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This chapter provides guidance on ways to become aware of the language you use and the stories you tell about your research in order to gain insight about the assumptions you hold about research. Noticing these patterns provides the opportunity to craft new stories that reinforce your use of the creative abilities and your identity as a creative scholar.
This chapter explores the role of human energy in creative research practice. Researchers don’t necessarily work in ways that reflect or enhance available energy. In this chapter, we discuss ways to become more aware of your energy, including becoming cognizant of different types of energy and of trends in your energy over time, and we provide guidance on ways to use that knowledge to work smarter. Working with your energy can also help you boost your creative abilities, by helping you cultivate the mental and emotional states that best support the types of thinking needed to be emotionally intelligent, to find and frame problems, and to ideate and experiment.
The chapter proposes public participation as a principle of ‘good’ energy governance that legitimatises energy decisions and fosters their social acceptance. Adopting a public international law perspective, it highlights how the Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention) constrains domestic decision making in the energy sector. Paying special attention to the contribution of the committee charged with reviewing state compliance with the convention’s obligations, it offers a detailed analysis of its conclusions and recommendations in the context of two cases: the United Kingdom’s decision to build a nuclear power station in Hinkley Point and the design of a renewable energy policy in Scotland. On that basis, the chapter concludes on the increasingly important role that international law plays in democratising energy decision-making processes.
Energy policy making is complex, and policy makers have traditionally relied on evidence and assessments dominated by a handful of disciplines from the natural and physical sciences. These assessments have often focused on technological solutions with the implicit message that the answer to policy needs lies in identifying and developing the right technology. Historically, however, problems arise in the implementation process of new technologies. These obstacles may be better understood, and either alleviated or avoided, through a more holistic analysis of energy policy requirements that includes multidisciplinary approaches from the social sciences and humanities. This chapter introduces the main ideas of the book, including an overview of each chapter and the most important arguments of the book.
In this chapter, we discuss the evolution of the field of ‘ethics of nuclear energy’, regarding its past, present and future. We will first review the history of this field in the previous four decades, focusing on new and emerging challenges of nuclear energy production and waste disposal, in light of several important developments. Four of the most pressing ethical challenges will be further reviewed in the chapter. First, what is a morally ‘acceptable’ nuclear energy production method, if we consider the existing and possible new technologies? Second, provided a new tendency to consider nuclear waste disposal with several countries, what would be the new ethical and governance challenges of these multinational collaborations? Third, how should we deal with the (safety) challenges of the new geographic distribution of nuclear energy, tilting towards emerging economies with less experience with nuclear technology? Fourth, nuclear energy projects engender highly emotional controversies. Neither ignoring the emotions of the public nor taking them as a reason to prohibit or restrict a technology – we call them technocratic populist pitfalls respectively – seem to be able to guide responsible policy making.
This chapter examines the uses of academic approaches to history in discussing energy policy. It sets out a case that the value of history is not simply in the past as a source of empirical data on policy and behaviour (which is accessible to any discipline), but a style of synthetic thinking and evaluation particular to the study of History as a disciplines. History may provide analogue situations for current dilemmas, and a long-term view on change, but does not necessarily work in large-scale or long-term phenomena. Rather, it is the blending of perspectives and the assumption of causal complexity, as opposed to methodological and explanatory parsimony, that marks the value of historical approaches. This is exemplified in the history of prediction, asking not whether predictions were accurate (generally they were not), but why demand for them arose and how they were constructed so as to be plausible to actors.
It is important to recognize that macroeconomic conditions and dynamics were important for the design of Swedish energy policy and that the transformation pressure on the Swedish energy system was exceptionally high by international comparison. Historic decisions, which were governed by a rationality fostered by the circumstances in the 1940s and early 1950s, came to form important structures which affected the outcome of the energy policy in the 1970s and 1980s. The perhaps most striking consequence of this was the emergence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon with few international counterparts. The transformative change of the Swedish energy system included several steps, which in retrospect seem accidental. The challenge today is to copy the sequence, while at the same time realizing that the structures and historical circumstances that brought about a sequence that was historically determined and of a contingent nature cannot easily serve as a ‘copy and paste’ learning example.
Political science does not offer a distinct subdiscipline to address the subject of energy. Insofar as political science has addressed energy, it has focused on issues often neglected by other disciplines, notably the role of geopolitics and international relations, and the domestic politics of resource-rich states. Apart from the different subfields, we examine different approaches including realism, constructivism, liberalism and Marxism. The rise and fall and rise again of academic articles on energy in leading political science journals is reviewed and linked to exogenous forces such as the price of oil. Two distinct energy topics which have received attention are nuclear power and the oil crises of 1973–79 because of their wider geopolitical ramifications. Perhaps the most prominent or consistent thread through studies of the politics of energy is the question of energy security or energy independence. Finally, in recent years, energy has increasingly emerged as a focus for study in environmental politics and climate change politics in particular.
Sow productivity improvements continue to increase metabolic demands during lactation. During the peripartum period, energy requirements increase by 60%, and amino acid needs increase by 150%. As litter size has increased, research on peripartum sows has focused on increasing birth weight, shortening farrowing duration to reduce stillbirths and improving colostrum composition and yield. Dietary fibre can provide short-chain fatty acids to serve as an energy source for the uterus prior to farrowing; however, fat and glucose appear to be the main energy sources used by the uterus during farrowing. Colostrum immunoglobulin G concentration can be improved by increasing energy and amino acid availability prior to farrowing; however, the influence of nutrient intake on colostrum yield is unequivocal. As sows transition to the lactation period, nutrient requirements increase with milk production demands to support large, fast-growing litters. The adoption of automated feed delivery systems has increased feed supply and intake of lactating sows; however, sows still cannot consume enough feed to meet energy and amino acid requirements during lactation. Thus, sows typically catabolise body fat and protein to meet the needs for milk production. The addition of energy sources to lactation diets increases energy intake and energy output in milk, leading to a reduction in BW loss and an improvement in litter growth rate. The supply of dietary amino acids and CP close to the requirements improves milk protein output and reduces muscle protein mobilisation. The amino acid requirements of lactating sows are variable as a consequence of the dynamic body tissue mobilisation during lactation; however, lysine (Lys) is consistently the first-limiting amino acid. A regression equation using published data on Lys requirement of lactating sows predicted a requirement of 27 g/day of digestible Lys intake for each 1 kg of litter growth, and 13 g/day of Lys mobilisation from body protein reserves. Increases in dietary amino acids reduce protein catabolism, which historically leads to improvements in subsequent reproductive performance. Although the connection between lactation catabolism and subsequent reproduction remains a dogma, recent literature with high-producing sows is not as clear on this response. Many practical aspects of meeting the nutrient requirements of lactating sows have not changed. Sows with large litters should approach farrowing without excess fat reserves (e.g. <18 mm backfat thickness), be fed ad libitum from farrowing to weaning, be housed in a thermoneutral environment and have their skin wetted to remove excess heat when exposed to high temperatures.
The El Niño event in 2015/2016 was one of the strongest since at least 1950. Through surveys and interviews with key informants, we found businesses in the capital cities of Zambia, Botswana and Kenya experienced major disruption to their activities from El Niño related hydroelectric load shedding, water supply disruption and flooding, respectively. Yet, during the 2015/2016 El Niño, fluctuations in precipitation were not extreme considering the strength of the El Niño event. Results therefore highlight that even fairly moderate precipitation anomalies can contribute to major disruption to economic activity. Addressing the risk of disruption – and supporting the private sector to adapt – is a development priority.
To identify most commonly consumed foods by adolescents contributing to percentage of total energy, added sugars, SFA, Na and total gram intake per day.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014.
NHANES is a cross-sectional study nationally representative of the US population.
One 24 h dietary recall was used to assess dietary intake of 3156 adolescents aged 10–19 years. What We Eat in America food category classification system was used for all foods consumed. Food sources of energy, added sugars, SFA, Na and total gram amount consumed were sample-weighted and ranked based on percentage contribution to intake of total amount.
Three-highest ranked food subgroup sources of total energy consumed were: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB; 7·8 %); sweet bakery products (6·9 %); mixed dishes – pizza (6·6 %). Highest ranked food sources of total gram amount consumed were: plain water (33·1 %); SSB (15·8 %); milk (7·2 %). Three highest ranked food sources of total Na were: mixed dishes – pizza (8·7 %); mixed dishes – Mexican (6·7 %); cured meats/poultry (6·6 %). Three highest ranked food sources of SFA were: mixed dishes – pizza (9·1 %); sweet bakery products (8·3 %); mixed dishes – Mexican (7·9 %). Three highest ranked food sources of added sugars were: SSB (42·1 %); sweet bakery products (12·1 %); coffee and tea (7·6 %).
Identifying current food sources of percentage energy, nutrients to limit and total gram amount consumed among US adolescents is critical for designing strategies to help them meet nutrient recommendations within energy needs.
In the field of business and politics, research on the role of business actors in individual fossil fuel industries that contribute to climate change has been sparse. At the same time theorising the role of ad hoc coalitions has been limited even though they appear to be an important vehicle for business actors seeking to shape contemporary policy contests. This paper attempts to address these understudied areas by drawing on a rich empirical dataset to examine the role of three ad hoc coalitions in the U.S. energy sector. In doing so, it builds on the existing literature to establish a theoretical basis for identifying the defining elements of ad hoc coalitions and the conditions under which business actors decide to establish them. Further, it sheds light on how business actors use ad hoc coalitions in three key fossil fuel industries—gas, oil, and coal—to shape policy outcomes, and in turn shape the path to a clean energy transition.
Technology costs and deployment rates, represented in experience curves, are typically seen as the main factors in the global clean energy transition from fossil fuels towards low-carbon energy sources. We argue that politics is the hidden dimension of technology experience curves, as it affects both costs and deployment. We draw from empirical analyses of diverse North American and European cases to describe patterns of political conflict surrounding clean energy adoption across a variety of technologies. Our analysis highlights that different political logics shape costs and deployment at different stages along the experience curve. The political institutions and conditions that nurture new technologies into economic winners are not always the same conditions that let incumbent technologies become economic losers. Thus, as the scale of technology adoption moves from niches towards systems, new political coalitions are necessary to push complementary system-wide technology. Since the cost curve is integrated globally, different countries can contribute to different steps in the transition as a function of their individual comparative political advantages.
Improving milk nitrogen efficiency through a reduction of CP supply without detrimental effect on productivity requires usage of feeding systems estimating both the flows of digestible protein, the exported true proteins and from these predict milk protein yield (MPY). Five feeding systems were compared in their ability to predict MPY v. observed MPY in two studies where either protein supply or protein and energy supply were changed. The five feedings systems were: Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (v6.5.5), Dutch protein evaluation system (1991 and 2007), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique in France (INRA), National Research Council and NorFor. The key characteristic of the systems with the best predicted MPY was the inclusion of a variable efficiency of utilisation of protein supply taking into account the supply of both protein and energy. The systems still using a fixed efficiency had the highest slope bias in their prediction of MPY. Therefore, the development of new feeding systems or improvement of existing systems should include a variable efficiency of utilisation of the protein related to both the protein and energy supply. The limitation of the current comparison did not allow determining if additional factors, as used in INRA, were beneficial. This concept should also probably be transferred to essential amino acids.
For decades, political scientists have observed the diffusion of complex governance arrangements including public participation procedures to ameliorate the democratic deficit inherent in these often-opaque structures. This article asks how the information provided in consultation statements is used by the consulting actors. To account for the multi-step character, the article combines exchange theory with a principal-agent approach, acknowledging that several actors in a delegation chain might be interested in the provided information. We use a typical case of a multi-step procedure – participation in German grid development – to test both theories. Neither the private firms nor the regulator use information provided in their own consultations, contradicting exchange theory. But the regulator considers ecological submissions made in the firms’ consultation, as the principal-agent approach suggests. Thus, a principal-agent approach allows us to find influence of consultation statements that exchange theory cannot detect.
The literature on transnational regulatory networks identified interdependence as their main rationale, downplaying domestic factors. Typically, relevant contributions use the word “network” only metaphorically. Yet, informal ties between regulators constitute networked structures of collaboration, which can be measured and explained. Regulators choose their frequent, regular network partners. What explains those choices? This article develops an Exponential Random Graph Model of the network of European national energy regulators to identify the drivers of informal regulatory networking. The results show that regulators tend to network with peers who regulate similarly organised market structures. Geography and European policy frameworks also play a role. Overall, the British regulator is significantly more active and influential than its peers, and a divide emerges between regulators from EU-15 and others. Therefore, formal frameworks of cooperation (i.e. a European Agency) were probably necessary to foster regulatory coordination across the EU.
Biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is represented in many integrated assessment models as a keystone technology in delivering the Paris Agreement on climate change. This paper explores six key challenges in relation to large scale BECCS deployment and considers ways to address these challenges. Research needs to consider how BECCS fits in the context of other mitigation approaches, how it can be accommodated within existing policy drivers and goals, identify where it fits within the wider socioeconomic landscape, and ensure that genuine net negative emissions can be delivered on a global scale.
In the nuclear sector, turnkey projects can be considered an investment in obtaining information through “learning by doing” to capture rents from the next generation of reactors. As the first U.S. turnkey export project, the first Spanish nuclear power plant served that purpose and paved the way for the subsequent growth of the nuclear sector, for both Spanish and U.S. firms. Making use of archival material, we analyze the networks created by the government, experts, and business leaders, which sought to obtain, accumulate, and learn from the scarce and conflicting information about atomic technology that was available at the time. We also discern how firms on both sides of the Atlantic acquired and perfected the specific capabilities required to build a commercial nuclear reactor.
Cass R. Sunstein’s book The Ethics of Influence appears to have three ideological features notable for purposes of this essay. The book emphasizes choice architecture (and related notions such as nudges and defaults), which should be ethically scrutinized to guard against ethical abuses and to assist us in ethically desirable uses of scientific psychology and behavioral economics. (1) This particular book focuses more on scrutinizing nation-state government than on corporate activities. (2) This book focuses more on domestically directed governmental action than on externally directed governmental action. (3) This book focuses more on certain developed liberal democracies than on the more comprehensive global situation. Sunstein is especially interested in environmental issues, particularly energy policy, global warming, and climate change. This essay argues that Sunstein’s conceptual scheme can be fruitfully expanded to progress toward a normative environmental ethics that can be integrated with the insights of global political economy.
This article examines the emergence in colonial Korea of a command economy for forestry products following the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45). It does so, first, by tracing the policy mechanisms through which the colonial state commandeered forest products, especially timber, firewood, and charcoal. Second, through an analysis of the wartime promotion of a “low temperature lifestyle,” it offers a thumbnail sketch of the lived experiences and corporeal consequences of state-led efforts to rationalize fuel consumption. Considered together, these lines of analysis offer insight into not only the ecological implications of war on the Korean landscape, but also the bodily privations that defined everyday life under total war—what might be called the “slow violence” of caloric control.