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This research communication aims to test the hypothesis that B-Mode, colour Doppler ultrasonographic measurements and characteristics can identify mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 102 lactating cows were divided into 3 groups: cows in which all mammary quarters were CMT-negative, cows with CMT-positive mammary quarters and cows with clinical mastitis in at least one quarter. Colour Doppler ultrasonography measurements of the supramammary lymph nodes revealed that distortion-type vascular morphology, the rate of type 4 vascular densities and the incidence of mixed-type vascular distributions were highest in the clinical mastitis group, whereas the frequency of avascularity in supramammary lymph nodes was highest in the CMT-negative group. All differences were significant. In conclusion, the use of B-mode and colour Doppler ultrasonographic measurements of the supramammary lymph nodes can provide useful information about the current condition of mastitis in cows, although its diagnostic potential remains to be determined.
In noise radar, digital signal processing algorithms for implementing the computation of the Cross Ambiguity Function through range correlation and Doppler compensation call for optimized solutions. In fact, to achieve a high coherent processing gain, they often compute a large amount of data beyond the maximum range and/or the maximum radial velocity of interest, adding useless information. A novel, efficient algorithm, called Range Filter Bank, is proposed to implement a scope-tailored computation of range/Doppler data in continuous emission noise radar. Downstream its theoretical analysis, the algorithm has been applied to a real-life case study based on dedicated field experiments, in which good quality kinematic data of a car moving at various speeds have been extracted.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) safety issues of have been of concern for some time. Spoofing attacks have received much attention as they can be difficult to detect and have the potential to cause disruption at best and major damage in extremis. To mitigate such threats, a spoofing detection method based on the consistency check of Doppler positioning fixes and pseudorange positioning fixes is proposed. The primary contributions of this paper include establishing a Generalised Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT)-based statistical detection model for the introduced spoofing detection method and efficiently improving the accuracy of the Doppler positioning method as well as the performance of the detection approach by a modified α-filter-based Doppler smoothing technique. Theoretical performance of the proposed detection model is analysed. Monte Carlo simulations were also conducted to verify the theoretical analysis. Moreover, grounded on the developed test statistic and the optimised threshold, a consistency check module was specifically realised in both software defined and real-time GNSS receivers. Additionally, a Doppler smoothing technique was applied to the receivers. Spoofing attack experiments on both software defined and real-time platforms validated the effectiveness of the statistical spoofing detection model.
The different examples that had been used in Section 1 as motivations, are revisited at the light of what has been discussed later. The bat echolocation case is considered in a greater generality, with considerations about sequences of calls and the “why and how” of their structure in terms of optimality. Time-frequency formulations of matched filtering are proposed and used for, e.g., supporting in a geometrical way the solution to Doppler-tolerance. A similar analysis is provided for gravitational waves, with signal denoising complemented by parameter estimations and comparisons with theoretical models. Finally, Riemann’s zeta-function, as well as variations thereof and Weierstrass' functions, are given a time-frequency interpretation based on their disentanglement into chirp components.
Pulse compression technique allows a radar to achieve the resolution of a short pulse and the energy of a long pulse simultaneously, without the requirement of high-power transmission. Therefore, pulse compression radars have a low probability of intercept capability. The common types of pulse compression signals are frequency modulated waveforms and phase-coded waveforms, which have different properties. The optimum radar signal should have good immunity against deceptive jamming, good Doppler tolerance to detect high-speed targets, and low time-sidelobe level to detect weak targets nearby the strong ones. This paper reviews the current research in the commonly used radar signals, and presents their pros and cons, and compares between them in terms of Doppler tolerance, time-sidelobe level, as well as immunity against jamming in order to provide a reference for the researchers in the field of radar systems and electronic warfare.
This research communication describes the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic examination (CEUS) in mammary glands of ewes for diagnosis of chronic mastitis; this is the first report of the use of this modality in diagnostic imaging of mammary glands of ruminants. For this purpose, a convex transducer was used, with the following settings: frequency: 2·0/4·0 MHz, mechanical index: 0·09, power: 22 dB, scanning depth: 70 mm, and sulphur hexafluoride in microbubbles at a dose of 20 µl as the contrast agent. In four healthy mammary glands (2 ewes), CEUS examination revealed a steady biphasic pattern of contrast agent kinetics characterised by initial uptake within 15–40 s post-injection, at which time intensity peaked with strong enhancement (130–200 AEU) followed by a gradual wash-out phase. In three mammary glands with history of clinical mastitis (2 ewes), the pattern was particularly inconsistent and unclear, with weak enhancement (<100 AEU) (P < 0·01) lasting for a short period. Notwithstanding issues regarding cost and withdrawal period of contrast-agent, this imaging modality may contribute to improved diagnosis of mastitis cases, especially on occasions when abnormalities cannot be easily confirmed by more conventional methods.
The present study used a sheep model of intrauterine growth restriction, combining maternal undernutrition and twinning, to determine possible markers of early damage to the fetal kidney. The occurrence of early deviations in fetal hemodynamics which may be indicative of changes in blood perfusion was assessed by Doppler ultrasonography. A total of 24 sheep divided in two groups were fed with the same standard grain-based diet but fulfilling either their daily maintenance requirements for pregnancy (control group; n=12, six singleton and six twin pregnancies) or only the 50% of such quantity (food-restricted group; n=12; four singleton and eight twin pregnancies). All the fetuses were assessed by both B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography at Day 115 of pregnancy. Fetal blood supply was affected by maternal undernutrition, although there were still no evidences of brain-sparing excepting in fetuses at greatest challenge (twins in underfed pregnancies). However, there were early changes in the blood supply to the kidneys of underfed fetuses and underfed twins evidenced decreases in kidney size.
Three types of multilayer flyer energy conversion elements (MFECEs) through integrating different laser pulse absorption/ablation layer of nano-film materials into a laser-driven flyer plates between thermal barrier of alumina and transparent substrate have been investigated in this study. The relationships among the velocity of flyer plates, initiation performance of hexanitrostilbene (HNS-IV), and initiation energy were analyzed, comparing with single-layer Al flyer plate. The photonics Doppler velocimetry and James criterion were utilized in the experiments to characterize the velocity of flyer plates and shock initiation of laser-driven flyer detonator, respectively. The surface reflectivity measurements of the Al, C/Al and Mg/Al layers were performed using laser reflectivity. HNS-IV without initiation was analyzed by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. Caused by aluminum/alumina/aluminum (Al/Al2O3/Al) flyer plate, the residual fragments were found in the pit on the surface of charge. The results obtained were shows that three types of multilayer flyer plates can initiate HNS-IV successfully under the lower laser pulse energy, although all four kinds of flyer plates have successfully initiated HNS-IV with laser pulse energy in the range of 53.80–166.80 mJ. Changing the ablation layer structure and adding thermal insulation layer to the multilayer flyer plates, reduces the shock initiation laser pulse energy of HNS-IV to 53.80 mJ. The laser-driven flyer detonator has significant advantages in providing safety and reliability, especially in a strong electromagnetic environment. The MFECEs of laser-driven flyer detonator exhibited a high level of integration and proved to have promoted laser-driven energy coupling rate, which can significantly be used to improve the performance of the laser-driven flyer detonator in military and civilian applications.
The imaging of stones in the salivary glands and ducts poses a challenge, even to experienced ultrasound examiners. This study investigated whether the ‘twinkling artefact’, which occurs at internal calcific foci during Doppler ultrasound examinations, is useful for detecting salivary gland stones.
In a model test, 20 salivary stones were analysed in vitro, via Doppler ultrasound, with regard to their representability and the triggering of the twinkling artefact. In a follow-up study, 28 patients with sialolithiasis and food-related large salivary gland swellings were examined, using both power and colour Doppler modes, with regard to the twinkling artefact. All ultrasound examinations were performed by an experienced examiner and retrospectively graded by two experienced sonographers.
All stones could reliably be detected using the twinkling artefact in the model test. Twenty-seven of 28 salivary stones (96 per cent) also showed twinkling in vivo, during patient assessment. The power Doppler mode showed a significantly higher intensity level of twinkling than the colour Doppler mode (p < 0.0001).
The twinkling artefact is a very reliable sign for the diagnosis of sialolithiasis. Power Doppler is superior to colour Doppler for detection of the twinkling artefact.
The adaptive changes of the foetal heart in intrauterine growth restriction can persist postnatally. Data regarding its consequences for early circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess cardiac morphometry and function in newborns with late-onset intrauterine growth restriction to test the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction causes cardiac shape and functional changes at birth.
A comprehensive echocardiographic study was performed in 25 neonates with intrauterine growth restriction and 25 adequate-for-gestational-age neonates.
Compared with controls, neonates with intrauterine growth restriction had more globular ventricles, lower longitudinal tricuspid annular motion, and higher left stroke volume without differences in the heart rate. Neonates with intrauterine growth restriction also showed subclinical signs of diastolic dysfunction in the tissue Doppler imaging with lower values of early (e′) diastolic annular peak velocities in the septal annulus. Finally, the Tei index in the tricuspid annulus was higher in the intrauterine growth restriction group.
Neonates with history of intrauterine growth restriction showed cardiac remodelling and signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Overall, there was a significant tendency to worse cardiac function results in the right heart. The adaptation to extrauterine life occurred with more globular hearts, higher stroke volumes but a similar heart rate compared to adequate-for-gestational-age neonates.
Obesity increases the risk for various cardiovascular problems. Increase in body mass index is often an independent risk factor for the development of elevated blood pressure and clustering of various cardiovascular risk factors.
To determine early markers of left ventricular affection in obese patients before the appearance of left ventricular hypertrophy.
In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 42 obese patients and 30 healthy controls. Their ages ranged from 6 to 19 years. Studied children were subjected to anthropometric, lipid profile, and serum Troponin I level measurements. Echocardiographic evaluation performed to assess the left ventricle included left ventricular dimension measurement using motion-mode echocardiography, based on which patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (10 patients) were eliminated, as well as conventional and tissue Doppler imaging.
Tissue Doppler findings in the study groups showed that the ratio of transmitral early diastolic filling velocity to septal peak early diastolic myocardial velocity (E/e′) was significantly higher in cases compared with controls [6.9±1.4 versus 9.0±1.6, p (Pearson’s coefficient)=0.001, respectively]. The level of cardiac troponin I was significantly higher in cases compared with controls [0.14±0.39 ng/ml versus 0.01±0.01 ng/ml, p (Pearson’s coefficient)=0.047, respectively] and there was a significant correlation between troponin I and transmitral early diastolic filling velocity to septal peak early diastolic myocardial velocity ratio (E/e′) [R (correlation coefficient)=0.6].
Tissue Doppler Imaging and Troponin I evaluation proved useful tools to detect early affection of the left ventricle in obese patients even in the absence of left ventricular hypertrophy.
Relative position awareness is a vital premise for the implementation of emerging intelligent transportation systems. However, commercial Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSS) receivers do not satisfy the requirements of these applications. Fortunately, Cooperative Positioning (CP) systems, based on inter-vehicle communications, have improved performance of relative positioning in a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET). CP techniques rely primarily on measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) to deliver measurements or positions that describe the location of individual vehicles. In urban environments, the reduced quality or complete unavailability of GPS measurements challenges the effectiveness of any CP algorithm. In this paper, a new enhanced tightly–coupled CP technique is presented by adding the measurements from low-cost inertial sensors and the Doppler shift of the carrier of Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) signals. In the enhanced CP method proposed here, vehicles communicate their Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data and GPS measurements. Each vehicle fuses the GPS measurements and IMU data and the inter-node range-rates based on the Doppler shift of the carrier of DSRC signals. Based on analytical and experimental results, in a full GPS coverage environment, the new tight integration CP outperforms tight CP with Inertial Navigation System (INS), tight CP and differential GPS by at least by 6%, 15%, and 28%, respectively. In a GPS outage, the performance improvement can be up to 60%, 55%, and 66% respectively.
Underwater position data is a key requirement for the navigation and control of unmanned underwater vehicles. The proposed navigation scheme can be used in any vessel or boat for any shallow water vehicle. This paper presents the position estimation algorithm developed for shallow water Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) using attitude data and Doppler Velocity Log data with the initial position from the Global Positioning System (GPS). The navigational sensors are identified using the in-house developed simulation tool in MATLAB, based on the requirement of a position accuracy of less than 5%. The navigation system is built using the identified sensors, Kalman filter and navigation algorithm, developed in LabVIEW software. The developed system is tested and validated for position estimation, with an emulator consisting of a GPS-aided fibre optic gyro-based inertial navigation system as a reference, and it is found that the developed navigation system has a position error of less than 5%.
Surveillance of fetal arrhythmias in the outpatient setting remains limited by lack of monitoring modalities. Despite technological advances made in the field of obstetrics, existing devices are not currently suitable to monitor fetal arrhythmias. In this report, the author describes the current and developing fetal heart rate monitoring technologies including the recent introduction of hand-held Doppler monitors for outpatient surveillance of fetal arrhythmias.
Precise autonomous navigation remains a substantial challenge to all underwater platforms. Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and Doppler Velocity Logs (DVL) have complementary characteristics and are promising sensors that could enable fully autonomous underwater navigation in unexplored areas without relying on additional external Global Positioning System (GPS) or acoustic beacons. This paper addresses the combined IMU/DVL navigation system from the viewpoint of observability. We show by analysis that under moderate conditions the combined system is observable. Specifically, the DVL parameters, including the scale factor and misalignment angles, can be calibrated in-situ without using external GPS or acoustic beacon sensors. Simulation results using a practical estimator validate the analytic conclusions.
Single doses of resveratrol have previously been shown to increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) with no clear effect on cognitive function or mood in healthy adults. Chronic resveratrol consumption may increase the poor bioavailability of resveratrol or otherwise potentiate its psychological effects. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups study, a total of sixty adults aged between 18 and 30 years received either placebo or resveratrol for 28 d. On the 1st and 28th day of treatment, the performance of cognitively demanding tasks (serial subtractions, rapid visual information processing and 3-Back) (n 41 complete data sets) was assessed, alongside blood pressure (n 26) and acute (near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS)) and chronic (transcranial Doppler) measures of CBF (n 46). Subjective mood, sleep quality and health questionnaires were completed at weekly intervals (n 53/54). The results showed that the cognitive effects of resveratrol on day 1 were restricted to more accurate but slower serial subtraction task performance. The only cognitive finding on day 28 was a beneficial effect of resveratrol on the accuracy of the 3-Back task before treatment consumption. Subjective ratings of ‘fatigue’ were significantly lower across the entire 28 d in the resveratrol condition. Resveratrol also resulted in modulation of CBF parameters on day 1, as assessed by NIRS, and significantly increased diastolic blood pressure on day 28. Levels of resveratrol metabolites were significantly higher both before and after the day’s treatment on day 28, in comparison with day 1. These results confirm the acute CBF effects of resveratrol and the lack of interpretable cognitive effects.
High Na and low K intakes have adverse effects on blood pressure, which increases the risk for CVD. The role of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in this pathophysiological process is not yet clear. In a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study in untreated (pre)hypertensives, we examined the effects of Na and K supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation. During the study period, subjects were provided with a diet that contained 2·4 g/d of Na and 2·3 g/d of K for a 10 460 kJ (2500 kcal) intake. After 1-week run-in, subjects received capsules with supplemental Na (3·0 g/d), supplemental K (2·8 g/d) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. After each intervention, circulating biomarkers of endothelial function and inflammation were measured. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and skin microvascular vasomotion were assessed in sub-groups of twenty-two to twenty-four subjects. Of thirty-seven randomised subjects, thirty-six completed the study. Following Na supplementation, serum endothelin-1 was increased by 0·24 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·45), but no change was seen in other endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers. FMD and microvascular vasomotion were unaffected by Na supplementation. K supplementation reduced IL-8 levels by 0·28 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·53), without affecting other circulating biomarkers. FMD was 1·16 % (95 % CI 0·37, 1·96) higher after K supplementation than after placebo. Microvascular vasomotion was unaffected. In conclusion, a 4-week increase in Na intake increased endothelin-1, but had no effect on other endothelial or inflammatory markers. Increased K intake had a beneficial effect on FMD and possibly IL-8, without affecting other circulating endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and late-onset diseases in offspring. Eating disorders, voluntary caloric restriction and maternal undernutrition can all induce IUGR but a relevant model is required to measure all its possible consequences. In this work, pregnant rabbits were used as an IUGR model. Control females (n=4) received ad libitum diet throughout pregnancy, whereas underfed females (n=5) were restricted to 50% of their daily requirements. Offspring size was measured by ultrasonography and in vivo at birth. Hemodynamic features of the umbilical cords and middle cerebral arteries (systolic peak velocity, end diastolic velocity, pulsatility index and resistance index) were characterized by Doppler ultrasonography. At day 21, maternal underfeeding resulted in a significant reduction of fetal size (occipito-nasal length). At birth, the size of kits from the underfed group was significantly lower (lower crown-rump length, biparietal and transversal thoracic diameters) and a reduced weight with respect to the control group. Feed restriction altered blood flow perfusion compared with does fed ad libitum (significant higher systolic peak, time-averaged mean velocities and lower end diastolic velocity). Fetuses affected by IUGR presented with compensative brain-sparing effects when compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study supports using rabbits and the underfeeding approach as a valuable model for IUGR studies. These results may help to characterize IUGR alterations due to nutrient restriction of mothers in future research.
Foetal echocardiography has progressed to be able to diagnose many forms of CHD and to assess the prognosis of cardiac lesions based on their anatomy and presentation in utero. This article outlines a straightforward method for the rapid evaluation of foetus that may have congestive heart failure with or without hydrops and for the differentiation of the pre-hydropic state from normal. The presence of signs of foetal heart failure, such as cardiomegaly or valvular regurgitation, gives clues to the aetiology of hydrops. The assessment of the prognosis of hydrops foetalis can be difficult but can be aided by the use of the cardiovascular profile score. Once identified, the neurohumoral effects of foetal heart failure can be ameliorated using transplacental digoxin if the hydrops has not progressed.