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The inclusion of a chapter on ethical issues in a property law text is hardly conventional. You will struggle to find matters of professional and legal ethics or ethical duties and obligations discussed in either a text or arguably a course on property law. However, we believe a different way of tackling matters of ethics is required. It remains important to acquire a solid grounding in the legal and regulatory framework relevant to legal ethics, including the sorts of ethical and professional dilemmas confronted by both law students and legal practitioners in a rapidly changing profession. It is also important to gain an understanding of how ethical issues and dilemmas arise in property transactions, dealings and practice.
With the integration of technology into property law and the professional work of property lawyers and conveyancers, the role and context of ethical decision-making is relevant for both the student learning property law and the property law practitioner in the modern period.
Before conducting an experiment with human subjects, researchers much consider a number of important ethical and regulatory constraints. This chapter reviews the leading ethical concerns that arise in the context of human subjects research in general and experimental research in particular. These ethical concerns have also set in motion regulations, such as The Common Rule, that researchers must follow before launching a study. The chapter concludes by discussing other professional norms, such as research transparency.
This chapter addresses the question of Johnson’s ethical thought and argues that it is in and through his balanced, subtle, and refined writings that we most see it in play. The piece summons Johnson’s own definition of ethics in his Preface to the Preceptor, an educational work written for the publisher Robert Dodsley (1748), and finds in the work of three thinkers – Isaac Watts, William Law, and Cicero – strong influential strands of thought that offered him both Christian and classical models for how humans should behave toward their fellow-beings. Johnson put in play questions of ethical behavior in his periodical writings, allowing him to present complex moral dilemmas from the multiple angles needed to encompass them. The chapter, taking up a hint from John Sitter, summons an ethical Johnson who might help us face twenty-first century problems with grace and inclusivity.
Ethics are fundamentally important to all forms of archaeological theory and practice and are embedded within many professional codes of conduct. The ethics of archaeological engagement with conflicts around the world have also been subject to scrutiny and debate. While archaeology and archaeological heritage are increasingly viewed as significant elements of post-conflict work, with much to contribute to rebuilding stable and secure societies, there has been limited acknowledgement and debate of post-conflict ethical issues and challenges for archaeologists. This paper is intended to stimulate discussion around major ethical issues, the problems and possible ways forward for post-conflict archaeology and archaeological heritage.
This introductory chapter briefly outlines the main theme of this volume, namely, to review the new opportunities and risks of digital healthcare from various disciplinary perspectives. These perspectives include law, public policy, organisational studies, and applied ethics. Based on this interdisciplinary approach, we hope that effective strategies may arise to ensure that benefits of this ongoing revolution are deployed in a responsible and sustainable manner. The second part of the chapter comprises a brief review of the four parts and fourteen substantive chapters that make up this volume.
This chapter contends that Paul has a coherent approach to ethics and the law of God if understood with an incarnational and a reconciliatory component for Christ and his disciples. It gives special attention to his idea of “the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus. The chapter relates Paul’s approach to ethics and the law of God to reparative self-sacrifice. It thus gives a primary role to a divine lawgiver, above the law itself, thereby enabling the kinds of changes in the law and in the covenants acknowledged by Paul. The chapter attributes a key role in Paul’s perspective on ethics and the law to the promise of the new covenant in Jeremiah and Ezekiel. The chapter contends that Paul aimed to uphold the law of God, not to nullify it, through faith in God, and that he acknowledged “the law of Christ” as exemplifying the law of God. He also recognized the law of God in terms of “the law of the Spirit of life” in Christ Jesus. Paul acknowledged his dying to (the works of) the law in order to “live to God” and to Christ, in a way that reciprocates divine self-sacrificial love.
Recently, there has been growing interest in artificial intelligence (AI) to improve efficiency and personalisation of mental health services. So far, the progress has been slow, however, advancements in deep learning may change this. This paper discusses the role for AI in psychiatry, in particular (a) diagnosis tools, (b) monitoring of symptoms, and (c) delivering personalised treatment recommendations. Finally, I discuss ethical concerns and technological limitations.
This chapter presents the first detailed study of afterlife heroic power in the Oresteia. Aeschylus only uses the word “hero” (hērōs) once in his plays, for the anonymous powerful ancestors who send and receive the expedition to Troy in the Agamemnon. But in the Choephoroi, Agamemnon is prayed to as powerful at his tomb, and in the Eumenides, Orestes predicts his own heroic power from beyond the grave. The Oresteia famously relocates these two mythical heroes to Argos to associate them with that city’s treaty with Athens. This chapter demonstrates that the representation of father and son after death reverses expectations not only from the world external to the play, but also from their living actions within the trilogy. Agamemnon becomes an ethically whitewashed ancestor figure; conversely, Orestes, who killed his mother, becomes a political hero. These radical afterlife transformations are a major part of the Oresteia’s “poetics of the beyond.”
In acknowledging that ethics should be regarded as the cornerstone of healthcare practice and the significance of professional regulation for healthcare practitioners providing patient care, it is vital to develop an understanding of how and why this is the case. This chapter has been written to support all perioperative practitioners in developing this knowledge in the context of the operating theatre. The chapter includes discussion of some of the key moral theories and frameworks that may be used to guide reflective, ethical decision making before moving on to consider the role of professional codes and regulation in prescribing and enforcing standards of professional conduct and directing ethical decision making.
The emergence of digital platforms and the new application economy are transforming healthcare and creating new opportunities and risks for all stakeholders in the medical ecosystem. Many of these developments rely heavily on data and AI algorithms to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor diseases and other health conditions. A broad range of medical, ethical and legal knowledge is now required to navigate this highly complex and fast-changing space. This collection brings together scholars from medicine and law, but also ethics, management, philosophy, and computer science, to examine current and future technological, policy and regulatory issues. In particular, the book addresses the challenge of integrating data protection and privacy concerns into the design of emerging healthcare products and services. With a number of comparative case studies, the book offers a high-level, global, and interdisciplinary perspective on the normative and policy dilemmas raised by the proliferation of information technologies in a healthcare context.
The Ghost of Clytemnestra is the first afterlife figure in extant Greek literature to call for vengeance instead of ritual burial. Speaking for the sake of her own soul (psychē), the Ghost cites the ethical wrongs done to her as a mother killed by her own son and as a queen dishonored in the afterlife. The Ghost’s claims, however, have never been seriously considered by scholars. By contrast, the Erinyes do take up her cause, chasing down Orestes and arguing a universal version of Clytemnestra’s case in the trial. This chapter delves into the specifics of the Ghost’s rhetoric, her metatheatrical self-awareness, and her first-person depiction of the afterlife. The living Clytemnestra has already proven manipulative, politically usurping, and murderous; she continues these behaviors after death. Further, the Ghost’s lack of substance (as image, soul, or dream of the Erinyes) distances her from the living world. How can a character so far outside of societal norms demand serious ethical consideration?
The Eumenides contains one of the earliest descriptions anywhere of Hades as a universal judge. The Erinyes threaten Orestes with a continuation of his punishment after death by “the great assessor of mortals beneath the earth.” This passage contains the first extant catalogue of Hades’ ethical concerns: he is said to punish human–divine, parent–child, and guest–host transgressions. Although he “sees all things,” the name Hades derives from a-idein, literally the “unseen,” a moniker that exemplifies the human inability to confront this nonpolitical, absolute judge. By differentiating Hades from the Erinyes, this chapter draws out the dynamics of his character and ethical law. Like them, Hades’ connection with blood and punishment entails pollution, but unlike them, he is never subordinated to Athens. The analysis then contrasts Hades’ law to the “new law” that Athena creates. It argues that Hades represents an alternate, yet still valid ethical code that can be used to critique the jingoistic and bellicose politics of the trilogy’s ending.
The introduction provides necessary background on Ancient Greek religious and literary ideas about the afterlife, methods for analyzing ethics in literature that several of the chapters will challenge, a working definition of tragic poetics, and historical context and preliminary definitions relevant for political structures and themes in the Oresteia.
Pharmacological and cognitive neuroenhancement refer to the non-medical use of prescription drugs, alcohol, illegal drugs, or the so-called soft enhancers, to enhance cognition, mood, work or school performance, or to promote pro-social behaviour. Literature on the topic is meagre, and available data only partially enlightens their use.
The aim of this paper is to review and comment on the available literature on pharmacological neuroenhancement and, secondary, on emotional enhancement.
A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, PsychInfo and Google Scholar databases were accessed to select English language articles, published from 1980 to April 2020. 11746 papers were initially selected and 123 papers were finally included.
Available literature indicates a widespread and increasing use of different kinds of substances, drugs and food supplements mainly with neuroenhancing purposes, especially amongst specific populations of young healthy subjects. The evidence regarding their efficacy is controversial. Further, a limited or no awareness regarding the possible consequences of their abuse/misuse emerges amongst users.
Despite the limited evidence that some substances may improve cognitive functions in healthy subjects and neglecting their detrimental side effects and potential risk of misuse, abuse and addiction, there is an increasing worldwide use of the so-called neuroenhancers, especially in some categories of individuals, such as university students. Further studies are needed to collect reliable data on the effects of neuroenhancers in healthy subjects. Neuroenhancement puts into question the concept of authenticity, so that the problem requires to be analyzed within a complex ethical conceptual frame.
Loneliness among older people is perceived as a global public health concern, although assumptions that old age is a particularly lonely time for everyone are not accurate. While there is accumulating quantitative and qualitative evidence on the experience and impact of loneliness amongst older adults, there is little exploration of methodological issues that arise in engaging with older adults particularly through research-oriented conversations. The sensitivity and stigma often attached to loneliness means that interviewing research participants presents ethical challenges for researchers navigating complex emotional responses. This paper presents reflections from three research projects that used research interviews to explore accounts of loneliness experienced by older people. The everyday methodological decisions of research teams are often hidden from view, but through a critical examination of reflexive accounts of fieldwork, this paper makes visible the internal and external negotiations of researchers responding to ethical complexity. The paper explores the key decisions that researchers make during interviews about loneliness: how to introduce the topic; how to phrase questions about loneliness; when to ask the questions; how to deal with the stigma of loneliness and respond to ageism; and how to manage the participant–researcher relationship post-interview. The paper concludes with recommendations for appropriately navigating ethical complexity in loneliness research, thus contributing to an effective qualitative methodological approach to researching loneliness in later life.
Since last year there has been a lively ethical discussion in Poland about the influence of religion and new cultural currents on medical ethics. There are many ways to work towards increasing ethical sensitivity in education of mental health care professionals.
All texts dealing with issues described were collected and divided into three groups: promoting new currents of thought, faithful to tradition, others. Presented views were analyzed basing on Polish Code of Medical Ethics (nil.org.pl/uploaded_images/1574857770_kodeks-etyki-lekarskiej.pdf) and compared with dominating philosophical schools.
A total of 33 articles were published: 20 presenting new approach to medical ethics, supported by the Editorial Board (72% of the total), 7 embedded in traditional values (22%), 6 without a clear stand or denying the discourse on ethical issues (6%). Articles presented philosophical views (personalism, virtue ethics, utilitarianism, constructionism), discussed ethical standards, actions contrary to the dignity of medical profession, value of human life, compliance of arguments with medical knowledge, principles of dealing with patients in terminal states, the duty of care for the pregnant woman and her child.
All texts show dilemmas in our environment, reflect views in Polish society and in ethical discourse around the world. Thanks to them, readers familiarize themselves with the contemporary ethical debate and form their own opinions; also they are encouraged to reach for the indicated sources and their own research.
As a part of continuous destigmatization of mental illness and paople with mental disorders significant importance has media reporting, especially in modern times.
Media reports about mental health (MH) are still an issue of a great discussion concerning their content especially in ethical matters. Many initiatives in different countries resulted in various changes in attitudes and influenced on this topic. But the image of mental illness as well as psychiatry in general are still burdened with the shadow of stigma.
To show development of one of initiatives in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) supported by policy makers through the creation and broad distribution of recommendations for ethical media reporting about mental disorders.
In 2019 Task Force appointed by both entities’ ministries of health in BH developed an publication with recommendation for ethical reporting about mental health topics with special highlights on specific mental disorders (schizophrenia, depression, suicide, addictions, etc.). It was widely distributed to media and health institutions in the country and was officially adopted as the recommendation of the national Regulatory Agency for Media. Trough five rounds of educational workshops in 2019 and 2021 more than 150 media and mental health professionals were introduced with the publication as well as practical implementation of this recommendations (as is exercises of giving statement).
In BH is developed very useful tool for more quality media reporting about MH topics as one of important ways for reducing the stigma and discrimination of people with mental disorders as well as promotion of good mental health
Body Integrity Dysphoria (BID) is a diagnosis, newly described in ICD-11, “characterised by an intense and persistent desire to become physically disabled in a significant way… accompanied by persistent discomfort, or intense feelings of inappropriateness concerning current non-disabled body configuration”. Patients with BID may request the amputation of healthy limbs but this raises multiple ethical challenges.
By the end of the presentation, participants 1) will better understand the new diagnosis of Body Integrity Dysphoria; 2) will be able to have some landmarks to evaluate and manage this rare condition 3) will discern the ethical challenges raised by an elective or emergent amputation request.
We present a complex case we faced in Quebec City, Canada. A young adult admitted to the intensive care and burn unit was referred to our Consultation Liaison (CL) team. For the second time in a year, the individual deliberately burned his leg, with the intention of having an amputation. Based on the available literature and our experience, we explore the ethical aspects of this case.
For this situation, the multidisciplinary team faced uncertainty and ambivalence toward the best treatment options. Deontological concerns and ethical issues emerged from the patient’s request for amputation.
We outline how ethical concepts helped us to gain a shared comprehension of the patient’s extraordinary request, both during treatment and afterwards.
The Oresteia is permeated with depictions of the afterlife, which have never been examined together. In this book, Amit Shilo analyzes their intertwined and conflicting implications. He argues for a 'poetics of multiplicity' and a 'poetics of the beyond' that inform the ongoing debates over justice, fate, ethics, and politics in the trilogy. The book presents novel, textually grounded readings of Cassandra's fate, Clytemnestra's ghost scene, mourning ritual, hero cult, and punishment by Hades. It offers a fresh perspective on the political thought of the trilogy by contrasting the ethical focus of the Erinyes and Hades with Athena's insistence on divine unity and warfare. Shedding new light on the trilogy as a whole, this book is crucial reading for students and scholars of classical literature and religion.
Bilateral cingulotomy and anterior capsulotomy are two neurosurgical procedures which are reserved as a last resort for cases of severe OCD in Spain; these procedures are not approved in cases of AN.
We present the case of a 29-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) when she was 15 (2006). Due to the severity of the case the patient needed to be hospitalized for many months due to excessive weight loss. She was also treated in an out-patient department and started several intensive psychotherapeutic procedures. In 2015 the patient’s family took her to a private clinic where she was diagnosed with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and had a bilateral cingulotomy and anterior capsulotomy.
A case report where the ethical implications of the case are weighed alongside a review of the relevant literature regarding neurosurgical treatments of AN.
There were no significant short or long term improvements in terms of Body Mass Index or reduction of symptoms, the patient’s cognitive functions showed a decline in neuropsychological tests. Contrary to that the patient has needed hospitalizations for at least 9 months per year since the surgery and has needed admission in the Intensive Care Unit at least 3 times because of extreme malnutrition. Due to her need for chronic hospitalization was institutionalized in a long-stay psychiatric hospital.
Psychosurgery is a controversial therapy which has limited evidence in cases of AN. Our case shows the way in which neurosurgical procedures can do more harm than good and worsen the prognosis of patients.