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This chapter argues that the use of speed manipulation in digital cinema constitutes special affects of exhilaration and the stun. This emphasis on temporal manipulation supplements the spatial emphasis contained in much work on digital cinema. Digital tools enable a common manipulation of speed and time that potentially innervates the affections of exhilaration and the stun or jolt. In particular, two blockbuster movies – 300 and The Hobbit: Battle of the Five Armies – illustrate the common construction of suspension-images and aftermath-images whose combinations result in the special affects outlined here. The chapter concludes by connecting these images to the consumer culture today, arguing that they express the turn towards an affective consumerism concerned primarily with the production of affective experiences over visual spectacle. In short, cinematic features today, like many consumer commodities, have become something to viscerally feel rather than visually behold, with time manipulation becoming central to this goal.
This article proposes the methodological framework of visual narrative analysis through the study of images and narratives. We are interested in the appeal of political storytelling. In applying an approach of layered interpretation, we study images and slogans to consider the more complex underlying narratives in their political and cultural context. Our exploratory case studies draw on material from right-wing populist parties, namely election campaign posters from Germany and the UK as material for the analysis. We find that narratives operate with a ‘fantasmatic logic’, which adds fantasy to politics, to depoliticise and camouflage their radical intent and gain approval by making consent desirable. We identify two exemplary narratives (honest men under threat; proud mothers) that entrench traditional gender roles in accordance with patriarchy and nationalism. Theoretically, our approach contributes to debates in IR on cultural underpinnings in international politics and the construction of collective identities through shared/divided narratives. Visual narrative analysis provides a promising methodological tool for analysing visual representations in their productive relationship with text. This perspective foregrounds the power of political storytelling through fantasmatic appeal and fosters a better understanding of the global rise of populism.
How are images, emotions, and international politics connected? This article develops a theoretical framework contributing to visuality and emotions research in International Relations. Correcting the understanding that images cause particular emotional responses, this article claims that emotionally laden responses to images should be seen as performed in foreign policy discourses. We theorise images as objects of interpretation and contestation, and emotions as socially constituted rather than as individual ‘inner states’. Emotional bundling – the coupling of different emotions in discourse – helps constitute political subjectivities that both politicise and depoliticise. Through emotional bundling political leaders express their experiences of feelings shared by all humans, and simultaneously articulate themselves in authoritative and gendered subject positions such as ‘the father’. We illustrate the value of our framework by analysing the photographs of Alan Kurdi, a three-year-old Syrian-Kurdish boy who drowned in September 2015. ‘Kurdi’ became an instant global icon of the Syrian refugee crisis. World leaders expressed their personal grief and determination to act, but within a year, policies adopted with direct reference to Kurdi's tragic death changed from an open-door approach to attempts to stop refugees from arriving. A discursive-performative approach opens up new avenues for research on visuality, emotionality, and world politics.
The chapter explores restraint in the context of security. It examines two cases where restraint proved difficult or even unsatisfying: (1) the 2013 US decision to avoid military action against Syria following the latter’s 2013 chemical weapons attack and (2) the 2014 ISIS beheadings that drew the USA into a limited use of military strikes against that transnational terrorist organization. It also applies the complexes to different Islamic movements over time. It concludes via ontological security and securitization with the reasons restraint appears to be so unsatisfying in the context of security policies.
The study of dexterous manipulation has provided important insights into human sensorimotor control as well as inspiration for manipulation strategies in robotic hands. Previous work focused on experimental environment with restrictions. Here, we describe a method using the deformation and color distribution of the fingernail and its surrounding skin to estimate the fingertip forces, torques, and contact surface curvatures for various objects, including the shape and material of the contact surfaces and the weight of the objects. The proposed method circumvents limitations associated with sensorized objects, gloves, or fixed contact surface type. In addition, compared with previous single finger estimation in an experimental environment, we extend the approach to multiple finger force estimation, which can be used for applications such as human grasping analysis. Four algorithms are used, c.q., Gaussian process, convolutional neural networks, neural networks with fast dropout, and recurrent neural networks with fast dropout, to model a mapping from images to the corresponding labels. The results further show that the proposed method has high accuracy to predict force, torque, and contact surface.
The purpose of this study is to investigate quantitatively the correlation of displacement vector fields (DVFs) from different deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms to register images from helical computed tomography (HCT), axial computed tomography (ACT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with motion parameters.
Materials and methods:
CT images obtained from scanning of the mobile phantom were registered with the stationary CT images using four DIR algorithms from the DIRART software: Demons, Fast-Demons, Horn–Schunck and Lucas–Kanade. HCT, ACT and CBCT imaging techniques were used to image a mobile phantom, which included three targets with different sizes (small, medium and large) that were manufactured from a water-equivalent material and embedded in low-density foam to simulate lung lesions. The phantom was moved with controlled cyclic motion patterns where a range of motion amplitudes (0–20 mm) and frequencies (0·125–0·5 Hz) were used.
The DVF obtained from different algorithms correlated well with motion amplitudes applied on the mobile phantom for CBCT and HCT, where the maximal DVF increased linearly with the motion amplitudes of the mobile phantom. In ACT, the DVF correlated less with motion amplitudes where motion-induced strong image artefacts and the DIR algorithms were not able to deform the ACT image of the mobile targets to the stationary targets. Three DIR algorithms produce comparable values and patterns of the DVF for certain CT imaging modality. However, DVF from Fast-Demons deviated strongly from other algorithms at large motion amplitudes.
The local DVFs provide direct quantitative values for the actual internal tumour shifts that can be used to determine margins for the internal target volume that consider tumour motion during treatment planning. Furthermore, the DVF distributions can be used to extract motion parameters such as motion amplitude that can be extracted from the maximal or minimal DVF calculated by the different DIR algorithms and used in the management of the patient motion.
Fiona Sampson looks beyond any simplistic account of legacy in her nuanced tracing of Plath’s continuing influence on British poetry. While Plath left no substantial or explicit articulation of her poetics, her early published work indicates some of her own literary debts. The free verse which eventually muscles its way out of that initial formality is closely related, in both rhythm and register, to exactly contemporary work by Ted Hughes. Almost universally read by contemporary British poets, she contributes a Plathian dimension to contemporary British poetics as a whole. This is less apparent in today’s Confessional free verse, which owes much to life writing and oral forms, than in the continuation, alongside the Hardy/Larkin mainstream, of a more risk-taking, symbolic and higher-register tradition. Its protagonists include Sharon Olds, Louise Glück, Selima Hill and Denise Riley.
From simple averaging to more sophisticated registration and restoration strategies, such as super-resolution (SR), there exist different computational techniques that use a series of images of the same object to generate enhanced images where noise and other distortions have been reduced. In this work, we provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of this enhancement for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. These images are compared in two ways, qualitatively through visual inspection in real and reciprocal space, and quantitatively, through the calculation of objective measurements, such as signal-to-noise ratio and atom column roundness. Results show that these techniques improve the quality of the images. In this paper, we use an SR methodology that allows us to take advantage of the information present in the image frames and to reliably facilitate the analysis of more difficult regions of interest in experimental images, such as surfaces and interfaces. By acquiring a series of cross-sectional experimental images of magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films (111), we have generated interpolated images using averaging and SR, and reconstructed the atomic structure of the very top surface layer that consists of a full monolayer of Fe, with topmost Fe atoms in tetrahedrally coordinated sites.
The article is based on a study of how social media and other types of online representations of nursing homes are described by staff. The study proceeds from a qualitative thematic analysis of 14 interviews with nursing-home representatives. The article addresses a key finding that was apparent in the interviews: the online representations’ form and content were adjusted to fit the demands of residents’ relatives. Given the peripheral role attributed to relatives in official Swedish eldercare policies, the motives for the online representations are systematically examined. Two motives are found to be central: marketing and assurance. Residents’ relatives, specified as adult children, were perceived pre-admission as customers in charge of the process of choice and placement; post-admission, relatives requested proof that social activities were provided for their parents. The article discusses how online representations strategically construct a version of ‘reality’ by adjusting to relatives’ unrealistic expectations, only showing residents as involved in social activities. Finally, the need to examine the actual role of relatives in Swedish eldercare is discussed.
Ingrid Lossius Falkum uses data from young children’s communicative development to argue that metaphor and metonymy rely on different pragmatic mechanisms. Metaphor and metonymy do have certain characteristics in common: they both target individual words or phrases, they both contribute content to the proposition explicitly expressed, and they both lie on a continuum of literal and figurative uses. However, developmental data suggests that early metonymic uses may be the result of a more basic process than metaphorical uses, one in which the child exploits salient associative relations to compensate for gaps in vocabulary.
The focus of this chapter is on issues arising for the understanding of metaphors in a second language learning context. Elly Ifantidou presents an empirical study in which native Greek-speaking learners of English were presented with a selection of metaphors from British newspapers. The results of this comprehension task suggest that even when second language learners are confronted with a metaphor whose intended propositional content they cannot fully grasp, the literal content of the metaphor may still trigger images, sensorimotor processes and emotional attitudes which provide them with a partial interpretation.
A large number of studies have been made on denoising of a digital noisy image. In regression filters, a convolution kernel was determined based on the spatial distance or the photometric distance. In non-local mean (NLM) filters, pixel-wise calculation of the distance was replaced with patch-wise one. Later on, NLM filters have been developed to be adaptive to the local statistics of an image with introduction of the prior knowledge in a Bayesian framework. Unlike those existing approaches, we introduce the prior knowledge, not on the local patch in NLM filters but, on the noise bias (NB) which has not been utilized so far. Although the mean of noise is assumed to be zero before tone mapping (TM), it becomes non-zero value after TM due to the non-linearity of TM. Utilizing this fact, we propose a new denoising method for a tone mapped noisy image. In this method, pixels in the noisy image are classified into several subsets according to the observed pixel value, and the pixel values in each subset are compensated based on the prior knowledge so that NB of the subset becomes close to zero. As a result of experiments, effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed.
Little is known about mental images (cognitive representations with sensory qualities) in body integrity identity disorder (BIID). This study aimed to determine whether individuals with BIID experience mental images and, if so, whether they differ to those experienced by individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and healthy controls. A semi-structured interview on mental images and their qualities was delivered to a sample of 22 individuals with BIID and 19 with BDD, and 22 healthy controls. Both the BIID (n = 15, 68.2%) and BDD (n = 14, 73.7%) groups reported significantly more mental images than healthy controls (n = 3, 13.6%), but no differences between the two clinical groups were found. While mental images in BDD were focused on ‘flawed’ body parts, images in BIID involved the desired handicap. Mental images in BIID were experienced as less distressing and more sexually arousing compared to BDD. No further differences were found between the groups (e.g., regarding sensory multimodality, dominance of a specific body part). Although the two groups reported a similar frequency of mental images, images appear to serve different functions across conditions. Clinically, it may be necessary to target the positive mental images in BIID to improve treatment outcome.
This article explores the degree to which the rule and style of the bishops of Rome after the deposition of the last Roman emperor in the West in 476 had any imperial elements, in the light of the evidence contained within the Liber pontificalis. Papal rule in Rome was cast as a replacement of imperial rule in religious matters, an opportunity for the bishop to assume political responsibility and also a deliberate emulation of imperial behaviour. This is manifest above all in the textual record in the Liber pontificalis of the papal embellishment of Rome, and in the physical evidence of the extant basilicas of the city. The deliberately imperial elements of papal self-presentation and the importance of Rome's primacy, apostolic succession and orthodoxy, all articulated so emphatically within the Liber pontificalis, indicate the multitude of strands by which the papacy wove the fabric of its own imperium or power.
The eButton takes frontal images at 4s intervals throughout the day. A three-dimensional manually administered wire mesh procedure has been developed to quantify portion sizes from the two-dimensional images. The present paper reports a test of the inter-rater reliability and validity of use of the wire mesh procedure.
Seventeen foods of diverse shapes and sizes served on plates, bowls and cups were selected to rigorously test the portion assessment procedure. A dietitian not involved in inter-rater reliability assessment used standard cups to independently measure the quantities of foods to generate the ‘true’ value for a total of seventy-five ‘served’ and seventy-five smaller ‘left’ images with diverse portion sizes.
The images appeared on the computer to which the digital wire meshes were applied.
Two dietitians and three engineers independently estimated portion size of the larger (‘served’) and smaller (‘left’) images for the same foods.
The engineers had higher reliability and validity than the dietitians. The dietitians had lower reliabilities and validities for the smaller more irregular images, but the engineers did not, suggesting training could overcome this limitation. The lower reliabilities and validities for foods served in bowls, compared with plates, suggest difficulties with the curved nature of the bowls.
The wire mesh procedure is an important step forward in quantifying portion size, which has been subject to substantial self-report error. Improved training procedures are needed to overcome the identified problems.
Colposcopes are expensive, heavy, and need specialized technical service, which may outreach the capacity of low-resource settings. Our aim was to assess the performance of smartphone-based digital images for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+).
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women recruited through a cervical cancer screening campaign had VIA/VILI assessment (visual inspection after application of acetic acid/lugol's iodine). Cervical digital images were captured with a smartphone camera, randomly coded with no prior selection and distributed on an online database (Google Forms) for evaluation. Healthcare providers were invited to evaluate the images and identify CIN2+. The gold standard was the histopathological diagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CIN2+ was assessed for each reader and reported with the 95 percent confidence interval (Clopper-Pearson method).
One hundred twenty-five consecutive HPV-positive women were included, with 19 CIN2+ (15.2 percent). Forty-five gynecologists completed the assessment, one-third were considered as experts (>50 colposcopies) and two-thirds as novices (<50 colposcopies). The sensitivity and specificity for CIN 2+ detection was 71.3 percent (67.0–75.7 percent) and 62.4 percent (57.5–67.4 percent), respectively. The performance of novices and experts was similar. The readers assessed 73.1 percent of images as acceptable for diagnostic.
Smartphone-based digital images, with its high portability, have a great potential for the diagnosis of CIN2+ in low-resource context.
A direct prejudgement strategy that takes the diffraction ring as the analysis target is put forward to predict hot images induced by defects of tens of microns in the main amplifier section of high power laser systems. Analysis of hot-image formation process shows that the hot image can be precisely calculated with the extracted intensity oscillation of the diffraction ring on the front surface of the nonlinear plate. The gradient direction matching (GDM) method is adopted to detect diffraction rings. Recognition of simulated diffraction rings shows that it is feasible to directly prejudge hot images induced by those closely spaced defects and the defects that are far apart from each other. Image compression and cluster analysis are utilized to optimize the performance of the GDM method in recognizing actually collected diffraction images. Results show that hot images induced by defects of tens of microns can be directly prejudged without redundant information.
The article focuses on an episode concerning the photographs of the famous Belgian stigmatic, Louise Lateau. Examining the events leading up to the bishop's decision to restrict the circulation of her portrait, it becomes clear that the ‘affair’ of 1877 was as much about creating her public saintly image as it was about controlling it. Studying the ecclesiastical response to grassroots initiatives adds a more religious perspective to the young field of celebrity studies and offers a more complex view on sanctity, and the role of the media and modern techniques in its creation, use and misuse.
Assessment of Tar Spot Complex (TSC) severity in maize breeding experiments is conducted visually and may sometimes result in inconsistencies due to human interpretation. Disease scoring using remote sensing technologies may help bring more precision to the phenotyping process. An experiment for assessment of grain yield losses due to TSC was conducted at the Aguafria Experimental Station of the International Center for Wheat and Maize Improvement – CIMMYT in Mexico. Twenty-five maize genotypes were planted in spring of 2016 under a fungicide treatment to control TSC development and no fungicide treatment in a square lattice design with three replications. Four flights were carried out using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a multispectral (550, 660, 735, 790 nm) and a thermal camera, simultaneously with the visual disease scorings and the yield was measured after harvesting. The preliminary results of the study indicated that the use of remote sensing in disease resistance phenotyping may be as effective as visual disease scoring since both correlate highly with the grain yield. Structural and chlorophyll vegetation indices (VIs) proved to be a good alternative for the estimation of yield losses caused by TSC in experimental field conditions, which may be potentially used for screening for resistance to this disease in maize genotypes, hypothetically reducing the need for visual disease scoring in the field.
The present work investigated the application of detailed airborne images and a resistivity soil sensor (Veris 3100) to detect soil and crop spatial variability to assist in orchard management. The research was carried out in a peach orchard (Prunus persica). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), NDVI from a multispectral image (0.25 m/pixel) and soil properties at 40 sampling points (0–30 cm) were acquired. The ECa was standardized at 25°C. It showed a strong relationship with former landforms, altered by land levelling. A positive correlation of EC25 with EC1:5, water holding capacity at −1500 kPa and soil depth was found. NDVI was correlated only in the textural fractions coarser than clay. Two types of management zones were proposed: a) to improve the water holding capacity of soils and b) to regulate tree vigour and yield.