offering Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) incentive programmes have the potential to provide accessible and affordable fruits and vegetables (FV) to populations at risk of food insecurity. The objective of this study is to characterise the customer base of an MPM and describe their participation at twelve market sites serving low-income seniors.
In 2018, customers from an MPM in Rhode Island (RI) participated in a cross-sectional survey (n 330; 68 % response rate), which measured dietary patterns, food security and food shopping behaviours. We compared the shopping habits and market experiences of customers who currently received SNAP benefits with those who did not currently receive SNAP benefits.
An MPM in RI which offers a 50 % discount for FV purchased with SNAP benefits.
This study describes current market customers at twelve market sites serving low-income seniors.
Market customers were mostly low-income, female, over the age of 50 years and Hispanic/Latino. Most customers received SNAP benefits, and almost half were food insecure. In addition, three quarters of SNAP customers reported their SNAP benefits last longer since shopping at the markets. Mixed logistic regression models indicated that SNAP customers were more likely to report buying and eating more FV than non-SNAP customers.
MPM are critical resources of affordable produce and have been successful in improving access to FV among individuals of low socio-economic status in RI. This case study can inform policy and programme recommendations for MPM and SNAP incentive programmes.
Addiction is characterized by excessive desire for a particular substance or behavioral incentive at the expense of other life rewards. Addictive desire can develop even in absence of any associated increase in pleasure, and also in absence of withdrawal. Here we review evidence that the brain mechanisms underlying desire or ‘wanting’ can operate independently from those mediating pleasure, or "liking." That is, "wanting" and "liking" are mediated by two anatomically and neurochemically distinct brain mechanisms that normally interact together to influence motivation, but can become dissociated in the transition to addiction. Pleasure "liking" is the hedonic impact of a pleasant stimulus and is causally amplified by a brain system of several functionally interactive but anatomically distributed locations referred to as "hedonic hotspots." These hedonic hotspots are localized subregions within larger brain structures, and are relatively sensitive to disruption. By contrast, "wanting" or the subconscious desire for reward or reward-related cues is much more robust, and mediated by a larger brain system. "Wanting" can be generated by dopamine enhancements as well as by opioid enhancements in several broadly defined regions throughout mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In susceptible individuals, mesolimbic circuitry can become hyperreactive or sensitized (e.g., through previous drug experience), so that "rewards" and their related cues evoke even greater dopamine release and "wanting." Sensitized "wanting" becomes harder to resist, which can spur on excessive and compulsive pursuit and relapse in addiction. Importantly, this sensitization of brain "wanting" systems need not be accompanied by an enhancement of brain "liking" (i.e., dopamine manipulations do not appear to effect pleasure). In this chapter, we also highlight possible mechanisms for how some drugs or behaviors become the specific focus of excessive but narrow pursuit, usually involving mesolimbic brain interactions with areas such as the amygdala. Further we demonstrate that behavioral addictions such as food addiction and gambling, like drug addiction, are accompanied by sensitization of mesolimbic brain "wanting" systems in the transition to addiction.
Behavioral determinants with the largest effects are often those related to the environments in which behaviors occur. This suggests the merits of a shift in focus of changing behavior at scale away from interventions based on deliberation and decision-making and toward interventions that involve changing cues – physical, digital, social, and economic – in environments. This chapter focuses on changing cues in small-scale physical environments – sometimes known as choice architecture or nudge interventions. Despite attracting much interest, these interventions have been little explored from a theoretical perspective. Exploring the mechanisms by which some of these interventions exert their effects provides a starting point. Examining evidence of three interventions – increasing availability of healthier food options, reducing glass size, and putting warning labels on food and alcohol products – suggests no single theory explains their effects. The mechanisms by which these interventions affect behavior change also necessitate different levels of explanation and demand a theoretical framework that applies at different levels. Recognizing the distinction between model-free and model-based learning and behavior may be central to this. Advancing knowledge on changing behavior by changing environments requires robustly designed field studies to estimate effect sizes, complemented by laboratory studies testing mechanisms to optimize interventions and develop theoretical understanding.
The moral agent’s response to radical evil is a moral conversion or change of heart, inverting the order of incentives in the maxim of evil and giving priority to the moral incentive. Kant regards the moral incentive as distinctive, different from all others. Kant often refers to it as “duty,” but in the reception of Kant, this is often misunderstood as unemotional coldness of heart. Giving priority to the moral incentive for Kant is rather “goodness of heart,” involving caring for others and a proper balance between love and respect for them. Goodness of heart is also linked to virtuous nonmoral incentives. Also frequently misunderstood is how Kant understands acting from an incentive. Acting from an incentive, whether the moral one or a nonmoral one, is not a property of individual acts. Rather, it is a property of an agent’s disposition or character. Virtus noumenon is the character of a person who has undergone the change of heart. This manifests itself only as virtus phaenomenon, involving empirical incentives and habitual behavior, which may be a mere appearance of virtue but is also the only possible manifestation of true virtue. “Acting from duty” means something different in the Groundwork from what it means in later works, where it is related to the morality (not the mere legality) of actions and to the duty to act from duty. The change of heart is not a datable event in a person’s life but depends on the striving for moral progress, which can be known only by God who sees the entire course of a person’s life.
A basic tenet of ecotourism is to enhance conservation. However, few studies have assessed its effectiveness in meeting conservation goals and whether the type of tourism activity affects outcomes. This study examines whether working in ecotourism changes the perceptions of and attitudes and behaviours of local people towards the focal species and its habitat and, if so, if tourism type affects those outcomes. We interviewed 114 respondents at four whale shark Rhincodon typus tourism sites in the Philippines to compare changes in perceptions of and attitudes and behaviours towards whale sharks and the wider marine environment. We found that the smaller scale tourism sites had greater social conservation outcomes than the mass or failed tourism sites, including changes in conservation ethics and perceptions of and attitudes and behaviours towards whale sharks and the ocean. Furthermore, of the three active tourism sites, the smallest site, with the lowest economic returns and the highest negative impacts on whale sharks prior to tourism activities, had the largest proportion of respondents who reported a positive change in perceptions of and attitudes and behaviours towards whale sharks and the ocean. Our results suggest that tourism type, and the associated incentives, can have a significant effect on conservation outcomes and ultimately on the ecological status of an Endangered species and its habitat.
Data-driven approaches to environmental governance, such as those promoted by the planetary boundaries concept, permit the rapid circulation of actionable information on environmental performance through transnational networks operating within the political economy. Some of the most promising approaches emerge from structural cuopling between science and economics, largely bypassing law and politics, and operating in cognitive, rather than normative, terms. Yet a purely cognitive global ecological law, offering no possibility of stabilisation of expectations, would ultimately be ineffective. I argue that a role for law emerges if the normative dimensions of the condensation of complex scientific insights into metrics with a high degree of resonance in the political economy are taken seriously. Law must do more than transduce scientific data into metrics, as though scientists have unmediated knowledge of Earth systems. Rather, the normative dimensions of scientific knowledge-production, notably in processes of judging, arguing, and persuading, create opportunities for the development of norms governing the processes of condensing and translating scientific knowledge of ecological risk into signal of economic risk. As Bruno Latour argues, responses to ecological crisis ought not to be conceived of as a new form of jus naturalis, containing norms and standards dictated directly to humankind by the non-human world; instead, what is required is a jus gentium that accepts the unknowability of the non-human world, and the mediated – and therefore highly normative – channels through which knowledge of that world is derived.
Psychomotor activity is one of the traits we most immediately perceive in others. Psychomotor slowing, which can be easily noticed on a first medical examination, is a symptom which may be prodromal of psychic disturbances.
Historically, psychomotor retardation is a characteristic attached to depression, especially melancholia. Some studies show that psychomotor retardation is associated with good therapeutic prognosis, including positive response to electro-convulsivo-therapy. The cluster of non-verbal symptoms includes both basic aspects related to motor behavior such as attitudes and movements and more complex aspects such as goal-directed behaviors. We will see that this intuitive and fundamental dimension of clinical depression is not homogeneous. From a motor point of view, hypo-bradykinesia in depression may be compared to the one found in cortico-subcortical syndromes such as Parkinson's disease. This comparison suggests that key brain structures such as the basal ganglia could be involved in depression.
Moreover, the loss of vital energy is the dominant psychopathological explanation linked to psychomotor retardation. From a phenomenological point of view, this interpretation seems to be relevant but appears disappointing as an experimental variable. However, motivation, understood as the factor that energizes the behavior seems to be an interesting and promising concept.
Experimentally, it is possible to measure how much an individual is able to invest energy in order to achieve a goal.
The impact of depression on the process of incentive motivation will be analyzed before turning to a description of therapeutic interventions related to psychomotor field such as sports or sensorimotor stimulations that appear to be promising tracks for clinical improvement.
Dysfunction of central dopaminergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia as well as drug and alcohol dependence. Different drugs of abuse stimulate dopamine release in the ventral striatum and thus reinforce drug consumption. Increased subcortical dopamine release has also been associated with the pathogenesis of positive symptoms in schizophrenia and may be driven by a prefrontal dopaminergic dysfunction. These seemingly heterogeneous findings may be explained by recent research in non-human primates. According to these studies, reward anticipation but not anticipated reward consumption is accompanied by a phasic dopamine release in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. In the striatum, phasic dopamine release primarily affects motivation, psychomotor activation and reward craving, while in the prefrontal cortex, dopaminergic stimulation is involved in the activation of working memory and reward anticipation. In alcoholism, previously neutral stimuli that have been associated with alcohol intake can become conditioned cues which activate phasic dopamine release and reward craving. In schizophrenia, stress-induced or chaotic activation of dopamine release may attribute incentive salience to otherwise irrelevant stimuli and thus be involved in the pathogenesis of delusional mood and other positive symptoms. Studies in humans and non-human primates emphasize the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission in reward anticipation and its dysfunction in different neuropsychiatric diseases.
Abstinent alcoholics often denycraving for alcohol but still show a high level of relapse. The eyeblink response to startling noise was used as an indicator of the emotional response to alcohol-related, positive, negative and neutral visual stimuli in abstinent alcoholics, social drinkers and rarelydrinking controls. The cognitive evaluation of the stimuli was assessed byratings of subjective craving, valence and arousal. The startle response of the alcoholics to alcohol-related stimuli was significantlyinhibited despite an aversive overt stimulus-evaluation. These findings indicate that alcohol-related stimuli mayhave appetitive incentive salience for alcoholics in spite of verbal reports of craving and valence to the opposite.
This chapter instills an appreciation for the powerful effects (both positive and negative) of performance pay on employee behavior. It opens with a performance-pay success story, namely a field experiment by Shearer (2004) in which the piece-rate compensation of Canadian tree planters was changed. It then develops some examples of the darker side of performance pay, including the Wells Fargo employees who opened false accounts to meet a quota. Section 9.2 provides visual representations of performance pay in which the pay graph has a positive slope (i.e., it increases when the worker’s performance measure increases), sometimes linearly as with piece-rate pay and sometimes nonlinearly as with bonuses. The chapter emphasizes the incentive and sorting effects associated with performance pay as well as its prevalence. Workers’ attitudes towards risk (of earnings fluctuations) and how risk affects performance pay is covered, along with performance measurement, various drawbacks of performance pay, and how to design performance-pay contracts. Readers will finish the chapter with an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of performance pay and when it can be effectively used.
One of the main catalysts for the shift towards renewable energies has been the practice of support schemes in a key number of EU member states. Some of these states have since withdrawn or revoked much of their original support, which has resulted in investment treaty arbitrations being filed against them under the Energy Charter Treaty. Arguably, a balance should be found between investors’ legitimate expectations concerning the stability of the legal framework and the host states’ right to adapt regulations to new needs. This can be achieved by clarifying and delimiting the principle of fair and equitable treatment, and by encapsulating it in a more precise set of rules. Due to its open character, this principle could otherwise become too intrusive a standard of judicial review for the exercise of sovereign power by host states. It could be diluted into a rhetorical framework inviting uncertainty and subjective judgment. While the focus of this article is on energy, the concern for legal stability equally applies to all those sectors where large upfront investments are required, which can only be recouped in the long run.
Chapter 2 contends that the seemingly innocent attempt to document citizens through Operation Family (1959–1965) developed into an instrument for consolidating state power. This Ministry of Justice campaign to legalize extra-legal unions and register undocumented Cubans provoked a surge in marriage, a direct consequence – this chapter demonstrates – of fixed-term laws that concurrently restricted the power of the judiciary. The chapter also argues that Cuban leadership advanced legal matrimony in order to supplant female heads of household, whose participation in the paid-labor force could support men engaged in illegal or counterrevolutionary activities. Las Villas and Matanzas, provinces where counterrevolutionaries most threatened revolutionary government authority, had the highest rates of legal marriage during the peak years of the marriage campaign. These two provinces were also predominantly white, suggesting that MINJUS prioritized the regulation and reformation of rural, Hispanic white couples over those of Afro-Cubans. The second half of the chapter examines the inauguration of Wedding Palaces and material benefits meant to incentivize marriage. Popular discourse suggested that Cubans were marrying (and divorcing) in high numbers in order to take advantage of the increased purchasing power allocated to newlyweds. In these ways, couples showed themselves reluctant to acquiesce to the state’s marital expectations.
The previous chapter examined the range of reward plans associated with the recognition and reward of individual behaviour and/or results. This chapter focuses on plans where reward outcomes are contingent on measures of collective results; that is, on collective incentive plans. Because such plans are generally geared to measures of group results over a relatively brief time frame – typically monthly, quarterly or annually – they are also known as collective or group short-term incentive plans, or ‘STIs’.
We begin our exploration of collective STIs by outlining the general rationale for such plans and by overviewing the four main plan types: profit-sharing, gainsharing, goal-sharing and team incentives. Subsequent sections explore each of these four plan types in more detail, noting the advantages and disadvantages of each. Consistent with the approach taken in earlier chapters, a final section considers the strategic priorities to which each plan type would be most and least appropriate.
The practice of recognising and rewarding the individual performance of employees is not only becoming more common but also more varied in form. It ranges from the traditional merit-based pay increments to a suite of non-cash reward programs that claim to provide a cheaper and more effective means of rewarding desirable performance and fostering employee satisfaction and engagement. This chapter provides an overview of these practices, starting with merit pay. Merit pay is the most widely applied of the individual performance pay plans, and takes two main forms: merit increments and merit bonuses. We then consider some of the oldest and most enduring of all performance pay plans, results-based individual incentives. Also known as individual ‘payment-by-results’ plans, these include piece rates, task-and-time bonus plans (where employees are rewarded for completing a specified volume of work or a task in less than a ‘standard’ time), sales commissions and bonus payments to individuals for achievement of goals.
Neuroimaging studies of vulnerability to Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) have identified structural and functional variations which might reflect inheritable features in alcohol-naïve relatives of AUD individuals (FH+) compared to controls having no such family history (FH-). However, prior research did not simultaneously account for childhood maltreatment, any clinically significant disorder and maternal AUD. Therefore, we mainly aimed to investigate the brain structure and reward-related neural activations (fMRI), using whole-brain analysis in FH+ young adults with no prevalent confounders.
46 FH+ and 45 FH- male and female participants had no severe childhood maltreatment exposure, neither any psychiatric disorder or AUD, nor a prenatal exposure to maternal AUD. We used a 3 T MRI coupled with a whole brain voxel-based method to compare between groups the grey matter volumes and activations in response to big versus small wins during a Monetary Incentive Delay task. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire score was used as confounding variable in the analyses to account for the remaining variance between groups.
Compared to FH- controls, FH+ participants had smaller grey matter volumes in the frontal and cingulate regions as well as in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and right insula. The FH+ participants’ fMRI datasets denoted a blunted activation in the middle cingulum with respect to FH- controls’ during the processing of reward magnitude, and a greater activation in the anterior cingulum in response to anticipation of a small win.
Family history of alcohol use disorder is linked to structural and functional variations including brain regions involved in reward processes.
In this address, I distinguish and explore three conceptions of wages. A wage is a reward, given in recognition of the performance of a valued task. It is also an incentive: a way to entice workers to take and keep jobs, and to motivate them to work hard. Finally, a wage is a price of labor, and like all prices, conveys valuable information about relative scarcity. I show that each conception of wages has its own normative logic, or appropriate justification, and these logics can come apart. This explains some of the debate about wages and makes the project of justifying a wage simpliciter difficult. I identify which logic we should choose, since we must choose, and say what this means for how we should think about the justification of pay.
The professionalization of politics and the disappearance of party organizations based on activists seems an inescapable trend. This chapter shows the relevance of organizational rules for explaining the reproduction of party activism. Using data from both an online survey of people differing in their levels of engagement with the FA and in-depth interviews with party activists, we show that those with relatively low levels of engagement – “adherents” – and activists differ in their willingness to cooperate with the party and in the amount of time they devote to party activities. Also, we find that reducing the perceived efficacy of political engagement strongly decreases activists’ self-reported willingness to engage with the party, while this reduction has no effect upon adherents. These findings suggest that the design of organizational rules that grant a political role to grassroots organizers can promote party activism.
Chapter 1 provides a history of the EITC, explaining how the concept dates back to Milton Friedman’s idea for a negative income tax, Richard Nixon’s Family Assistance Plan proposal, and Russell Long’s work bonus plan. This chapter traces how, over four decades, a modest work incentive evolved into one of the most important antipoverty programs in the United States. It highlights studies correlating the EITC with positive outcomes for recipient families. The chapter also introduces the Code’s other refundable tax credit for working families – the Child Tax Credit – and distinguishes the two tax credits.