Due to unplanned maintenance of the back-end systems supporting article purchase on Cambridge Core, we have taken the decision to temporarily suspend article purchase for the foreseeable future. We apologise for any inconvenience caused whilst we work with the relevant teams to restore this service.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter first illustrates the fundamental characteristics of nuclear energy, by outlining: (i) The history of nuclear energy; (ii) The current key technological aspects of nuclear energy; (iii) The key global trends in nuclear energy production; (iv) The prospects for its future potential use. It then outlines the security and geopolitical risks related to nuclear energy, also with a focus on the cases of Iran and North Korea.
This chapter introduces the reader to the main global energy issues. It starts by illustrating the fundamental role of energy in modern societies, and it continues by outlying the key energy challenges facing the globe as a result of rising demand for energy. Among these, particular attention is devoted to climate change, energy access in developing countries and energy security.
This chapter illustrates the strategic importance of energy efficiency in the built environment and in industrial and agricultural sectors. It discusses the major energy end-uses within the various sectors, and outlines the types of technologies that can improve efficiency. It describes the barriers that energy efficiency implementation faces, and outlines the strategies and policies to overcome them. The chapter also underlines the synergisms that can occur by integrating energy efficiency with distributed energy strategies, and the strategic importance of creating decentralized options for accessing electricity, heating, and cooling.
This chapter first illustrates the fundamental characteristics of coal, including: (i) History of coal; (ii) Where coal resources are currently located across the globe; (iii) Technological aspects of coal exploration, production and transport; (iv) Global coal production, consumption and trade trends. It then outlines the environmental issues associated with the utilization of coal in electricity generation and heating. To conclude, the chapter outlines the social and political issues related to the phase-out of coal.
This chapter looks at the global characteristics of renewable energy use, focusing on traditional renewable energy sources such as bioenergy, hydropower, and geothermal. For each technology option, the chapter outlines the fundamental technological aspects and the key global production and consumption trends. By doing so, the chapter also assesses the cost dimension of the various sources, by presenting the evolution of global levelized costs of electricity in the last decade.
This chapter starts by outlying the key characteristics of oil use, including: i) The history of oil; ii) Where oil resources are currently located across the globe, also with a focus on the difference between conventional and unconventional resources; iii) Technological aspects of oil exploration, production and transport; iv) Global oil production, consumption and trade trends. It then analyses the geopolitical issues associated with oil, including: i) How changes in the locations of oil supply could affect global security; ii) How changes in the locations for oil demand could affect global security; iii) The current “chokepoints” in transporting oil supply to users, and how their risks could be addressed.
This chapter focuses on modern renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and marine energy. For each technology option, the chapter outlines the fundamental technological aspects and the key global production and consumption trends. By doing so, the chapter also assesses the cost dimension of the various sources, by presenting the evolution of global levelized costs of electricity in the last decade. The chapter also discusses the applicability of renewables to both centralised and distributed power systems, and outlines the importance of digital technologies in facilitating the integration of variable renewable energy sources into the grid. The chapter concludes with an outline of the barriers to renewable energy implementation and of the strategies to address them.
This chapter looks at the major energy-related problems facing Africa, including costs, environmental pollution, social inequities, and infrastructure challenges. It provides an understanding of the major challenges of energy poverty, including: (i) The problem of lack of access to electricity, options to address this problem, strategies and policies to implement these options, and examples where the problem has been addressed; (ii) The problem of dependence on dirty cookstoves for major energy needs, options to address this problem, strategies and policies to implement these options, and examples where the problem has been addressed. The chapter also looks at the potential for African countries to leapfrog traditional energy sources and infrastructure to distributed renewable energy systems and innovative transportation systems.
The objective was to investigate which predictive equations provide the best estimates of resting energy expenditure (REE) in postpartum women with overweight and obesity. Lactating women with overweight or obesity underwent REE measurement by indirect calorimetry, and fat-free mass (FFM) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at three postpartum stages. Predictive equations based on body weight and FFM were obtained from the literature. Performance of the predictive equations were analysed as the percentage of women whose REE was accurately predicted, defined as a predicted REE within ±10 % of measured REE. REE data were available for women at 10 weeks (n 71), 24 weeks (n 64) and 15 months (n 57) postpartum. Thirty-six predictive equations (twenty-five weight-based and eleven FFM-based) were validated. REE was accurately predicted in ≥80 % of women at all postpartum visits by six predictive equations (two weight-based and four FFM-based). The weight-based equation with the highest performance was that of Henry (weight, height, age 30–60 years) (HenryWH30−60), with an overall mean of 83 % accurate predictions. The HenryWH30−60 equation was highly suitable for predicting REE at all postpartum visits (irrespective of the women's actual age), and the performance was sustained across changes in weight and lactation status. No FFM-based equation was remarkably superior to HenryWH30−60 for the total postpartum period.
The chapter explores the ways in which, and the reasons why, humanitarian discourse in disarmament was marginalised in the first two decades following the Second World War. The chapter starts by providing a brief overview of the way in which weapons technology developed in advance of and during the Second World War, looking in particular at anti-personnel landmines, incendiary weapons, major developments in aerial warfare and nuclear weapons. It also identifies reasons why the overall environment was so resistant to humanitarian disarmament in this period, including a possible desensitisation to the harms wrought by the War, the security rather than peace focus of the new United Nations and the way in which humanitarianism itself became institutionalised and therefore politically suspect. Despite the inhospitable environment, important efforts were made through the work of the International Committee of the Red Cross to regulate the use of indiscriminate weapons through its attempt to persuade states to adopt various rules against particular types of weapons and means of warfare. Although ultimately unsuccessful, this campaign was a clear attempt to use humanitarian arguments to support calls for legal prohibitions on the use of certain weapons.
A provisional setup for X-ray microprobe experiments at 35 keV is described. It is based on compound refractive lenses (CRLs) for nanofocusing and a Vortex silicon drift detector with 2 mm sensor thickness for increased sensitivity at high energies. The Microprobe experiment (PETRA III) generally uses Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for submicrometer focusing in the energy range of 5–21 keV. However, various types of scanning X-ray microscopy experiments require higher excitation energies. The CRL optics were characterized by X-ray ptychography and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) knife edge scans on a siemens star pattern and showed beam sizes down to 110 nm. The performance of the new setup for microscopic X-ray diffraction (XRD)–XRF scanning X-ray microscopy measurements at 35 keV is demonstrated on a cross-section of a painting fragment.
This study aimed to investigate an interaction between energy intake, physical activity, and UCP2 gene variation on weight gain and adiposity changes in Indonesian adults. This is a prospective cohort study conducted in 323 healthy adults living in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Energy intake, physical activity, body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured at baseline and after two years while and UCP2 -866G/A gene variation was determined at baseline. We reported that after two years subjects had a significant increment in body weight, BMI, body fat and reduction in WHR (all p<0.05). In all subjects, total energy intake was significantly correlated with changes in body weight (B=0.128, p=0.023) and body fat (B=0.123, p=0.030). Among subjects with GG genotype, changes in energy intake was positively correlated with changes in body weight (B=0.232, p=0.016) and body fat (B=0.201, p=0.034). These correlations were insignificant among those with AA+GA genotypes (all p>0.05). In summary, we show that UCP2 gene variation might influence the adiposity response towards changes in energy intake. Subjects with GG genotype of UCP2 -866G/A gene were more responsive to energy intake thus more prone to weight gain due to overeating.
In this paper, CuCr–Zr alloys prepared by vacuum melting with adding La and Ni elementswere heat-treated and aged, followed by plastic deformation using low-energy cyclic impact tests, to simultaneously improve their mechanical and electrical properties. Results showed that the grain size of the casted Cu–Cr–Zr alloys was significantly reduced after the solid-solution aging and plastic deformation process. There were a lot of dispersed Cr and Cu5Zr precipitates formed in the alloys, and the numbers of dislocations were significantly increased. Accordingly, the hardness was increased from 78 to 232 HV, and the tensile strength was increased from 225 to 691 MPa. Electrical conductivity has not been significantly affected after these processes. The enhancement of overall performance is mainly attributed to the combined effects of solid-solution hardening, fine grain hardening, and precipitation/dislocation strengthening.
Turbulent fluxes make a substantial and growing contribution to the energy balance of ice surfaces globally, but are poorly constrained owing to challenges in estimating the aerodynamic roughness length (z0). Here, we used structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys to make plot-scale 2-D and 3-D microtopographic estimations of z0 and upscale these to map z0 across an ablating mountain glacier. At plot scales, we found spatial variability in z0 estimates of over two orders of magnitude with unpredictable z0 trajectories, even when classified into ice surface types. TLS-derived surface roughness exhibited strong relationships with plot-scale SfM z0 estimates. At the glacier scale, a consistent increase in z0 of ~0.1 mm d−1 was observed. Space-for-time substitution based on time since surface ice was exposed by snow melt confirmed this gradual increase in z0 over 60 d. These measurements permit us to propose a scale-dependent temporal z0 evolution model where unpredictable variability at the plot scale gives way to more predictable changes of z0 at the glacier scale. This model provides a critical step towards deriving spatially and temporally distributed representations of z0 that are currently lacking in the parameterisation of distributed glacier surface energy balance models.
To investigate the association between energy drink (ED) use and sleep-related disturbances in a population-based sample of young adults from the Raine Study.
Analysis of cross-sectional data obtained from self-administered questionnaires to assess ED use and sleep disturbance (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ-10) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Symptoms Questionnaire–Insomnia (PSSQ-I)). Regression modelling was used to estimate the effect of ED use on sleep disturbances. All models adjusted for various potential confounders.
Males and females, aged 22 years, from Raine Study Gen2–22 year follow-up.
Of the 1115 participants, 66 % were never/rare users (i.e. <once/month) of ED, 17·0 % were occasional users (i.e. >once/month to <once/week) and 17 % were frequent users (≥once/week). Compared with females, a greater proportion of males used ED occasionally (19 % v. 15 %) or frequently (24 % v. 11 %). Among females, frequent ED users experienced significantly higher symptoms of daytime sleepiness (FOSQ-10: β = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·32, 1·54, P = 0·003) and were five times more likely to experience insomnia (PSSQ-I: OR = 5·10, 95 % CI 1·81, 14·35, P = 0·002) compared with never/rare users. No significant associations were observed in males for any sleep outcomes.
We found a positive association between ED use and sleep disturbances in young adult females. Given the importance of sleep for overall health, and ever-increasing ED use, intervention strategies are needed to curb ED use in young adults, particularly females. Further research is needed to determine causation and elucidate reasons for gender-specific findings.
The prevalent presence of a single chiral variant of molecules in live organisms is one of the most distinctive signs of life as a global phenomenon. One of the greatest ambitions of biochemistry and astrobiology is to provide an explanation of this predominance. Several mechanisms were proposed in the past, from the propagation of chirality from a homo-chiral substrate to the amplification of effects associated with electro-weak interactions. Here, a different scenario is proposed: anomalous fluctuations associated with a self-replication scenario can lead to the selective extinction of primordial organisms using one of two enantiomers as an enzyme. These fluctuations arise spontaneously under very general conditions. The idea is based on three key points: (a) the simulation of early biological processes as a ‘board game’; (b) the presence of large fluctuations during an autocatalytic process; (c) the presence of a limited source of chemical energy, inducing a form of competition in a primordial replicator population. In order to demonstrate this mechanism, a computational model is developed, describing the ‘struggle for life’ of two different kinds of primordial replicators on a ‘chessboard’ with periodic boundary conditions; each replicator employs enzymes of different chirality on a non-chiral substrate, thereby with no selective advantage. The replication occurs randomly and with a fixed probability, providing that a sufficient amount of chemical energy is locally available. For the first time, our model includes the local balance of chemical energy in a molecular form on the substrate. The correlation between the chemical energy and the local populations is shown. Results clearly show that strong fluctuations in the number of individuals of each species and subsequent selective extinction events of one of the two species are observed. These studies may contribute to shed light on the most mysterious phase transition that occurred during the biochemical evolution of our planet.
Innovation is an important part of energy policy, and encouraging clean energy innovation is often an explicit goal of policy makers. For local governments, promoting clean energy innovation is seen not only as a pathway to a cleaner economy but also as a tool for promoting the local economy. But is such optimism warranted? There is a substantial literature examining the relationships between innovation and environmental policy, but few studies focus explicitly on innovation at the state and local level. In this paper, I provide key lessons from research on clean energy innovation, focusing on lessons relevant for state and local governments. I then summarize the results of a recent working paper by Fu et al. (2018) that studied wind energy innovation across individual states in the United States. While state-level policies can promote clean energy innovation, it is overall market size that matters most. Thus, innovation need not occur in those states most actively promoting clean energy. I conclude with lessons for state and local governments drawn from both this work and the broader literature on energy innovation.
The canonical ensemble describes systems which can exchange energy with their surroundings, which may be modelled as a heat bath. The statistical mechanical quantity that characterizes systems in the canonical ensemble is the partition function, which is shown to be related to the Helmholtz free energy. The connections between statistical mechanics and the laws of thermodynamics are discussed. The application of the canonical ensemble is illustrated through a variety of examples: two-level systems, the quantum and classical simple harmonic oscillator, rigid rotors and a particle in a box. The differences in the statistical properties of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles are considered and used to derive the thermodynamic properties of ideal and non-ideal gases, including the ideal gas equation, the Sackur--Tetrode equation and the Van der Waals equation. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the equipartition theorem and its application to the Dulong--Petit Law.
This chapter elaborates on how moral remembrance resonates for local communities. It briefly theorises the concept of solidarity as currently understood, placing particular focus on Randall Collins’s work on the significance of interaction ritual chains and emotional energy. Central to his interaction ritual chain theory is the notion that people in face-to-face encounters produce mutual rituals that are sustained through an emotional energy that results in a feeling of membership and in a desire for action that is considered a morally ‘proper’ path. Drawing on numerous human rights–sponsored memorialisation initiatives in the Western Balkans and Israel–Palestine, the chapter analyses the myriad of ‘facing the past’ dialogue groups. The chapter demonstrates that ‘facing the past’ encounters ritualise historical narratives and generate a strong vocabulary of sentiments, which, in the long run, does not translate transnational solidarity into human rights values but ends up strengthening ethnic homogenisation, essentialisation and group polarization. In other words, moral remembrance does not offer a real alternative to sustaining those emotions and transforming them into solid, long-lasting human rights values; instead, contrary to what would be expected, it strengthens the narrow, ethnically based nationalist perceptions of collective memory, and reproduces nationalist discourses and practices.
The 2-degrees target of the Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goal 7 on energy are intrinsically intertwined and highlight the urgency of an effective and integrated approach on climate change and energy. However, there are over a hundred international and transnational institutions with different characteristics and priorities that aim to address climate and energy-related targets. While prior research has contributed useful insights into the complexity of climate and energy governance, respectively, an integrated and coherent analysis of the climate-energy nexus is lacking. This chapter therefore maps, visualizes, and analyzes this nexus, i.e. institutions that seek to govern climate change and energy simultaneously. In addition, the chapter zooms in on three specific subsets of institutions: renewable energy, fossil fuel subsidy reform, and carbon pricing. The mapping and analysis are based on a new dataset and provide first insights into the gaps, overlaps, and varying degrees of complexity of the climate-energy nexus and across its subfields. Moreover, the chapter serves as the empirical basis for further analyses of coherence, management, legitimacy, and effectiveness, and as the first step in creating a knowledge base to guide actors who seek to navigate the institutionally complex landscape of the climate-energy nexus.